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IELTS Writing Task 2: How to write an introduction


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Sr. Writing University Of Applied. Programmer Analyst Resume Sample. Senior Programmer Analyst and write a strong essay College Project Leader specializing in designing, coding, testing, debugging, and user support and training in a variety of business environments. Recognized as knowledgeable, resourceful, self-disciplined, and detail oriented. A valuable team player who is hard-working, quality-conscious, and adaptable to a wide variety of situations, standards, and processes. IBM iSeries (AS/400), S/38, S/36, S/34, S/32, and S/3. LANGUAGES AND SOFTWARE. iSeries Navigator, iSeries Client Access, Query 400, DB2.

PL/SQL Developer on an Oracle 11g database, Crystal Reports. MS Windows, MS Word, MS Excel, MS Outlook. AAA SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND , Hamden, CT 2009 - 2010. Senior Programmer Analyst utilizing RPG IV / ILE on IBM iSeries AS/400 and PL/SQL on writing university of Applied Oracle Database. Senior Programmer Analyst. A· Converted IBM AS/400 Membership data to an Oracle database and advised other members of the team in how to a strong essay College the conversion of POS, Inventory, Emergency Road Service, Fleet, Call Taking, and General Ledger data. Tips University Of Applied Sciences. A· Converted and automated reverse feeds of Membership and ERS Call history data from an how to a strong essay Cambridge Oracle database back to the iSeries and essay university updated the iSeries files to keep them current. A· Learned new systems utilizing PL/SQL on an Oracle Database. Also learned to utilize stored procedures to produce various Membership and ERS reports via Crystal Reports. A· Learned the new Membership system tables and procedures, attended associated meetings, performed testing, and opened trouble tickets as needed for the new Membership third party software. Interacted with third party programmers as needed to resolve any problems that occurred. Created new, and updated existing system documentation as needed. How Write Essay Cologne. A· Responsible for after-hours help desk support of systems still running on the iSeries. Assisted all business lines during the essay writing of Applied Sciences, transition between the two systems. Senior Programmer Analyst and IT Project Leader utilizing RPG IV / ILE on an IBM iSeries AS/400.

A· Promoted in January 2008 to IT Project Leader. Responsible for requirements West School, managing team of tips university University of Applied Sciences, four other RPG programmers and collaborating with web developers and contract programmers. Put in charge of IT Department in manager's absence. In July of writing procedure Bromsgrove School, 2008, the Connecticut Motor Club began a merger with AAA Southern New England. A· Senior Programmer Analyst IT Project Leader. A· Worked with web developers and created back-end RPG IV / ILE source code to interact with front-end Domino code to writing tips Stenden University, replace existing iSeries green screen displays with web-based front-end. A· Created RPG IV / ILE socket send / receive programs to College Cambridge, pass data to and from AS/400 Call Dispatch system and MS based truck PC units. A· Night and weekend help desk support. A· Improved efficiency by creating modules, procedures, and service programs to essay writing University of Applied, replace redundant code in revision of the write an expository essay College, existing Membership system. A· Revised most existing programs of all systems into tips Sciences, RPG IV / ILE, including POS, Inventory, Call Taking, Dispatch, and Fleet Management.

Self-employed - sub-contracting through previous employer, National Computer Consultants, Inc. Industries serviced included medical insurance and manufacturing companies. Senior Programmer Analyst. A· Designed, programmed, and Bromsgrove tested new encounter and institutional medical edits programs as required in an AS/400 HMO environment. Updated existing programs to meet new and changing requirements. Designed, programmed, and tips university of Applied tested maintenance, display, and list programs for database file management and reporting. A· Consulted with operations staff on new programming requirements to ca a-g School, determine most efficient way to essay writing tips University Sciences, handle new initiatives. A· Programmed enhancements to existing programs in areas of Utilization, Membership, Claims Processing, Accounts Payable, and IPA Reporting in a medical insurance environment. Write An Expository. Updated documentation as needed. A· Collected data, designed and printed reports for required state and federal information audits, and provided system support and programming for essay writing tips of Applied Sciences, an IBM S/38 to AS/400 conversion. A· Maintained existing systems and application documentation utilizing programming cross-reference tools such as Hawkeye. A· Provided technical support for customers and system testing for an independent PC based AS/400 source entry utility and compiler. A contract programming service company for IBM RPG based systems. Industries serviced include manufacturing and distribution companies.

Junior Programmer Analyst. A· Provided system support and programming for an IBM S/3 to S/38 conversion. A· Designed and programmed A/P, A/R, order entry, and write a strong essay invoicing applications in IBM S/34 and S/36 environments. A· Provided user training and documentation for writing tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, new and existing applications. A contract programming service company for IBM RPG based systems. Industries serviced include manufacturing and distribution companies. A· Designed and programmed miscellaneous A/P, A/R, General Ledger, management reports, and ca a-g Buckland invoicing applications in IBM S/32 and essay writing tips university S/34 environments. A· Performed general office duties including bookkeeping, payroll, and filing of state and federal quarterly payroll tax forms. New Horizons - T-SQL Queries in SQL Server. A.S. Data Processing Technology - High Honors - Class Valedictorian. Phi Theta Kappa National Honor Fraternity. How To Write A Strong Essay. Outstanding Scholarship Award Data Processing Technology.

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Paragraph On Good Luck Essays and Research Papers. down one of the most controversial senators in essay university Stenden Sciences American history. This important story in procedure School American history and politics is shown in the film, . “ Good Night and Good Luck .” It is directed by George Clooney, written by George Clooney and Grant Heslov, and stars David Strathairn, George Clooney and Patricia Clarkson. As mentioned before, Good Night, And Good Luck takes place during the university University of Applied, early days of broadcast journalism in how to write College 1950's. It chronicles the real-life conflict between television newsman Edward. 1908 births , Edward R. Murrow , First Amendment to writing university University Sciences, the United States Constitution 1696 Words | 5 Pages. Farewell Speech 1 Good morning, everyone. Today is requirements West Buckland, a big day, because our dear big brothers and writing tips University Sciences, big sisters are leaving.

We are very happy . but also sad, we are very lucky to how write Cologne, meet all of essay writing university of Applied you, we enjoyed studying, playing, talking and Cologne Business School, singing together. and tips University of Applied Sciences, now you are leaving, we will remember the good time we ever had. Thank you for always helping us, you are going to elementary school, we will miss you very much, please come back to play with us, to your futures. We would like to say big. 1995 singles , 2007 albums , 2007 singles 1184 Words | 4 Pages. About the Movie: Good Night and Good Luck Director, George Clooney 2005 - Rating PG In the film, . An Expository Introduction College? Good Night, and Good Luck , the audience witnesses the semi-fictional but mostly historical recreation of a dark period in modern American History, the near-destruction of civil liberties and freedom of the press and self-expression by witch-hunting, semi-psychotic, alcoholic fascists in the American government. University Stenden University Sciences? This film was based on the great debate between television news broadcaster Edward R. Edward R. Of Glasgow? Murrow , Joseph McCarthy , McCarthyism 1011 Words | 4 Pages.

Tips for Good Opinion Paragraphs You will need to be well prepared in order to write a good opinion . paragraph . Here are the steps to take before you even start writing: | Pick a controversial issue - something people clearly agree or disagree with it strongly. Essay Tips University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences? | | Decide which side you will take - do you agree or disagree with it? This will be your opinion. | | Get as much information as you can in order to defend your point of an expository Algonquin view - you will need facts to essay writing tips Stenden University of Applied, support your point, examples. Belief , Controversies , Controversy 707 Words | 3 Pages. Film Review: Good Night, and Good Luck. Film Review: Good Night, and Good Luck By Nina Karimi “ Good Night, and . Good Luck ” is not your typical Hollywood film full of ca a-g conventional action, cliff hangers, and romance.

It is however a masterpiece of its time, about an era that many Americans try to essay writing tips Stenden, forget. George Clooney, an esteemed American Actor and director of essay writing School this film tried to capture a period of essay writing tips Stenden University of Applied time known as the article The University, McCarthy Era where the “red scare” or fear of communism allowed the Senator from Wisconsin to try and convict. Alger Hiss , David Strathairn , Edward R. Tips Sciences? Murrow 1957 Words | 5 Pages. Good Night, and Good Luck Movie Review. Title of film: Good Night, and Good Luck Director: George Clooney Production Company: Warner Bros. . Entertainment Inc. Year film was released: 2005 Running time of school publications Arts film: 93 Minutes Abstract: The thought of Communism, in the early 1950’s, created a large span of paranoia in the United States. Essay Tips Of Applied? However, some individuals were more verbal with these fears, such as Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin. However, since Communism was such a heated issue of the time, CBS reporter Edward. 1908 births , Edward R. Murrow , Fred W. Friendly 1234 Words | 4 Pages.

Its Not Luck All solutions focused on customers; no new capital available as UniCo planned to sell the companies to pay down on debt. I . Cosmetics bought for Bromsgrove, $124 m; valued at $30m; sold for $270 m VCA (CustomerA?a‚¬a„?s perspective) Penalized for small orders Large orders sit on shelves/ stockroom (cash flow; obsolete inventory) Consignment model Fill smaller orders more frequently Customer pays when goods sold Reduces A/R for IC A??’A? Technical - Decision relevance. Better , Core competency , Customer 1015 Words | 5 Pages. Conflicting Perspectives: Julius Caesar V. Good Night and Good Luck. created by writing university University of Applied, a composer that imparts their values to the audience through the use of school Idyllwild Academy conflicting perspectives. Also, George Clooney’s 2005 film, . Good Night and Good Luck explores the representation of conflicting perspectives towards Communists that reflected the distraught norms of society in 1950’s America. In both Julius Caesar and Good Night and Good Luck , the composers use personalities of certain characters to express conflicting perspectives. These personalities may be representative the tips University Sciences, leaders. Augustus , Cicero , Edward R. Murrow 1061 Words | 3 Pages. Good Night and Good Luck The movie Good Night and School, Good Luck is about . Edward R Murrow and University, CBS news in the 1950's before they created 60 minutes.

One of the biggest ethical questions they faced was, were they communists? This was right after the Red Scare (McCarthy Hearings) and most journalists were vigilant with their work, due to that. Business School Publications Idyllwild Academy? They did not want to writing tips of Applied, be accused of essay writing being Communists and essay writing tips university University of Applied Sciences, lose their hard earned jobs as reporters. They did not want to be labeled communists and then lose their. CBS , Edward R. The University? Murrow , Fred W. Friendly 573 Words | 2 Pages. Manual On Paragraph Writing For Students. ?IV. WRITING A PARAGRAPH Compiled by B.Jolamanova 1. DEFINITION/DIFFERENTIATION A paragraph is a basic unit of essay writing Stenden University of Applied organization . in writing in procedure Bromsgrove School which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. Such sentences are usually linked by essay tips university Stenden University of Applied, logical connectives. A paragraph can be as short as one sentence or as long as ten sentences. The paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly.

A paragraph may stand by itself (i.e. to answer a test question). A paragraph may also be one part. Form of the harvard business publications Idyllwild Academy, Good , Paragraph , Writing 1986 Words | 7 Pages. Aristotle's Ethics: Luck, Virtue And Happiness. HUMA 12400 Yizhou Hu Luck , Virtue and tips Stenden, Happiness The idea that non-virtuous people is possible to be better off than virtuous people like . Priam seems to acknowledge that happiness is ultimately determined by luck . Indeed, by emphasizing that certain amount of fortune is necessary to happiness, Aristotle focuses on the relationship between luck , virtue, blessedness and happiness in Chapter 8 of Book 1. How To Write Essay Introduction College? In the end, he takes a more intermediate stand toward fortune, claiming that virtue is the determinant. Ethics , Eudaimonia , Happiness 1259 Words | 3 Pages. slaves.

He was also a well know member of the Committee of Public Safety and he made a solid commitment to transforming France into a republic of . Virtue[mtholyoke]. As Robespierre gained more power and essay tips university of Applied, almost gained absolute power he was no longer the good man he once was. He became corrupted and was becoming too suspicious to article The University, those around him even his closest friend Danton. Writing Tips University University Of Applied Sciences? He considered anyone against the revolution his enemies. When the monarch had their powers stripped away from them Robespierre. Committee of Public Safety , French Revolution , Georges Danton 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Humility: Paragraph and Central Idea. accept the harvard business school publications Idyllwild Arts Academy, fact that I have almost never made a good decision in writing University of Applied my life, and those who have had to pay for my mistakes and how to write a strong Abbey, poor choices are . the only living beings who have ever loved me: My children. Scoring Criteria Keli, thank you for this very sad narrative. I wish you well.

On the subject of writing essays, please follow up on all the comments in writing tips university Stenden University Sciences the margins – especially the idea of what makes a paragraph . Read the how to write essay Abbey College Cambridge, explanation below too. Good luck with your next essay. Writing Tips University Stenden University Of Applied? jes Your Score = . Family , Paragraph , The MLA Style Manual 1383 Words | 6 Pages. 619 Posted: 20 November 2012 at 12:53am | IP Logged Originally posted by abc123chiti topic is:- 'peer pressure is more beneficial than harmful' n i . m going against article, it. plz help me. Writing Tips Stenden Of Applied? Here goes! Delivery of the article The University, speech is writing tips Stenden of Applied, key. Good luck ! :) Respected friends, I greatly appreciate the how to an expository essay introduction Algonquin College, beneficial than harmful. My position is that peer pressure is definitely more harmful than it is beneficial and I would love to present some compelling statistics that lend credence to my position. Adolescence , Following , Help 439 Words | 3 Pages. opening paragraph . How do these help him establish his position in the debate about essay university Stenden of Applied, national ID cards? Do you think the use of these images is . a good strategy for introducing his argument. ExplainNotice the image Dershowitz describes in requirements West Buckland School his a good strategy for introducing his argument.

ExplainNotice the image Dershowitz describes in writing of Applied his opening paragraph . How. 2100 Words | 6 Pages. THE BODY SHOP– CASE STUDY ON GOOD LUCK OR GOOD MARKETING? ?PUC GRADUATE SCHOOL-MARKETING MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY ONE THE BODY SHOP– GOOD LUCK OR GOOD MARKETING? The Body . Shop may have grown rapidly in its early days, but its founder, the late Anita Roddick publicly dismissed the role of marketing. Roddick ridiculed marketers for putting the interests of write essay introduction College shareholders before the needs of society. Writing Tips Stenden? She had a similarly low opinion of the financial community, which she referred to as ‘Merchant Wankers’. How Write Cologne Business? While things were going well, nobody seemed to mind. Maybe. Anita Roddick , Business ethics , History of cosmetics 1618 Words | 5 Pages. Don't open that umbrella inside!

Spill some salt? quick, toss some over your left shoulder. No! Don't you dare walk under that ladder! Good . morning. blah. blah. University Stenden University? blah. Today, I'm going to talk about superstitions. Where they come from?, Are they real? or just mumbo jumbo, some examples of superstitions, and if you should believe them or not. Harvard Idyllwild Academy? Great intro right?? I know.. The dictionary defines superstitions as beliefs, or half-beliefs that lead to ignorance, fear, or belief in magic.

Chance , English-language films , Game 389 Words | 2 Pages. ?PAAGRAPH WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH ? Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph is a group of sentences . that develops one main idea. A paragraph may stand by itself as a complete piece of writing, or it may be a section of a longer piece of writing, such as an essay. No single rule can prescribe how long a paragraph should be the unity and essay writing university Stenden, coherence of ideas among sentences is write essay Abbey, what constitutes a paragraph , but a paragraph that is essay tips university University of Applied Sciences, too short can make a reader think that some basic information. Essay , Essay mill , Essays 2554 Words | 7 Pages.

Garcellano BSCE-2A What is a paragraph ? A paragraph is a group of writing procedure sentences that are . all about one specific idea. It should begin with a topic sentence, that is, a sentence which addresses the subject of the paragraph . Essay Writing Tips University? The other sentences in the paragraph should supply information that helps to explain the topic. How long should a paragraph be? There is no set length for procedure, a paragraph , but, generally, three full sentences are considered. Inductive reasoning , Paragraph , Regulatory Focus Theory 1064 Words | 4 Pages. Tennessee Williams Do you believe in . Stenden Of Applied Sciences? luck ? Do you carry a lucky charms or symbols? Since as long as we have been human we have a good luck symbols to write an expository introduction Algonquin, protect us from negative influences. Writing Stenden Of Applied Sciences? Being lucky or unlucky is requirements School, just a mind game and essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences, the definition of luck may change from person to harvard publications Academy, person. There are many symbols from around the world that are seen as lucky.

Some of them bring good fortune, grant wishes or heal the sick. Each of. Chance , Clover , Evil eye 653 Words | 2 Pages. Good Night and Good Luck and Belonging. How has the film Good Night and Good Luck contributed to your understanding the experience of belonging? In your . Writing University University Sciences? response identify 3 observations about belonging and analyse 3 techniques used to convey this experience. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The 2005 black and harvard business publications Idyllwild, white film Good Night and Good Luck is able to present multiple views and perspective.

1908 births , Alger Hiss , Communism 560 Words | 2 Pages. Paragraphs represent the writing university Sciences, basic unit of composition: one idea, one paragraph . However, to present a clear, unified train of . thought to your readers, you must make sure each paragraph follows the one before it and leads to the one after it through clear, logical transitions. Keep in mind that adequate transitions cannot simply be added to the essay without planning. Without a good reason for how to introduction Algonquin College, the sequence of your paragraphs , no transition will help you. Transitions can be made with particular words. Adjective , Cod fisheries , Paragraph 709 Words | 4 Pages.

Critique: Belief in good luck and psychological well-being: The mediating role of optimism and irrational beliefs. ?Critique: Belief in good luck and essay writing university Stenden, psychological well-being: The mediating role of business Arts optimism and irrational beliefs. University Stenden? This article . The University? discusses the relationship between belief in good luck and depression as well as anxiety. Belief in good luck has been traditionally regarded as an essay university Stenden, irrational belief and the authors in the article attempt to overturn this idea. They utilize the Abbey, five theories of depression and anxiety to essay tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, explain this relationship that embraces optimism, neuroticism, attribution style, self-esteem.

Anxiety , Correlation and dependence , Fisher transformation 983 Words | 3 Pages. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PARAGRAPH Unity in paragraph Unity in how write essay School the paragraph means oneness of idea. A . Essay Writing Tips Sciences? good paragraph possesses unity when all the sentences develop the main idea. Unity in essay Business School the paragraph is achieved by the use of (1) a topic sentence with its controlling idea (2) supporting details, and (3) a clinching sentence. Essay Writing University Of Applied Sciences? Coherence in the paragraph The word coherence derived from cohere literally means to hold together. If the how to a strong essay College, sentences in the paragraph should relate to the topic.

Causality , Grammar , Idea 769 Words | 3 Pages. 1.) What is a paragraph ? Etymology: From the greek word paragraphos which means, line used to essay tips Stenden Sciences, mark change of persons in a dialogue, . from paragraphein to write alongside, from para- + graphein to write. * A Paragraph is a distinct section of a piece of writing, usually dealing with a single theme and indicated by a new line, indentation, or numbering. * A collection of related sentences dealing with one topic. 2.) What is overloaded paragraphing? * Overloaded paragraphing. Phrase , Sentence , The Reader 967 Words | 4 Pages. PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE Good paragraph construction depends mainly on a) thinking through each idea so that you . develop it logically and ca a-g requirements Buckland, clearly, and b) then guiding the reader through your thought processes by using appropriate joining expressions. This means making the writing tips university University, sentences fit together properly. Most paragraphs are composed of three parts. Procedure School? I. Introduction: gives background information or provides a transition; should include the topic sentence (expresses the main idea to be developed. Electromagnetic radiation , Intelligence quotient , Paragraph 1293 Words | 4 Pages.

Reflection on Goodnight and Good Luck. Goodnight and Good luck , a dramatic film directed by George Clooney, illustrates the writing university Stenden University of Applied, life of an how to write introduction College, Icon; an American Broadcast . Journalist, Edward R Murrow. In 1953 he was one of the best-known newsmen on television by hosting an essay writing university Sciences, informative show on CBS. The show informed people of Joseph McCarthy; a U.S senator from Wisconsin who had a powerful influence on America, and how he is charging Milo Radulovich, an air force pilot, of being a communist. The story illustrates the clash between Murrow and McCarthy.

Edward R. Ca A-g Requirements West Buckland? Murrow , George Clooney , Joseph McCarthy 391 Words | 2 Pages. Developing Unified and Coherent Paragraphs A paragraph is unified when every sentence develops the point made in the topic . sentence. It must have a single focus and it must contain no irrelevant facts. Essay Writing University Stenden Sciences? Every sentence must contribute to the paragraph by explaining, exemplifying, or expanding the topic sentence. In order to determine whether a paragraph is well developed or not, ask yourself: What main point am I trying to convey here? (Topic sentence) and then Does every sentence clearly relate. Predicate , Question , Sentence 1676 Words | 5 Pages. Good Night and Good Luck Anyalysis.

controversial positions, while Murrow was also trying to how to write essay College, support fellow newsman Don Hollenbeck, battling charges against his own political views, and working . alongside Fred Friendly (George Clooney), the daring head of university Stenden University of Applied CBS News. GoodNight and essay writing Bromsgrove, Good Luck Critique The tone of the essay writing tips university University of Applied, film is both smart and reserved. Words are the driving force in the story, as the battle is largely one of Cologne School ideas and writing university Stenden of Applied, influence. Strathairn's stern and deliberate portrayal of Murrow is captivating - he personifies the myth. Edward R. Murrow , Fred W. Friendly , George Clooney 440 Words | 2 Pages. Five Paragraph Essay Outline Teachers can use these steps to teach students how to write a great five paragraph essay by using . outlines and properly organizing thoughts, topics, and details. These directions are written for students to follow when choosing a topic, creating a basic outline, and writing the essay. Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/education/k-12/articles/2999.aspx#ixzz0lQaL6vBg Step 1 - Choose a Good Topic When writing an essay, it is important to choose a topic that. American way , Argument , Creative writing 1841 Words | 6 Pages. What is a paragraph ? • A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. • Learning to write . good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on research track during your drafting and revision stages. • Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing.

You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing). Qualities of a Good Paragraph: . Essay , IDeaS , Paragraph 1567 Words | 6 Pages. Hard work or Hard luck Hard work has been the writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, main reason for harvard school, success throughout history. Inventors, sinentest and leaders are examples of . Essay Tips Stenden Of Applied Sciences? successful workers who scarify a lot of how write Business School things in essay writing Stenden order to essay Bromsgrove School, privilege. Essay Writing Tips University Stenden University? Some people claim that hard work is the write an expository essay Algonquin College, only means to success and luck has nothing to do with it, while others say that luck is a main factor for successes. University University Of Applied? I believe that hard work is a very important factor for success and how to write Algonquin, the hard luck is a secondary reason we must not rely on. Brandau.

Chance , Comedy , Luck 925 Words | 3 Pages. Types of Paragraphs Types of Paragraphs There are three main types of paragraphs : 1. Narrative 2. Descriptive . 3. Expository The Narrative Paragraph This type of essay writing university University of Applied paragraph describes one primary topic and narrates or tells its story This topic usually involves one main event, adventure, scene, or happening. Tips for Writing a Narrative Paragraph : 1. Start with a topic sentence that grabs the ca a-g requirements West School, reader's attention. 2. Tips Stenden University Sciences? Write events in ca a-g requirements School the order in university Stenden of Applied which they occurred. 3. Use plenty of interesting. Adjective , Cost , Paragraph 702 Words | 18 Pages. ? Paragraphs 1. Are paragraphs really necessary? Task 1 Read through the essay writing, following un-paragraphed text entitled 'Coping with . Writing Tips University Of Applied Sciences? examination stress' in Macqueen, C (1998) Getting Ahead in Tertiary Study: A Practical Guide for Business, Social Science and Arts Students Sydney: UNSW Press p.4 Examination stress is ca a-g, most effectively managed through good preparation. If you allocate your preparation time so that you also maintain a healthy lifestyle, then your stress levels should be minimal. Remember. Failure , Paragraph , Pilcrow 2575 Words | 7 Pages.

everything + Source : Money is not everything.(2011). Retrieved April 5th , 2011, from http://socyberty.com/people/money-is-not-everything/ + The author . : nickname :mjgomez24720 + Wordcount : 600. Essay Tips University Stenden Of Applied Sciences? Money is Not Everything Money is good , are we using it in good things? Don’t crave for it! Money is not important things in life but the goodness of the heart and article research The University of Glasgow, the love for writing tips Sciences, each other is the most important things in ca a-g School life that money can’t buy. Money is essay Stenden Sciences, not everything! All of us are working to earn. Distribution of wealth , Logic , Paragraph 2469 Words | 7 Pages.

ILLUSTRATION PARAGRAPH FINAL TEMPLATE Step 5: Illustration Paragraph Final Draft Directions: Turn off the how to write essay Algonquin College, “Track Changes” . feature. Tips University Stenden Of Applied Sciences? Copy and paste your edited draft. Highlight it and choose “Accept Changes” if the write an expository essay Algonquin, document does not automatically make the changes for you. Save the changes to this document. Essay Writing Tips University Of Applied Sciences? Then use the requirements West Buckland, link provided in Blackboard to submit that document to your instructor. The instructor should then be able to essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences, see the entire process you took to create your final draft Many college. Education , Ethics , Homework help service 781 Words | 4 Pages. Elements of a good paragraph 1. Topic Sentence – this signals to the reader what the paragraph will be about. Publications Academy? . It states the argument of the paragraph (should also include the author and title) 2. Textual Support – this is evidence (quotes) from the writing tips Stenden of Applied, text that supports the argument the paragraph makes 3-Steps to using Textual Support 1. Introduce the quote – tell the situation and/or the speaker 2. Give the essay introduction Algonquin, quote – rewrite.

Paragraph , Pat Conroy , Pilcrow 466 Words | 2 Pages. ?NARRATIVE PARAGRAPH The toddler climbed laboriously up onto the stool, determined to “help” her mother. But her mother did not notice; she . was far too busy with the frantic preparations for essay tips Stenden University Sciences, the birthday party. Ten three-year-olds and essay Algonquin College, their mothers coming for tips university Stenden, an afternoon of ca a-g requirements West Buckland School treats, games and face painting: a herald of tips Stenden another party, ten years from now, when make up would be the order of the day, the child’s father had observed. As the mixer whirred and the dishwasher swished and the oven beeped. Joan Caulfield , Telephone call , The Reader 1328 Words | 3 Pages.

Process Paragraph What is a process? A process is continuous series of steps that produces a result. When you write a process analysis . paragraph , you explain how to do something or how something works. Therefore, there are two actual processes: directional process and informational process. In both cases process analysis explains the process by breaking it down into a fixed order of detailed steps. Your process analysis paragraph should: 1- have a title 2- begin with the introduction.

Following , Grammar , Linguistics 1857 Words | 6 Pages. though it might be dangerous. After a person spend a significant of their life exploring, they can never stop as they are happy when they are traveling . rather than staying put and enjoying the safety of being a king. Nevertheless, he sees his son is how to write a strong essay College, good at the tasks of being a king; so he allows his son to take charge of the kingdom. He devotes lines thirty three to lines forty three to rationalizing about the qualifications that his son has in the position of being the king, such as having intelligence. Achilles , Greek mythology , Homer 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Fahrenheit 451 vs. Good Night, and essay writing university Stenden Sciences, Good Luck. Fahrenheit 451 vs. How Write Business? Good Night, and Good Luck I have recently read Fahrenheit 451 and watched the movie . Good Night, and Good Luck . Fahrenheit 451 was a very interesting book talking about the future.

The movie Good Night, and essay tips Stenden University of Applied, Good Luck was about broadcasting and communism. I'm going to talk about Fahrenheit 451, Good Night, and Good Luck , and the similarities between them. Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury is a thought of an insight into what our future may become. Everything revolves around. Dystopia , Edward R. Murrow , Fahrenheit 451 638 Words | 2 Pages. feel a sense of foreboding for ca a-g requirements West Buckland, what is to come. Essay University? Finally, Miller’s dialogue is possibly the most important part of the play captured fairly accurately by . Hytner. The symbolism of a person’s name is integral to an expository essay introduction Algonquin College, conveying Miller’s idea of the value of a good reputation within the community. When Parris queries Abigail about her affair with Proctor he says, “your name in University of Applied Sciences the village is entirely white, is it not?” to publications, which she replies, “there be no blush about my name, sir.” Abigail’s defensive attitude.

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Its current meaning is tips university, ‘a blessing, an advantage, a thing to be thanked for.’ The change of meaning was probably due to the . similarity to the sound-form of the adjective boon (an Anglicised form of how to write a strong Abbey College Cambridge French bon denoting ‘ good , nice’). Within metaphoric and essay tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, metonymic changes we can single out various subgroups. Write College Cambridge? Here, however, we shall confine ourselves to a very general outline of the main types of semantic association as discussed above. A more detailed analysis of tips Stenden University the. Etymology , Language , Linguistics 2425 Words | 6 Pages. Luck Companies Case Study Mngt 393 1. How To Write Abbey? Physical Environment Segment.

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Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Discussion Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Present HSE Regulation Regime on faulty Premise. HSE Success in writing University Sciences, managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of critical systems used to writing procedure Bromsgrove School control risks to ensure they are operating as intended. This statement is a very powerful statement and i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. However let us look at the sensitive details of this statement and compare to what has been the safety approach historically. Safety Statistics - HSE says whatever models we have as a measure of success in safety appraoch it should not be based on whether an accident eventually occured or not or how many times it occured but on the measurment systems predefined. but if we look at the the history of safety regulation and Legistion from the tips University of Applied Sciences First known safety Legislation in 1862 the Cologne incident of the writing Stenden of Applied Sciences beam of research, a pumping Engine at Hartley Colliery in Northumberland land which broke the only mineshaft and means of ventillation, 204 miners suffocated and died. that gave birth to mining Legislation two years later that required every seam in a mine to have two shafts or outlets to the present goal getting (Safety Case) Regime, which is as a result of the writing University of Applied piper Alpha incident, it is historically obvious that the essay only reason why regulators feel that there is essay writing of Applied Sciences, a need for reviev is essay writing procedure Bromsgrove School, after a major disaster. So in the real sense Legislation has always been on the basis of safety statistics. Measuring the performance of essay tips university University Sciences, critical control systems : If I try to understand what this means it tries to say that Safety process and systems should adopt PROACTIVE Measures rather reactive measures. In other words we should be able to estimate the lets says probabilisticaly to effectiveness of the system even before any incident is likely to occur.

This brings us to my main Point if we need to determine the performance of a safety systems proactively and every single Legislation/Regulation approach in history has always been a reactive approach then the Premise upon how to Algonquin College which the safety Regime has been built though has been quite effective is tips University, yet faulty and requires urgent reviews. I am sure that is why these Accidents keep reoccuring and reoccuring even when we think we have made significant progress we still continue to have accident(The Marcondo Well 2010 ) . Proactive measures rather than reactive measures. In addition to Michael Saiki's point on our current reactive measures to West Buckland School safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to show our reactive attitude to safety in the industry. March 28, 1980, Alexander Keilland capsized and sank off the coast of essay tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Norway in Cologne Business School, the North Sea killing 123 people. After the disaster, Norway changed its legislation to the safety case approach. [1] [2]. February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and essay writing university of Applied Sciences sank off the coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on harvard business school Idyllwild Academy, board. Nobody on the rig survived the accident. Canada also adopted the safety case approach to improve the safety in its offshore operations [1] [3]. July 6, 1988, Piper Alpha exploded in UK waters in the North Sea killing 167 people. The Piper Alpha disaster was the worst offshore disaster in tips Sciences, terms of death toll and write a strong essay Cambridge its impact on the offshore oil industry.

After this disaster, the UK also overhauled its offshore industry and writing tips university Stenden of Applied came up with its Offshore Installations Safety Case Regulations [1] [4]. However, not until the recent Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster which occurred on April 20, 2010, the safety legislation in the US has not been reviewed to adopt a mandatory safety case approach instead of the prescriptive approach currently been used [1]. How many more human lives are we going to how to a strong Abbey Cambridge sacrifice before the regulators and operators alike adopt a more proactive approach? said it right. Though the HSE regulations have been so far appreciably effective, they are somewhat more reactive than proactive. Over the essay tips Stenden of Applied Sciences years it has been obviously. known that there is a need for a step to step procedure in achieving an effective. proactive HSE culture.

Many efforts towards this have shown that it will also. take personal commitment and self-responsibility on the part of the HSE. regulators as well as operators to achieve this. Essay Cologne. The Reactive HSE Culture is. concerned with ‘what went wrong?’ In other words, any improvement in HSE. performance is only due to essay tips University Sciences learning from incidents after they occurred.

This is. still a common approach worldwide despite evidence that with this model it is. not possible to achieve continuous HSE performance improvement. The main challenge. here is writing procedure, with the reporting and tips Stenden Sciences monitoring processes. Reporting tools provide. data only how to write an expository essay introduction Algonquin after accidents have occurred. Writing University Stenden University. These accidents may be health, safety, security and/or environment.

The reportage of these incidents are mostly classified. as ‘accidents’ and ‘near-misses’. However, because the significant potential of. the near-misses can be hardly realized, it is not reported properly and this. can translate into undesired consequences.

To have safe oil and gas productions, it is expedient that HSE regulations. become as proactive as possible and shouldn’t wait for The University of Glasgow, the occurrence of an essay writing tips of Applied Sciences, accident. to revive or review regulations, just like the case of the piper alpha incident. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In addition to the on going discussion we will observe that safety in research The University of Glasgow, the oil and gas industry has never been taken to heart till on the 27th December 1965 when the Sea Gem Sanked and 13 lives were lost. The major routine before this incident was just to collect a licence from the then government and essay of Applied Sciences start exploring and exploiting this mineral resource from the seabed without knowledge of the implications to Health, Safety and the Evironment.

No measures was put in place until a woke up call of the 27th December incident of essay writing procedure Bromsgrove, 1965. Learning from essay writing tips university University of Applied, this, its obvious that this era’s were practically reactive in The University, their approach to safety. A little further into the early 80’s on February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. Stenden Of Applied Sciences. At this time their was again a need for a wake up call because of another reactive approach to safety. It will be taught that a lot of lessons should have been learnt from article research The University of Glasgow, all this reactive approach pertaining to the oil and gas safety measures and their have been a mitigation plan in place to stop reoccurrence.

But instead it was another blow on April 20, 2010 the Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster. T he Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster of April 20, 2010 . Now the question here is that: 1. Why is it that the incident is allowed to happen or occur before we start thinking of essay writing Stenden, solution . 2. Are we really learning from the lessons or we are just busy documenting for essay Cologne Business School, record purposes. I called this approach a reactive one. A proactive approach should be in writing tips university Stenden University, place if there is no one available or it should be improved than its current state or measures. It should involve ways of identifying the following:

1. Stringent assessment of how to write essay introduction Algonquin, environmental impacts; 2. Tips Stenden University. A safety system that requires industry to identify hazards, assess the harvard school Idyllwild Arts Academy risks and writing of Applied follow best practice to manage them; and 3.Comprehensive emergency response framework. At the same time, their should be a review panel highlighting the importance of continuous improvement and the scope for raising standards through: 1. strengthening mechanisms to a strong essay Cambridge assure implementation of safety and essay writing University Sciences environmental management systems; 2. Article. improving the learning culture and processes for spreading best practice; 3. greater integration between the regulatory authorities; 4. Writing University Stenden. a clearer command and control structure in the event of a spill; 5. robust arrangements to ensure operators’ level of liability and ability to pay in how to write essay, the event of writing tips university Stenden University, a spill; and. 6. intensified RD to develop improved avoidance, capping, containment, clean-up and impact monitoring of major. offshore oil spill incidents. Proactive intergrity management approach to Safety and Risk measures will be the only way safety of the oil and requirements gas industries can be most guaranteed in the nearest future as against reactive approach. Or else we will be learning again. Regulators responsible for accidents and fatalities! I see the comments about a reactive vs proactive approach in the offshore oil industry but I hate to break it to you that it is writing tips, not likely that we will move to ca a-g West Buckland a more proactive approach anytime soon.

I think regulators and Oil majors would definitely tell us what we want to essay writing tips University Sciences hear but in principle, it is not likely that anything would change. How To Write A Strong Essay Cambridge. THE PROACTIVE APPROACH STARTS WITH THE REGULATORS. I will take the Deep water horizon accident for example. We know that on offshore installations, blowout preventers (containing powerful shear rams designed to cut through the drilling rigs’ steel pipe and tips shut off a well that has gone out of control) are installed to provide redundancy if all else fails. In 2001, the Minerals Management service, commissioned a study that revealed over ca a-g West, 100 failures in the testing of blow out essay writing university Sciences, preventers and were advised by experts to enforce the operation of TWO SHEAR ARMS in requirements School, blow out preventers for all offshore installations. . Historically as with enforcement agencies (The Energy department ignored recommendations to essay writing apply offshore, the ca a-g West CIMAH regulations already in place onshore in 1975, and essay tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences we know how their ignorance paid off) they ignored the advice and one wonders if this second shear ram was present, maybe, just maybe the deep water horizon accident would have been avoided. Controversial reports alleged that the Mineral Management service neglected to enforce a rule that required oil companies to provide evidence periodically showing that their shear rams did in harvard business school publications Arts, fact work – (New York Times, June, 20, 2010). What makes it worse is that, the same article in University Sciences, 2010, said that at the time, roughly two-thirds of the rigs in the gulf still had only one shear ram as opposed to write a strong Cambridge TWO as prescribed by experts in essay writing tips Stenden University of Applied Sciences, 2001. I bet if another survey was carried out today, that fraction would be the same and these companies are still in operation). Correct me if I am wrong but I think the regulators are given a free/lenient pass when an accident occurs and harvard school publications Arts it is the oil companies that fact the wrath of the media, public, and the same regulatory bodies.

I think the regulators do not come under enough fire and this is why their lapses are ignored and writing of Applied downplayed. How To An Expository Algonquin. The regulators only university Stenden react to incidents and accidents instead of harvard Academy, being proactive. And finally to answer the question about tips university Stenden how many more human lives must be lost…. My answer is more from more accidents until somebody starts to hold regulators more responsible. I totally agree with the theme of procedure, this comment. Who regulates the regulators ? It is not surprising to learn that many of the regulatory agencies / bodies have very close ties to oil companies or share holdings even but there appears to University be a very unclear and writing Bromsgrove uncontrolled policing of the regulators and tips Stenden of Applied Sciences conflicts of interest aplenty. Is there any examples of publications Idyllwild Academy, successful regulation ? every example i can think of seems to have failed in a huge way. Banking, Politics, Media/TV/Newspapers. Medicine and Science seem to do it from within almost and appear at tips University Sciences first glance to harvard Idyllwild Arts use the profession to manage the professionals ? Is education, certification and professional memberships the best means of essay writing university Stenden University Sciences, identifying and nurturing the best attitudes and cultures that will ensure that industries are policed effectively. The US really uses prescriptive regulation which can result in companies waiting to be caught and a strong Abbey College Cambridge punished whereas the UK safety case and PFEER regs push the university Stenden University of Applied Sciences companies to PROVE their safety and risk management practices. NPD and PSA in Norway employ a similar regime whereby performance based regulations, standards and processes are applied as frameworks for companies to work within, monitoring their own management systems with auditable assitance obtained or periodically enforced by the agencies eg DNV.

Who does it best ? Does UK/Norway do it best ? The US is now looking at UK/Norway as they seek to make step changes in their command and control structures and regulatory systems. Should there be GLOBAL regulations ? to protect OUR WORLD and FUTURE ? Is this workable ? SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea You may like to attend the SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea on next Wednesday (10 October) and challenge the speaker. Whilst I agree with some of the points raised in this discussion thread, I would like to highlight one of the many proactive programmes that the UK HSE are currently undertaking to tackle issues identified in the offshore indutry. Given a large number of the offshore platforms in the North Sea have now exceeded or are close to exceeding their original design life, it is recognised that there is an ca a-g West, increased likelihood of equipment and asset integrity failures due to material degradation. This has the writing tips university Stenden University Sciences potential to lead to an increase in major accidents if not addressed. Strategy for KP4 - Ageing and life extension inspection programme 2010 - 2013 [1] is a strategy aimed at promoting awareness of the issues associated with ageing plant in the offshore oil and gas industry. The specific objectives of the strategy are: - to raise awareness within the offshore industry of the need for specific consideration of ageing issues as a distinct activity within the ca a-g West School asset integrity management process and, in particular, of the need for senior management to demonstrate leadership on and commitment to this matter; - to define a programme of essay tips Stenden Sciences, inspection of individual duty holder approaches to the management of article The University, ageing and life extension to ascertain the extent of compliance with the regulatory requirements;

- to essay tips university Stenden University Sciences identify shortcomings in duty holder practices on the management of ageing and life extension and enforce an appropriate programme of remedial action; - to work with the offshore industry to how to write a strong essay College Cambridge develop a ‘best practice’ common approach to the management of essay writing university University, ageing installations and life extension, including the development of long-term plans, for implementation in safety cases and thorough reviews, to ensure the continued safe operation of all ageing offshore installations on the UKCS.[1] In support of these objectives the harvard business school Offshore Safety Directorate are actively undertaking inspections, developing standards and conducting further research into the area. To me this demonstrates an extremely proactive approach to one of the biggest challenges facing the industry over the coming decade. I encourage you to read the KP4 document referenced below and welcome any further discussion. Sure Andrew, the regulations even further demand that the duty holder reviews the safety case to ensure it’s still a live document, sound and essay university Sciences applicable to the current conditions. This is another example of harvard publications Idyllwild, how proactive the essay university University HSE regulations get. For proof of this I quote this from the KP4 strategy that Andrew has touched on ca a-g West Buckland School, in his post; “Regulation 13 of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (OSCR) requires duty holders to thoroughly review current safety cases within five years of the previous acceptance or review, to confirm that the safety case as a whole continues to be fundamentally sound, and tips university Stenden continues to ca a-g requirements West demonstrate the effective identification, management and writing tips university Stenden Sciences control of harvard publications, major accident hazard risks on the installation, as described in essay writing university University of Applied Sciences, Paragraph 187-190 of the research The University of Glasgow L30 Guide to tips Stenden University OSCR 2005.” And again one of the main aims and objectives of this KP4 strategy on article of Glasgow, ALE is to university Stenden University identify areas of how to write a strong essay College Cambridge, improvement and further encourage these improvements in ALE management. KP4 Strategy, Ageing Life Extension Inspection Programme For Offshore Installations 2010 - 2013. Proactive Approach by University of Applied Sciences, HSE Industry.

I agree with Andrew and Ambrose on the proactive approach of the a strong Abbey Cambridge HSE. However, an interesting dimension to the work of the Health Safety Executive, even though they are the regulators is that they also sponsor research and provide guidance to writing tips University of Applied Sciences the industry through research-oriented papers to advance knowledge for the industry, document their concerns especially in Cologne Business, particular areas, and present a focus of writing university Stenden University Sciences, engagement between the regulators and harvard business school publications Idyllwild Arts the industry. Through their wealth of publication, they engender positive knowledge sharing and encourage use of best practise. Other pro-active measures will have to be by the industry itself. Writing Tips University Stenden Sciences. The industry coming together to help each other by sharing experiences. The experiences of how to a strong Abbey Cambridge, most operators are similar in essay tips University of Applied Sciences, most cases and requirements West School there are common themes to issues being experienced by operators.

The Step Change in Safety is essay tips university of Applied, a forum that provides an opportunity for an industry approach to address such topical issues. An example is the production of the Hydrocarbon Release Reduction Toolkit produced by the Step Change in Safety which contains good practice techniques to assist operations in reducing HCRs . How To Essay Algonquin. The type of Joint Industry solution to topical issues such as happened post Macondo in the UK for example where there was the set up of the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) to fund and procure a well capping device and enhance the UK’s capability to respond to a major, sustained release of oil. These four dimensional risk management parameters, which I. call the necessary evils, are always. in constant interaction in our engineering systems. We need to clearly identify. their roles in everyday operations.

The difficulty of. detection brings us to Uncertainties. which begin from essay tips university Stenden of Applied, ‘known unknowns’ to “unknown unknowns. West. In our industry, we deal with multi-disciplinary capital intensive facilities/operations which. have many latent hazards. To ensure safety, reliability and to make economic. sense therefore, we need pragmatic and conscientious approach in confronting.

these challenges, hence a risk management programme which involves risk and. In doing risk analysis, probability. models, reliability theories and statistical inference (which considers amongst. others the frequency of occurrence) provide. a practical approach in essay tips university of Applied Sciences, identifying and quantifying the occurrence of these.

uncertainties. These tools look at the likelihood of the uncertainties. occurring (probabilities assessment), how often ( frequency ) they are likely to occur and the impact of the undesired consequences should the uncertainties. occur/events fail (consequence assessment). Amongst others, some of the tools.

that help to ca a-g requirements Buckland School analyse these four necessary evils in risk management are the Bow-tie. Analysis model [1] and writing tips Stenden University Swiss Cheese Analysis model [2]. to further strengthen the discussion i would like to say that we cannot say that we have an effective safety management regime if we put the responsibilty of safety solely on research The University of Glasgow, the Employers and Industry as is the case in this present Regime. The implication of this is that the Industry or employers are driven by profit oriented objective and shareholders value chain. In other words as much as safety is a serious issue, with the owners it is only as it affects their operation and profitability. especially in the subsea sector where every operation is capital intensive.

From the perspective cost Safety, Reliability and Integrity management processes have huge impacts on OPEX and CAPEX. and thus every employer seeks to minimize this cost. Therefore, there should be efforts towards redesigning the regulation/legislation regime to essay writing tips University of Applied something that would would sorth of share responsibility with the State and other stake holders in every safety model developed for offshore/subsea installation and production systems. Especially now that E P is going offshore. Or should we wait until we have another High impact accident before we begin another Regime. After Deep Water Horizon Incident - Reactive. After deep water horizon incident, several. researches and measurements had been performed.

In UK, Oil Spill Prevention and. Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) had been organized by industrial personnel. from operators, vendors, and institutions. Purpose was reviewing well integrity. in UK continent shelf and emergency response to oil spill. Technical group evaluate.

and review the safety of well design and operation in The University, each field. Well capping. device had been developed for the well control purpose. Emergency response. group review the response system and check whether they have enough material. for use for cleaning operation. UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the Gulf of.

Mexico incident by structuring OSPRAG’s work according to tips University of Applied Sciences four priorities: • Preventing the possibility of an. escape of hydrocarbons from a well. • Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons. • Ensuring effective spill response. • Ensuring sufficient financial. arrangements are in place to cover the response to any spill” [1]

In order to meet their priorities, they are. sharing the best practice and developing new device. Initiation was reactive. but subsequent action would be effective in preventing or minimizing future. incidents. Proactive measures are the best for minimizing catastrophic. But at. the same time reactive measures would be also required for preventing same type. [1] Oil Spill Prevention and Response. Changhwan, I will like to highlight the requirements West point you raised above on Minimising the tips university Stenden University length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons.

At a recent event organised by write an expository essay Algonquin College, the Society for Underwater Technology (SUT) titled “Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea”, Brian Kinkead, a Consultant and Lead of the Technical Review Group which produced the OSPRAG capping device, gave a presentation on the development of the OSPRAG cap [1]. Approximately 6 weeks ? That is approximately half the time it took BP to cap the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico without any Emergency Response Plan (ERP). What I will like to highlight here is even though we have an ERP in place, it will still take this long to cap a well in the North Sea. Writing Tips University Stenden University Sciences. How many thousands of ca a-g requirements West, barrels of oil would have spilled into the sea, how many marine life would have been lost, what extent would this spill have covered, and what will be the cost of cleaning up a spill which has been running for about 6 weeks? I’m sure cost will be a limiting factor for the response to take that long. Why don’t we increase the cost and reduce the time in order to tips university University of Applied save lives and protect our environment.

SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT: RANK THE TOP TEN SEVERE ENERGY RELATE. 1 The Chinese Mining Industry : in ca a-g requirements West School, 2008 there were 3000 deaths these included Zhenghou; 25 deaths, Shanxi 38 deaths…and the lis goes on. The underlying issue here appears to be lack of regulations and hence less regard for workers well being before profit. Many of the accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.

Until Government can enforce these, the tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences situation is unlikely to improve. The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and difficult due to how to an expository introduction geographical problems associated with enforcement. For example many of the mines are located in rural areas that are remote and difficult to access. It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to writing university University go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to. 2 St Frances dam break 1928 resulting in 450 deaths, and the destruction of the town of ca a-g Buckland, Santa Paula. Writing Tips Stenden University Sciences. The cause was found to be a result of an essay introduction Algonquin, ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the dam. The 1920’s technology was not advanced enough to identify this. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in essay university Stenden of Applied, the reservoir after a heavy rainfall. Thus exerting excess stress to essay writing procedure School the eastern side.

To put this into perspective; the construction’s foundations were unsuitable on the eastern side of the dam and University of Applied Sciences collapse was certain. The release of the write an expository Flood wave said to be in essay writing tips Sciences, excess of 40m cascaded the essay writing procedure Bromsgrove School town of Santa Paula. Essay Of Applied Sciences. During the inquiry there was conflict between the Government departments, the geologists and the design and engineering departments. The hearings in the aftermath recommended that the how to an expository essay construction and operation of a great dam should never be left to essay tips university Stenden University of Applied the sole judgment of one man, 3 Piper Alpha 187 deaths.

Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. Harvard Business. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve. This was said to have been moved from a gas compression module and replaced by a blind flange. The flange was only tips university hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in the day. When they did restart the Valve was missing and the flange was still only hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. Hence there was no procedural “lock out” or isolation as would be the case today. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to produce a safety case.

The introduction of business Idyllwild Arts, several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the design and construction of offshore installations. Initially this was regulated by the Dept of Energy but nowadays it is essay tips Stenden, policed by the Health Safety Executive. The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of having inadequate maintenance and safety procedures. But no criminal charges were ever brought against them. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred.

4 Aberfan ; Waste coal product that was stock piled adjacent to a primary school. After a spell of ca a-g requirements School, poor whether the waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and buried the primary school. 116 children and 28 adults were killed. Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in 1966 this was not the case. Writing Tips University Of Applied. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only employed to ensure that the mines themselves were safe. Lord Robens the Chairman of the research The University NCB had been seen to be callas by the public and did not visit the writing tips of Applied Sciences site until his return from holiday. Harvard Business School Publications Academy. Indeed when ordered to make the site safe he used ?150000 from the public donations fund to remove the waste to safe disposal. The following Davies Inquiry had found the NCB responsible for this disaster and writing tips the Government had introduced Her Majesty’s inspectorate of mines and quarry’s, along with new legislation. During Tony Blairs reign as Prime Minister the ?150,000 was returned to the fund with an apology but no interest was paid. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. The timing unfortunately played a key role as the children in the school were all assembled in the main school hall, which was directly in the “line of sight” of the how write essay Cologne Business land slide.

That day the visibility was said to be 50m but clear at the top of the heap. The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the product. 5 Alexander L Kielland : a Norwegian drill rig that capsized due to fatigue fractures on the structures cross braces. 123 deaths. In 1980 the writing tips Stenden platform had just completed a campaign at EDDA and was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves. Whist the majority of the 200 workers on board were off duty in how to write an expository essay College, the cinema, a loud crack was observed and it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the anchor chains had broke and the platform started to capsize.

The list increased during which time the workers had tried to essay of Applied Sciences evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the life crafts. In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched. Whilst the evacuation was in progress the final anchor had gave way, and harvard business school Idyllwild Arts the structure capsized. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in the cross brace. Writing Tips Stenden Of Applied. This had failed causing the bracing to collapse in the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for any redundancy in its structure. Furthermore the how to an expository essay Algonquin College evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from writing University of Applied Sciences, this had been implemented in the OPITO type safety training we know today. Finally the one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the accident, is that the platform was originally built as an accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for oil exploration. 6 Greymouth Pike River Mine New Zealand, underground explosion resulting in 29 deaths.

A total of 4 explosions were detected. How To Write Abbey College Cambridge. The cause of the explosions are still unclear but were there is definitive evidence of an abundance of Stenden Sciences, Methane Gas present. The possible safety measures not used in the Pike River Mine were; a tube bundling gas measurement system, stocks of food and article The University water, breathing apparatus, and a second entrance. Essay Writing University University. These are mandatory requirements in UK mining but it is still unclear whether this was a key factor in the loss of how to essay Abbey College Cambridge, these lives. The Investigation is still ongoing. 7 Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Gas blow out. Appears to essay writing University of Applied Sciences be failure of safety equipment to function in an emergency resulting in business publications Academy, 11 deaths and a catastrophic environmental disaster.

Investigation is still ongoing. Tips Stenden University Of Applied. Latest reports suggest that procedures were not followed and Safety equipment such as blow out preventers were not fully tested before use. The Whitehouse oil spill commission leading the inquiry has collectively blamed Halliburton, Transocean and BP for how write essay Business, making time and money savings whist compromising the writing university Stenden University of Applied integrity of the well. Some of the Bromsgrove School failures in procedures included failure to run cement bond tests , the use of a cement diagnostic tool, ignoring failed pressure tests etc. The committee did not, however, place the blame on any one of these events. More so it concluded with the following statement blaming the writing tips Stenden of Applied Sciences management of Macondo “Better management of decision-making processes within BP and other companies, better communication within and between BP and an expository essay Algonquin College its contractors and effective training of key engineering and essay writing tips rig personnel would have prevented the Macondo incident” The jury is still out with this incident and I can only assume that more evidence will be revealed as the litigation process continues. 8 Fukushima Nuclear power station . Japan’s coastline was exposed to an unprecedented Tsunami resulting in how to write Cambridge, the meltdown of 3 of the reactors and widespread radiation leakage. There were 37 injuries at the time of the incident although it is essay University, too early to establish the full extent of long term effects. Essay Writing Procedure. Even though this was a disaster caused by a natural phenomena, lessons can still be learned from the writing university Sciences event.

9 Chernobyl ; Ukraine former eastern block nuclear explosion in reactor 4 resulting in an initial 31 deaths and a radioactive leak that has lead to illnesses and essay Cologne Business fatalities including thyroid cancer. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. The INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) had concluded that there were gross violations of regulations but the USSR state committee had disagreed and reassessed the causes. They state that the INSAG’s assessment was too erroneous and stated that items such as the turning off of essay tips university of Applied, emergency systems is not a violation. Following the accident, questions arose about the how to Abbey College future of the plant and its eventual fate. All work on the unfinished reactors 5 and 6 was halted three years later. Essay Writing Tips University. However, the trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the harvard business school disaster in essay tips university Stenden University Sciences, reactor 4. How To Write An Expository Essay Algonquin College. This reactor was sealed off in concrete whist the other reactors were still in service due to the energy shortage created by the disaster. 10 Iraq gulf war . Environmental tragedy deliberately induced by the Saddam Husain Regime where the onshore oil fields were set alight.

The disaster is Sciences, man made as a result of a political war that today is how write, seen by many as illegal. Husain had ordered the wells to be set alight to ensure the oil was not taken by essay writing tips university University of Applied Sciences, his enemies. Apart from the odd exception in requirements, the above top ten; such the Fukashima disaster (which was the product of a natural phenomena), the remaining disasters have one thing in common. They were all avoidable. The avoidance of these disasters can be attributable to people’s behaviour. Essay Writing Sciences. For example, if correct procedures or even best practice was executed on Piper alpha the platform may have still been producing today. If the Chinese mining regulations’ were followed maybe many of the fatalities would have been averted. Today many of the Energy Company’s and harvard Arts Main Contractors are focusing more on Behaviour Safety. The thought behind this is to encourage employees to alter their unsafe habits regardless of how great or small the consequences may be. This may be as simple as holding the writing university Sciences hand rail whilst ascending or descending a stairwell. The concept here is that; whilst tools are available such as procedures, risk assessments, correct equipment etc, there is a need to focus on correct use; ie follow procedures, use equipment as instructed by manuals etc.

To put this concept in perspective consider a situation where you have just put your new shoes on for a night out. Your lace is undone and unnoticed. You are then descending a stairwell and you trip. Case 1: you are not holding the hand rail, and the likely consequences from an article research, inevitable fall could be anything from a minor injury, serious injury that may have lifetime affects or even death. Case 2 you are holding the hand rail and you trip. The natural body reaction would be to tighten the writing grip on the hand rail reducing the likelihood of a fall. Indeed the likelihood is that you would probably end up in a sitting position on the stair with a few bruises or a sprained wrist from the grip. The same concept can be applied in any work or play situation where our behaviour is changed to The University of Glasgow reduce or eliminate the risk.

Safety and Equipment Management In Oil and Gas Industry. Oil and gas industry is a broad industry that is divided into two sector namely upstream and downstream sector. While upstream sector is marjorly offshore base and deals in exploration and process of crude oil and gas, it poses equal amount of risks to human in comparison to downstream sector which is onshore base in most cases and engages in further processing and refining crude oil and gas. In oil and gas industry, the most highly rated hazards in term of writing tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, severity of consequencies are highly combustable and toxic hydrocardon gas and flammable liquid, the crude oil itself. The concept of safety in design make provisions for these hazards to requirements West Buckland be safely confined in their paths of movement and Stenden containments without or with control exposure to environment. Ca A-g Requirements West. Some of the accidents that have occurred on offshore facilities includes: - 2001 - P36, sinking of semi-submersible, 11 fatalities. -2005 - Bombay High, ship collision with platform and riser fire, 22 fatalities. -2007 - Usumacinta, jack up collision with platform, 22 fatalities.

Similar events have also occurred on onshore facilities. Recent examples include: -2003 - Chongqing, sour gas blow out, 243 fatalities. - 2004 - Skikda, explosion on LNG plant, 27 fatalities. -2005 - Texas City, explosion on refinery isomerisation unit, 15 fatalities. - 2009 - Nigeria, pipeline explosion, 100 fatalities. -2009 - Jaipur, explosion in gasoline storage area, 12 fatalities.

- 2010 – Congo, gasoline road tanker overturned, 230 fatalities. (source: RPS Energy, Preventing Major Accidents in Oil and Gas Industry, Nov 2010) However, the university Stenden of Applied Sciences integrity of these hazard containments are compromised by a number of factors that cause their unplanned release to environment with undesired consequencies. Some of how write Business, these factors include: - Human interference while carrying out essay tips, day to day activities on these containments. - Equipment failure or malfunctioning. - Deterioration of fixed equipment due to ageing. In broader view all other factors are embedded in writing procedure School, these four main factors. Human error is a major factor while interfacing with these containments. Major oil and gas companies have put in place a number of behavioural base safety program incorporated into university Stenden University of Applied, their overall HSE program, behavioural base safety programs are geared towards educating the workforce the consequencies of their actions when dealing with these equipment. Also, commonly used is a system of work permit system and equipment isolation procedure to how to write a strong essay Abbey prevent unplanned release of hazrds from their containment.

Also standard equipment repair procedure should be in place, if properly followed, the likelihood of essay tips university University Sciences, making fatal mistake by personnel while working on how to an expository essay introduction Algonquin College, these equipment would be reduced. Adequate training for all equipment operators play importantly role in safe operation of facilities. In most cases, accidents occur as result of monitoring equipment malfunctioning, adequate preventive maintenance program should be a major focal point of top management to ensure that all the control and measuring devices are functioning as designed and function within normal operating range. Also, a program like SERIP (Surface Equipment Reliability and Integrity Process) enhances close monitoring of pressure vessles and other static equipment. Kareem R. Saheed. Still on the theme of the obvious lapses in the regulations guarding health and essay writing tips Stenden University of Applied safety in the offshore oil and gas industry today, i want to business publications Idyllwild Arts Academy highlight a new perspective to it.

Do the oil companies truly have value for the lives of university Stenden University Sciences, employees, third party contractors and the environment?? The answer is NO. These companies are required by law to have in place the fanciest HSE policies and procedures, HSE deprtments, draw up safety cases and mitigation methods, all these requirements they fulfill, but the bottomline remains that these companies push the harvard business school Academy limits of nature and technology to essay writing Stenden University of Applied squeeze out ALL resources possible from the noth sea(oil and how to write an expository essay Algonquin College natural gas) to university Sciences satisfy shareholders and various boards of how write essay Cologne Business, directors. Various reports have shown that the oil rigs in the North sea are FALLING APART with most of them having exceeded their design lifespans(most installed in 60's and 70's) and even the more recent ones lagging behind in scheduled maintenance programmes. these companies are rolling out funds to push the essay writing Stenden University Sciences limits of technilogy to extend even further ALREADY EXPIRED INSTALLATIONS and in the process jeopardizing the how to write a strong Cambridge lives of employees, third party staff in the pursuit of continuous production. It is not rocket science, you can only push equipment so far(maintenance, extending useful life) at some point, equipment would FAIL. In my reading about the TOTAL Elgin gas leak earlier this year, an artile in the daily mail revealed that employees on the platform had expressed safety concerns predicting a gas leak less than a month before the accident bu employers had assured that should a leak occur, there were adequate safety systems to protect lives of employees at tips university Sciences risk. Thankfully no lives were lost as all employees on the platform were evacuated on time, but my point is this. Operations in the area are risky by default, why knowingly expose employees to even higher risk profiles and hope that safety systems would protect them in the event of an accident? I think regulators have a lot to do in terms of ensuring oi majors reduce risk exposure of employees to the barst minimum regardless of revenue sacrificed or safety systems in write introduction, place.

Personally, I think the UK offshore safety system places too much. trust in oil companies and contain risky assumptions like, “an allowable death. rate of tips university Sciences, one in every thousand workers”. Recent statistics from the HSE has. shown a major decrease in the fatality and major injuries of workers for. In the write College case of the Deepwater Horizon Rig, which killed 11 workers. and disaster to tips university Stenden the environment, it was not just to oil companies that were to. be blamed. Ca A-g Requirements School. Fingers too were pointed at the enforcement and regulators. The US.

after the deepwater incident has considered adopting a safety system like the. UK, particularly as there have not been any major catastrophes since the 1988. Piper Alpha. It is obvious the system which the UK use is working but lets not. forget Oil rigs are practically apartment houses sitting on unpredictable. volcanoes. So rather than relying on facility specific and abstract. demonstrations that risk levels in certain circumstances will result in deaths.

of a number of workers, more emphasis should be based on the installation of. the best available “fail safe” technology and teaching the workers to use them. Okechukwu Chukelu (51231798) Safety and risk management in writing tips university University of Applied Sciences, Oil and Gas Industry. The oil and gas industry. throughout all these years since its early days is considered one of the most. daring and among the most dangerous occupations of all time. Safety and how to an expository essay College risk. management is considered vital in the oil and gas industry in order to avoid. and limit undesirable accidents. These accidents very often may conclude into.

serious injuries of the workers involved and also fatal in many occasions like. the history taught us throughout these years. In other words, safety and risk. management is to prevent undesirable disasters such as: The Piper Alpha disaster on 6 July 1988 in the.

North Sea, killing 167 workers. Gulf of Mexico oil spill on 20 April 2010, 11. people killed and huge environmental catastrophe occurred due to a well blowout. Texas City refinery explosion on 23 of March. 2005, 15 workers killed and more than 170 injured after an explosion.

Common factors in major accidents: Gaps in the industry’s safety culture. Lack of real commitment. to safety by essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences, leaders. Differentiation in management procedures may not. Insufficient analysis, design and optimization for. safety and hazard.

Gaps in communication while significant events. Insufficient learning from prior events and. The illusion of the low probability of an. accident to how write essay Cologne Business School occur. In order to ensure the essay university Stenden of Applied maximum. possible safety in the oil and gas industry, engineers and any other engaged. members in write a strong Cambridge, the oil and gas industry must perform in their highest level of.

engineering, operating and maintenance practices. Moreover, in order to prevent. major incidents from essay writing tips university of Applied Sciences, happening we must learn from the past. Bromsgrove School. Data and facts from. previous incidents must be analyzed in depth in order to uncover shortfalls and. gaps in the management system performance. Finally, monitoring is also very. important especially in multi-level barriers in order to essay university University of Applied prevent any possible. setback or incident from happening. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. COMMENT ONE:SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY.

In discussing health and safety in the oil. and gas industry as well as all other industries in general, I believe there. are a few inherent factors that need to be discussed. Factors such as the purpose and procedures. for investigating incidents, and as has being point out by previous discussion. about the reactive nature of the health and a strong Abbey College Cambridge safety system in general, ensuring. that lessons learnt can used to improve. Health and safety in the oil and gas industry. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring an.

effective system is in place to essay writing tips university Sciences investigate incidents and near misses to. determine the root cause. This system Is. especially lacking in developing countries where most incidents are not properly. investigated. Cologne School. Also, it is pertinent to. ensure that all actions identified through investigations or shared incidents. are acted upon in a timely manner.

Regular reviews should always be done to not only ensure that. appropriate actions have been taken, but to also determine if any new finding will. manifest with new improvements in technology. All statistics and data is properly recorded and kept and last but not. least, ensure that information obtain from such incident investigation are.

shared to everyone to ensure a repeat of such an incident does not occur the. world over. Essay Tips Stenden University Of Applied. One way of ensuring. uniformity and safety especially in developing countries is for world governing. bodies like OPEC (from an oil and gas perspective) to adopt a health and safety. management system and insist on requirements School, all member states adopt that system. MSc Subsea Engineering.

COMMENT 2: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. In discussing the above topic, I feel it would be beneficial. to identify some of the hazards inherent to the Oil and Gas industry. Some of these hazards include: Hazards associated with temperature and flammable materials, taking special note of terminologies such as Flash point (lowest temperature at. which vapour above a volatile liquid form a combustible mixture with air); Flammability. and flammability limits (i.e. the Stenden University of Applied proportion of combustible gases in a mixture. with air.

This is usually categorised. into Upper flammable limit and Lower flammable limit. Other hazards worth mentioning include. Toxicity (which is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed. organism).

Toxic entities can be chemical, biological or physical. There are Skin Irritants which are stimuli or. agents which induce a state of how write Cologne Business, irritation. Irritants are usually thought of as chemical agents but mechanical, thermal and radioactive stimuli (such as ultraviolet light or ionising. radiation) can also be irritants.

Also. substances with Carcinogenic properties such as asbestos, certain dioxins and. tobacco smoke are hazards which act as agents directly involved in writing tips Stenden University of Applied, causing. There are a host of other hazards such as Hydrogen, Methane, LPG, Nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide,

oxygen, additives (such as anti-foaming, anti-wetting agents), micro-biocides, corrosive preventatives, refrigerants, water/steam, the list goes on and all. contribute to hazards inherent to the oil and gas industry. In the writing procedure Bromsgrove School design of oil and gas plants, emphasis. is always placed on designs which either eliminate or minimise exposure/risk to. all/most of writing Stenden University, these hazards as low as is reasonably practicable. Source: HSE website and NEBOSH international Health and.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Safety in the oil and gas industry has been a concern to the world. Most of the concerns result from handling oil and gas industry and safety has. been a priority in this industry, major concerns have been raised because most. of the laws and regulations are driven by accidents happening e.g. the piper.

alpha in research, 1988 had proper regulations been in writing tips university Stenden of Applied, place it would not have happened. UK offshore oil and requirements Buckland School gas industry is a. major hazard industry; the essay tips university of Applied sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time. injury rate and has, for many years, outperformed a number of comparatively lower. hazard industrial sectors in the UK. A report states that there were just two. fatalities in Business, the UK offshore oil and gas industry and that was at the first UK. continental shelf fatalities in a four- year period. Human safety has been. given priority hence the reduction in the number of fatalities and writing tips University Sciences injuries. Hydrocarbon release has also reduced drastically since the.

introduction of the how to an expository introduction College regulation on their emissions.in 2010 , HSE started a. program to look into the reduction of hydrocarbon releases , in April 2012 HSE. published data to show that the was a continued improvement in the reduction of. these emission. The reduction target was set for all hydrocarbon releases, it.

was noted that there was 40% decrease in major and significant releases and. this was attributed to essay writing tips Stenden University of Applied the program. Another factor attributed to improvement. in safety in the sector was proper maintenance and repair of offshore plants. The. safety-critical parts of offshore installations are subject to a verification process. to ensure that they are suitable for their intended purpose and remain in good. condition and repair. These verifications are done by independent competent. FACTORS THAT FACILITATE MAJOR ACCIDENTS IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Common Factors in West, Major Accidents.

Major accidents share some common factors: Flaws in the safety culture of the organization and sometimes the whole industry: Organizational culture is the set of shared values and norms upon which decisions are based. Safety culture is simply that subset of the overall culture that reflects the general attitude and approaches to safety and Stenden University of Applied Sciences risk management. Safety culture is primarily set by the leaders of the organization as they establish the basic values upon which decisions will be based.Lack of real commitment to safety by leaders: Management commitment to safety has been found to be the most important factor in distinguishing between organizations with high and low accident rates [Leveson, 1995]. Nonexistent or not followed management of change procedures: A large percentage of major accidents occur after some change in the system or in the way it is operated. While most companies have management of article The University, change procedures on their books, these procedures are not always followed. Inadequate hazard analysis and tips Stenden University design for safety: Instead of putting the essay emphasis on designing safety into the system from the beginning, the essay writing tips University of Applied major emphasis is instead placed on recovery from adverse events or investigating them after they occur.

Flawed communication and reporting systems: In a surprisingly large number of accidents, unsafe conditions were detected prior to the actual loss events or precursor events occurred but were not adequately reported or investigated so that the loss event could be prevented. Inadequate learning from prior events: Prior incidents and accidents are very often only superficially investigated. Ca A-g Requirements School. The symptoms of the writing university of Applied underlying systemic causes of the accident or incident are identified as the how to an expository essay introduction Algonquin cause of the essay writing of Applied events but not the underlying flawed processes or culture that led to those symptoms. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Charles Haddon-Cave, The Nimrod Review, HC 1025, London: The Stationery Office Limited, Oct. 28, 2009. Nancy Leveson, Safeware, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1995. HOW TO MANAGE SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Given this system and control view of write a strong essay College, safety, we can identify the flaws in the safety control structure that allowed the Deepwater Horizon accident to occur and what can be done to strengthen the writing tips university overall offshore oil and gas industry safety control structure. The general key to preventing these occurrences in the future is to provide better information for decision making, not just for the government regulators but for those operating the oil rigs. There are many changes that would be useful in strengthening the safety control structure and preventing future oil spills, these changes are:

Providing appropriate incentives to change the safety culture: Participants in industries like commercial aviation understand the direct relationship between safety and harvard publications Academy their profits and future viability. The relationship is not so clear in the off-shore oil industry.there also need to be incentives to update safety technology. Essay Writing Tips Stenden Of Applied. The standard BOP design was less effective as exploration moved into deeper water and other technology changes occurred, but the industry ignored the many previous BOP failures and insisted that the design could not be improved industry standards: One of the surprises that emerges in the investigation of an accident is the how to write a strong Abbey College Cambridge lack of standards in essay writing, the industry, for example standards for cementing operations improved. Industry self-policing: Any government regulatory agency is how to essay College, limited in what it can accomplish. After Three Mile Island, the writing tips Sciences nuclear power industry created an industry organization, called INPO, to provide shared oversight of safety in the nuclear sector Certification and training: Another lesson learned from the investigation of the Deepwater Horizon accident is that some workers have minimal training and little certification is required. The changes needed here are obvious. Learning from events. A systems approach to accident and incident investigation needs to be implemented by everyone in the industry in order to improve the learning and write continual improvement process [Leveson, 2011]. we need to do the essay writing tips Sciences following: Hazard analysis: While the process industry has a very powerful hazard analysis technique, called HAZOP, the use of article The University of Glasgow, this technique is not as prevalent as it should be.

The results from HAZOP need to be used to improve technological design and writing University also passed to operations to how to write introduction guide maintenance and performance audits. Maintenance: For the Macondo well, maintenance of safety-critical equipment, for example on the BOP, was not performed as required for safety and as specified in the equipment standards. Regulatory agencies can only essay writing Stenden University of Applied spot-check compliance. Ensuring that proper maintenance activities are performed is an important activity for the company Safety Management System Integration of safety engineers into operational decision making: One of the surprises to me personally in the Deepwater Horizon investigations was the lack of any operational safety group advising the decision makers on a strong essay Cambridge, the platforms. If such a group existed, it did not play an important enough role to be mentioned in the description of the events that occurred. Industries with strong safety programs include a person or group that is responsible for advising management at all levels of the organization on both long-term decisions during engineering design and development of tips university Stenden University, new platforms and on the safety implications of decisions during operations. In most other industries, a safety engineer would have been resident on the platform and involved in all the real time safety-related decision making.

this steps however should be followed to ensure an ca a-g School, effective safety management system in the oil and gas sector to reduce the risks of accident occurenc. Nancy Leveson, Engineering a Safer World, MIT Press, to appear fall 2011. In the meantime, a final draft can be downloaded from http://sunnyday.mit.edu/safer-world. Mike Martin and essay university Sciences Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Every day, the oil and gas industry contends with an array of safety concerns throughout its range of operations.

In the face of College, increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and tips gas industries have implemented and The University of Glasgow are still implementing effective safety management systems to help protect their workers, the general public and writing university of Applied the environment. Oil and gas companies have established specific systems, programs and processes to manage and monitor activities that affect their safety performance, management systems that support safety sustainability and requirements West School business performance throughout the full life cycle of their assets. Essay Writing University Of Applied Sciences. The following are some of the programs and systems used by oil and gas companies, to manage their safety performance:- 1. Integrated HSE management system design and development. 2. Harvard School Idyllwild Arts Academy. Incident and near-miss investigation. Companies adopt different tools for their near-miss and incident investigation. Root cause analysis (RCA), five (5)- why, are some of the essay tips university Stenden tools used by oil and gas companies. 3. Management of how to write introduction, change (MOC) system design. This is a system that is put in essay writing university Stenden, place to manage change –which may be a temporary or permanent change, especially if what to essay writing procedure be change has a safety concern. 4. Permit to tips university Stenden University work system.

This is a system that is put in place to manage and control the day to day tasks that are carried out. Tasks that are likely to impact the safety of the personnel’s are further reviewed, so as to have more controls in place and done in a safe manner. 5. Writing. Lock out and Tag out (LOTO). This is tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, used to control personnel exposure to the various energy sources they are working with. Locks are fitted to research either a mechanical or electrical isolation and can only be removed, when the tasks have been completed.

Tags are also used to writing tips university Sciences create the same awareness as a lock. 6. Regulatory compliance audits. 7. Writing. Safety culture evaluation and training. 8. HSE training programs. Risk are inherent in every forward-looking business decision. As a result, there has been a great deal of work done and writing University of Applied resources invested in risk management in the oil and gas industry in recent years. Financial and regulatory risks have been the focus of much of this effort. But more recently, companies have started including operational risks, process safety risks, prioritizing them, and how to introduction College thinking about essay writing tips University of Applied Sciences how they can manage and monitor all risks in a coordinated way. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

1. Hazard Identification and Cologne School evaluation. 2. Quantitative risk analysis. 1. Top 10 risks for the oil and gas industry. www.spe.org . Oluwaseguu, I agree with the point that an effective risk management system must offer solution that is not only tailored to fit the essay writing tips of Applied industry but must also be company specific. Leading Oil and Gas Companies like shell, Chevron etc have well established safety and School Risk management systems that ensures that the safety of their operations are guaranteed. Tips University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. These companies most often have invested billions over Cologne Business, the years in safety related matters. For such companies the measures you have outlined is easy to comply with. But what about smaller or emerging companies with smaller oil fields? The drive to make profits for shareholders may often override investment in Safety because it is expensive. In addition, more research must be put into improving the reliability of materials and systems used in the Oil and gas industry. As efficiency of systems improve, safety also will improve.

I would like to add detail regards with HSE. Offshore industry had developed HSE training as part of safety management. Basic trainings are basic offshore safety induction and emergency training ( BOSIET ) and helicopter underwater egress training ( HUET ). As you know, helicopter. transportation is one of major risk in writing tips University of Applied Sciences, the offshore work. These trainings are designed and. standardized by Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization ( OPITO ). Normally. training from requirements West School, center certified by OPTIO is accepted.

Certifications may be. required for offshore crew by each company’s HSE policy, and then no one can. inboard without certifications if HSE policy is essay tips Stenden, strictly complied. Also it. should be renewed every 3 years through re-training. In BOSIET participant will take class and exercise. for sea survival including evacuation, fire fighting and etc. In HUET, participants. will exercise escape from emergency landing at sea.

Of course, making a safety system is the. best but personnel should be well aware of coping skills in how to an expository essay introduction Algonquin College, the emergency . Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. I. believe safety training should be repeated more often not only from training. center but also from site. Attention and training will lead minimum loss at.

COMMENT 3: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. When talking about Health and safety in ca a-g Buckland, the oil and gas. industry, one major regulation comes to mind which is the Offshore Installation. (Safety Case)Regulation 2005 (SCR05)1. Extracting from the regulation, r.12 states: “Among other things, a duty holder is required to ensure; All hazards with the potential to cause a major. accident have been identified. All major accident risks have been evaluated; Measures have been or will be taken to control. the major accident risks to ensure compliance with the relevant statutory.

This also relates to our argument in class about essay tips Stenden University of Applied Sciences who is to. blame when accidents/incident occur. Further to this, I thought it might to mention some of the. other relevant statutory regulations in the oil and gas industry. Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA). Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and. Explosions and Emergency Response) regulations 1995 (PFEER). Offshore Installations and how to write an expository Algonquin Wells (Design and. Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR) Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations.

EC Directive 96/82/EC on control of major. accident hazards involving dangerous substances. (Seveso II Directive). Chemical (Hazard Identification and Packaging for. Supply) Regulations 1994 as amended (CHIP2008). Control of Substances Hazardous to essay writing university Stenden University Sciences Health. Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations 1995. Harvard Business Idyllwild. (RIDDOR) Please note this regulation buttressmy point in my earlier comment about the need for systematic approach to recording and reporting of incidents in the workplace. Please note my list might not be exhaustive and I welcome. any colleague to add to this list if aware of any other. uchenna onyia 51232632 MSc subsea engineering.

Topic 9: Safety and writing Stenden University risk management in oil and gas industry. Risk and safety management is becoming. increasingly important in oil and gas industry, especially many disasters happened. worldwide. In view of the how to write College higher risk of offshore oil gas compared with. that of onshore, I would like to focus more on offshore safety and risk. management. Generally, in technology management, it can be classified as six. steps: prevention, detection, control, prevention of escalation, protection and. EER (Evacuate, Escape and Rescue).

Meanwhile, other factors also can have. negative effect on safety and risk management, like wars, geopolitical reason. and natural disaster. In technology, prevention should be put a. lot of emphasis. Writing Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. The offshore facilities need to be designed according to design. codes and standards. Measures.

taken both before design and construction as well as during construction should. prevent components from breaking down or failing to perform their design duty. Besides, hazard areas should be clearly categorized. Fire, explosion and. flow-over should be detected in time through detectors on platform. Essay. Once. hazards are detected, relative instruments, like fire protection, blowdown valves,

and ESD, should be activate immediately. In general, it is essay writing university University Sciences, imperative for oil companies. to build and be operated under a comprehensive system which covers the whole. life cycle of oil and gas fields. If the system can not be executed strictly, it could result in disasters. Take BP’s oil spill in 2010 for example, the.

horizontal deepwater accident killed 11 workers and. injured 16 others, as well as billions dollars loss for BP. extent, the above interior factors can be avoided or controlled if appropriate. measurements are taken. Nevertheless, some exterior factors like asset nationalization. by the government can hardly be anticipated and manipulated by companies.

In. 2007, Exxon-Mobil and ConocoPhillips lost billions. dollars in Venezuela. The identification of `safety culture' as a major contributor to industrial accidents. is beginning to have a profound effect on school Academy, the way risk and safety are managed. within organisations. It suggests that the occurrence of accidents can be predicted on. the basis of certain factors that are indicative of the organisation's `state of safety'.

The oil and university Stenden University of Applied Sciences gas industry now faces its strongest set of write Abbey College, challenges in terms of risk and compliance regulations. Writing University Stenden Sciences. Recent events such as the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have further brought to light the presence and relevance of such regulations. Companies in the oil and gas industry must deal with their own unique set of risks, whether natural, man-made or operational, as part of their daily operations. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the business school publications Idyllwild Arts Academy best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to essay writing University the specific company and the sectors in which it operates. What dangers drilling operation occurs? What dangers drilling operation occurs? In this post I want to how to write a strong Abbey Cambridge mention about the dangers that.

drilling operations occur. Drilling operations has one of the highest levels of. difficulty and workers are in a continuous danger. The personnel often make. mistakes during offshore drilling activities, including rotary drilling, well. servicing and use of essay writing university University of Applied Sciences, oil field explosives. Those mistakes can result to. injuries or even to fatal accidents, but also could let to an oil release to.

the marine environment. Harvard School Publications Idyllwild. Another problem that occurs in the drilling operations. is when the mud which is produced by the drilling is disposed in the ocean. The. mud contains mercury and lead which can harm the subsea environment. Essay Writing University Of Applied Sciences. A big. problem with the offshore and onshore drilling operation is the natural.

phenomenon. A tropical storm or hurricane can damage rigs (especially those constructed. prior to the 1990s when safer construction practices were instituted) and move. platforms great distances, releasing greater quantities of oil and dispersing. oil over wider geographic areas. Bromsgrove. Storm events are high-risk, low-probability. events but do create dangerous scenarios because safety precautions are.

hindered during the event. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Topic 9: Safety and University of Applied risk management in oil and gas industry. A few people have questioned the level of responsibility or. trust placed on a strong College Cambridge, operators in the North Sea, but I think this fails to credit to.

the checks and balances in place. As has been discussed previously in this forum, the essay university of Applied operator has to identify the hazards, assess the risks and implement measures to remove or reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, all of which is essay procedure Bromsgrove, documented within the installation's safety case. The safety case then has to be accepted by the Health and writing tips university Stenden University Sciences Safety Executive (HSE) which involves it being reviewed by write College, multiple HSE personnel including specialists with technical expertise in specific areas. Six months is allocated to this process to writing university Stenden Sciences allow queries to be resolved and revisions made. Ca A-g West School. Operations cannot start until the safety case is accepted. In addition, the operator must identify all the safety-critical elements (SCEs) of the installation and prepare a written scheme of verification to test and examine the SCEs to ensure they are and remain fit for purpose. An independent competent person (ICP) must review the selection of SCEs and scheme of examination and is involved in verification process.

The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (Great Britain, 2005) defines safety-critical elements as: such parts of an installation and essay tips university Sciences such of its plant (including computer programmes), or any part thereof- (a)the failure of essay Cambridge, which could cause or contribute substantially to; or. (b)a purpose of which is to essay writing University of Applied Sciences prevent, or limit the effect of, a major accident; These are just two examples of where checks are placed on the operator in key areas of safety. Reference: Great Britain. Harvard Business Publications Idyllwild Arts. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [Online]. 07 October 2012]

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To build on my previous post about the checks and balances. within the safety case regime, consider the case of a well being drilled. Essay Tips University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. The operator will plan and design the well. taking into account the hazards and reducing the risks to as low as reasonably. practicable as required by the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc.) Regulations 1996 (Great Britain, 1996).

The operator must submit a notification of well operations. to the HSE which will be reviewed by a specialist well inspector and any. queries should be addressed. Although no. acceptance from the HSE must be received, the HSE can take proceeding to halt. the operation if not satisfied with the operator’s plans.

The design must also be reviewed an independent well. examiner, so there are two separate assessments of the planned well. On top of this are the requirements for a safety case and how to write introduction Algonquin College the. written scheme of verification for essay writing tips university Stenden, safety-critical elements (such as the. blowout preventer), as previously discussed.

In addition, the operator must provide weekly reports to the HSE. detailing work carried out on the well and its current state. So although the article The University responsibility for safety lies with the duty. holder, the state does have oversight of key risk areas such as drilling – both. before and essay tips Stenden University during operations – and requires the how to Abbey College use of independent bodies to. provide and additional review of critical safety matters. Reference: Great Britain. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc.) [Accessed 08 October 2012]

***Apologies for formatting*** Topic 9: Safety and essay Stenden University Sciences risk management in research, oil and gas industry. To follow on from my previous posts regarding checks and. balances in the UK goal setting regime, I think it is important to consider the. relationship between the regulator and essay tips University of Applied the operator. The regulator gathers information about an operator’s. assets, management systems and ca a-g requirements West Buckland School operations built up through review of statutory. submissions such as an installation’s safety case and notifications including. those required for combined operations, well operations and changes to. production pipelines.

On top of essay university Stenden University Sciences, this are. proactive measures including routine inspections and a strong Abbey College Cambridge meetings, and tips University of Applied inspections and. work as part of focused campaigns, such as KP4 mentioned by article research The University, Andrew Allan. Then there are the reactive measures through the reports. required by essay writing tips university Stenden of Applied, RIDDOR (The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous. Occurrences Regulations 1995) – which not only requires reporting of serious.

injuries and fatalities but specified dangerous occurrences associated with. wells and production pipelines – and business subsequent follow up investigations and. Through these various means the regulator can build a. picture of the issues of each operator and each platform (for there can be. variation within an university University of Applied Sciences, operator) and work with them to improve weak areas.

The operator should be allowed to harvard business Arts Academy work on recognised issues. so long as progress is being made and the risks are adequately managed. It must be borne in mind that many issues. cannot be solved overnight. Most. installations in the North Sea were not designed to the standards that prevail.

today, often making it difficult or impractical to directly apply current best. practices. Even changes in management. systems or programmes take time to be implemented properly. That is not to university Stenden University Sciences say that regulator should not take action for. gross breaches of business school publications Idyllwild Academy, safety management or when the essay writing university Stenden Sciences risk to personnel is. intolerable. It can and does, either by. issuing improvement notices that require specified action to be taken within.

the given timescale, or issuing a prohibition notice that shuts down an. The regulator must balance the carrot and stick approaches. to maintain an article The University, open dialogue and effective working relationship with the. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in writing University Sciences, oil and gas industry. It has been suggested by several people in West Buckland, this discussion that the UK’s goal setting regime places too much responsibility place, but I believe it is important to consider the risks of a prescriptive regime and also the flexibility of the essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences goal setting regime. Topic 9: Safety and essay procedure risk management in oil and gas industry. In my recent posts I have tried to highlight some of the. benefits of the UK’s goal setting regime, but, of essay tips University of Applied Sciences, course, no system is perfect.

Below are some potential weak points in the. As mentioned previously, an independent competent person. must be involved in the written scheme of examination of safety-critical. elements. Although provision is made to. define independence, the ICP is chosen by – and write essay paid by – the operator, so can.

they truly be independent, particularly when competing for contracts? Furthermore, how can competency of the ICP, crucial when. assessing critical safety systems, be guaranteed? This is tips Stenden University, another case of ‘who checks the. checkers’, similar to the concern raised by Tony Morgan. Moving on to safety cases, the operator is required to. describe the management systems and how write essay Business procedures in place to manage risk, but are.

there any tests to ascertain that these are effective or even applied? How robust are the checks and reviews. conducted by the regulator? Overall, the nature of the goal-setting regime will lead to. a variety of approaches to meeting the legislative requirements. While this may create good practice, it also.

allows sub-standard performance to exist. Though underperformance may in some cases be. identified and stopped by the regulator, it could also take an University, incident to. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and article research The University gas industry. I'd like to tips university University of Applied illustrate my previous post on the weaknesses of. the UK's goal setting regime with the requirements Buckland School examples from the HSE's last focussed. offshore programme, Key Programme 3 (KP3) Asset Integrity (HSE, 2008). Between 2004 and 2007 HSE Inspectors.

visited almost 100 installations across 33 duty holders to investigate and. evaluate management and tips Stenden of Applied Sciences maintenance of safety-critical elements (SCEs). A standardised survey was conducted that. assessed 17 management elements and tested a selection of SCEs. Write An Expository Introduction Algonquin College. The performance of each installation in each management. element and test was marked using a traffic light system. In this classification a red traffic light. was defined as: Non-compliance with. legislation; Major failing of system (hardware or management) or partial.

failure with a history of failure; Minded to serve notice Overall, across all installations. and management elements, 8% fell into the red category of non-compliance and. further 31% were classed as amber, defined as an of Applied Sciences, isolated failure or incomplete system . The element with the highest. non-conformance for how write essay Cologne, all installations was ‘maintenance of SCEs' where 22% of essay writing university Stenden University of Applied, installations received a red traffic light. grade and less than a third were given the green mark of compliance.

It is a serious problem that the equipment identified. as critical in preventing a major accident is not being maintained properly. across the majority of essay procedure School, installations inspected. It is also concerning that the. lessons from past incidents do not appear to have been heeded. When safety critical systems were tested by. the HSE, a significant number were classed as non-compliant (red traffic light) including those identified as key safety systems in the recommendation from the.

public inquiry into University of Applied, the Piper Alpha disaster. HVAC systems had the greatest proportion of non-compliances at 35% of. those tested (Health and harvard school Arts Safety Laboratory, 2009). Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. There were some interesting. findings in the HSE’s KP3 Asset Integrity Programme described in my previous.

Although there are no identifying. company data in the research report produced by the HSE (2008), companies with assigned. codes so that the ratings of companies and their installations could be. As might be expected, some. companies outperformed others: three companies achieved over 90% green ratings. while three has less than 40% green. More surprisingly perhaps is that, when looking at the performance of individual installations, there was. generally marked variation within companies. For example, one of the worst performing installations in terms of management. elements (zero green, 6 amber, 10 red) was part of the same company as one of.

the top-ranking installations (15 green, 1 amber). I believe this hints at the. complexity of managing SCEs – if it was simple each company would likely have. more consistent results across their assets. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Looking at some of the issues. raised during KP3 (HSE, 2008) may go some way to explain the complexity I. mentioned in a previous post. Maintenance of SCEs was found to.

be poor with work overdue or deferred often due to resource constraints and the. resources directed to drilling and project programmes. This could be seen as the. operator wishing to focus on profit rather than safety, but consider that it. was also found that in essay, the reporting of maintenance backlogs, etc to article of Glasgow senior. management it was not clear regarding safety critical equipment. Furthermore, a general lack of understanding. of the role of SCEs in preventing major accident hazards was also. uncovered.

In addition, the engineering. function within companies was found to lack authority. Essentially then the message that. something needs to be done is not getting through, when it is the implication. is not necessarily understood and the people who do understand are not in a. position to insist it gets done.

While this is a major simplification. of just some of the factors at work, but I hope it illustrates that there are. multiple, interlinked causes behind the essay of Applied poor performances identified in the KP3. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

I mentioned in a previous post. that in how write essay Business School, the UK the HSE can and do take action when an essay tips Stenden, operator is failing in. their responsibility to manage safety offshore. In 2010, the HSE issued 33. improvement notices and 4 prohibition notices (HSE, 2012) to oil gas. companies (operators, facilities management companies and research drilling. companies). A similar number were issued. in 2011: 39 improvement notices and 2 prohibition notices. This data can be viewed in two. ways.

It’s concerning that duty holders. are failing to writing tips university University Sciences comply with their safety responsibilities, especially when the. failure has been so significant that they must be forced to stop. operations. On the other hand it’s. positive to see that the regulator will step in when is essay Cologne Business School, sees those failings and. will take action when there is a risk to the safety of offshore personnel. Some posts in essay tips University Sciences, this forum have. suggested that the UK’s goal setting regime gives operators too much. responsibility for safety, but I believe this shows that the state does play an.

active role and will take action when it does not think the operator is. adequately managing the risks offshore. Reference: HSE (2012.) HSE Public Register of Enforcement Notices. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/notices/default.asp. [accessed 09 October 2012].

***Apologies for write a strong Abbey Cambridge, the formatting in these posts. It cannot be helped at university Stenden University this time but I will try to sort it later*** Claire, I am glad that you brought up your point about Independant Competent Person(s). I would very much like to add to The University of Glasgow the discussion on this point. I have found, and been told, that many of the ICP's, or at least many people that are ICP's may not be wholly competent in writing Sciences, the role they are trying to asses. Essay Bromsgrove School. Lots of ICP's are in fat just going by the regulations they have written down in front of them instead of writing tips university Stenden University, using the experience of the Cologne School people they are working with, or indeed the people they are auditing (or similar), to figure out essay tips University, whether a practice is safe. For example, if someone was to be assesing the safety of a vessel, they would go on board the vessel during a mobilisation or during it's down time and observe the conditions. However, the how to essay Abbey Cambridge better way to observe the safety of tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, a vessel is to be on board during operations. Watching the people go about their jobs as if you weren't there. However, the old adage of 'Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in his shoes' may be applicable here.

Someone who has never done a specific job can be the judge of someone who has done the job for years. The person who has done the job for years has built up all of these ways of making a job easier for himself, and then an ICP can come along and destroy all of his methods due to how to essay Abbey College safety concerns. On another point, I have always found the process of essay writing Stenden, 'Safety Inspections' to be quite flawed. As with any type of inspection, generally people are warned to be on how to write an expository essay introduction, their 'best behaviour', so I feel the true way to inspect for safety is to use some sort of remote system, ie cameras etc which can observe without people thinking they are being observed, only then do you get true behaviours. Benefits of Independent Competent Person.

Richard, you have raised a very good point on the ICP which is a reality from those experiences. There exists the writing tips frustration of the ICP simply going by the letter of the regulation. I guess the moot point, though, is does that mean that the operators are running foul of regulations? That said, I feel there is how write essay Cologne Business School, still a positive to having the ICP especially if they can engender the quality discussions that should go on between the ICP and the dutyholder on the condition of each Safety Critical Element. The responsibility for operating safely still sits squarely on the shoulder of the university University of Applied Duty Holder so a decision to either accept, consider or reject any ICP recommendation will need to be taken by operators as the duty holder. Duty Holders have personnel known as Technical Authority who must be technically competent and are responsible for evaluating and making engineering and other technical judgements on the operations of safety critical elements . In my opinion, the best way to obtain an The University, advantage from this relationship is to have a sort of “constructive tension” between the ICP and essay writing of Applied Sciences the Duty Holder to ensure there is a continuous challenge both ways. With regards to the issue of competency, this is quite a big issue which applies to not just the ICP but the oil gas industry as a whole and will take not only the operators and regulators but all stakeholders to requirements West Buckland School establish competency frameworks for the industry. To further comment on the issue of “Safety Inspections” raised by Richard, it is evident that having a third party outside of a task with oversight on the task helps to highlight issues the essay university Stenden University of Applied team working on the activities are blindsided to which is where the concept of supervision comes from. The level of awareness to an unsafe condition is usually diminished due to the focus on the task at hand. Whilst safety inspections may not be totally effective for write a strong essay, the reasons mentioned, I think the idea of snooping-in on people remotely on cameras whilst at work may not go down so well with a lot of offshore workers.

I feel this “big-brother” approach will not encourage the sort of open and honest behaviours and just culture needed for a safe organisation. On the other hand, safety inspections being conducted by another member of the team rather than a safety personnel may help in simulating the essay tips University work circumstance is as close to reality as possible or the use of a buddy system that allows Safety Interventions from within the team may be a more effective means of preventing personnel from taking short-cuts. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. I agree with Claire's comment on offshore installations (Safety Case) regulations with respect to safety-critical elements. It has been well researched that major offshore accident and harvard publications Idyllwild Academy hazards could have been avoided if strict compliance and essay writing of Applied Sciences best industry practice were observed and implimented to detail and specifications but the challenge is often cutting corners and human factors. Attending the last GASECH 2012 CONFERENCE in London where I listened to a presentation of LNG Shipment and Bunkering risks and challenges by the Llyods Register, I then appreciate the need for The University of Glasgow, stringent compliance to offshore HSE regulations. There are always releases of hydrocarbons during tieing in via loading and offloading of gas, fuel or diesel and essay writing University this a major challenge to the industry.

However, operations are faced with no choice than to keep the environment safe by The University of Glasgow, managing the inherent hazards in all their operations. With the golden era of essay University, SHALE GAS and Floating Liquidified Natural Gas (FLNG), the risk level will ultimately rise and call for critical survelliance by regulators and coastal agencies to checkmate the activities oil and gas bunkering. Safety and Risk Management in Oil Gas Industry. The UK Oil Gas industry has witnessed. some significant disasters such as Piper Alpha. Despite this, it is a global. leader in safety management. The University. The need to reduce the writing Stenden University of Applied number of accidents and improve. safety standards is well understood throughout the industry if a repeat disaster.

is to be avoided. At the writing procedure School core of the industry’s safety. management campaign is the goal setting regulatory framework which tackles. responsible and effective major hazard management. Joined-up working and information. are tools also used to openly report on safety performance and learn from past. Given the UK’s ageing offshore. infrastructure, appropriate attention must be given to ensure asset integrity as.

the industry pushes for life extension of these assets. Hydrocarbon releases. must also be lowered in order to achieve the industry-set reduction target (cited. MSc Oil Gas Engineering. Safety and Risk Management in writing of Applied Sciences, the oil industry. At Jesse (Geographical coordinates 5.870? N, 5.750?E) a town in the Oil rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria on the 17th of October, 1998 an oil pipeline belonging to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and served as a link between an writing procedure, oil Refinery in essay writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, the south. eastern town of Warri and the Kaduna Refinery in the Northern part of the country was engulfed by fire. The fire could only be extinguished after five days by a United State company with Nitrogen-rich foam. Essay Bromsgrove. It took the essay writing tips university University of Applied life of over article research The University of Glasgow, 1200 people including children, youths, and. adults.

It is indeed a great disaster. It was found out that the essay writing university Stenden of Applied cause of the fire was as a result of leakage from a pipeline. The pipeline was laid in the early 70s and ought to have been changed. It was also discovered that there were no safety devices on write essay College, the pipeline as it was designed with old technology. It was finally concluded that the cause of the fire was due to ageing of the pipeline and lack of maintenance by the company involved. This is a clear result of lack of Risk and Safety management if the pipeline has been properly maintained and replaced by the required time this disaster would have been averted. After the incidence it was recommended that the essay university of Applied Sciences pipeline be replaced and remidiation be carried out on the spilled area of land and The University the families of the victims be duly compensated. Wasting Lives [Reports by Doifie Ola and David Eighemhenrio] The importance of facility layout in managing risk. I would like to generate some discussion around the issues to be considered in the layout of a new facility so as to minimise the risk to personnel working on the facililty. Below are a number of considerations, please expand on my discussion thread with other issues you think should be considered:

Physical separation of writing university Stenden University of Applied, safe areas from high risk areas. It is important when designing a new facility that you maximise the separation distance between areas where personnel will regularly be stationed, and high risk process areas. On an offshore platfrom this often means having the drilling/wellhead area at the opposite end of the platform (or on write essay introduction Algonquin, a separate bridge linked platform) from the Accommodation module. In doing so you minimise the likelihood of major accident events in the wellbay area from impacting personnel within the accommodation module. The required separation distance can determined through the use of fire and explosion modelling softwares to determine potential jet fire distances and essay writing university Stenden Sciences blast overpressures. Siting of Cologne Business, large volumes of hazardous liquids. In designing an offshore platform, large process vessels and containers for storage of writing tips University Sciences, hazardous chemicals should preferrably be situated on a lower deck, such that in the event of a loss of containment, the liquids drain to the sea rather than cascading onto equipment below. In the event of requirements West, a fire, having a large vessel leaking flammable liquids onto equipment below greatly increases the essay tips university Stenden University Sciences likelihood of escalation and should be avoided if possible. Essay Procedure Bromsgrove School. If this is not possible then installation of a plated deck with appropriate bunding and essay university University Sciences hazardous closed drains can be used to safely transport any flammable liquids away from an area, thus reducing the likelihood of fire.

One such example of a hazardous inventory would be the flare knock out drum, this is a vessel which collects flammable liquids from the how to essay Abbey College Cambridge flare system. This vessel is usually situated on a lower deck of a platfrom such that the writing tips university Stenden University Sciences liquids can freely drain to the vessel, and so that in the event the vessel leaks that the inventory is released to sea rather than dripping down onto process equipment below. Congestion and confinement in offshore installations. Whilst in onshore oil and gas facilities the designer often has the harvard school publications Arts luxury of having a large land area upon which to layout the required equipment, for offshore platforms the emphasis is university Stenden of Applied Sciences, very much on minimising the footprint to remain within the limits of the jacket structure. To do this requires the stacking of multiple decks to house the required process and utilities equipment. In doing this you greatly increase the level of confinement as you essentially box in volumes of space which have the potential to fill with flammable vapours in the event a leak occurs.

Fitting all of the required equipment in a small area also increases the congestion within the area. These two factors, confinement and congestion, have an procedure Bromsgrove, impact on the explosion overpressures experienced in essay university of Applied Sciences, the event of delayed ignition of a flammable gas cloud. Confinement and congestion aid in accellerating the blast overpressure wave, increasing its destructiveness. This can have a devastating effect on the immediate area and essay writing procedure lead to writing of Applied Sciences escalation due to Business School damage to tips university Stenden University surrounding equipment. In offshore facility design it is article of Glasgow, important to maximise the natural ventilation of a space in essay tips Stenden Sciences, order to minimise the likelihood of flammable gas clouds forming. This can be done through a number of means including:

- use of Business School, grated decks rather than plated decks to reduce confinement and encourage natural ventilation. - Orientation of equipment to minimise congestion. - Use of forced ventialtion in enclosed modules where natural ventialtion is not possible. These are just an example of the steps which can be taken to reduce the essay writing tips Stenden University likelihood, and consequence of an explosion offshore. Given the small footprint of an offshore platform it is often not possible to provide physical separation between process equipment in order to reduce the likelihood of harvard Idyllwild Arts, escalation. Instead, fire and blast walls are often used to segregate areas and reduce the impact of a fire or explosion in an area.

Fire and blast walls are structures which are designed to withstand the effects of a fire or explosion for a specified load and/or time period. In the design of an offshore facility it is imperitive that all hazards identified within an area are assessed. Stenden. This is often done through the procedure School use of fire and explosion modleling softwares to Stenden of Applied predict the magnitude and duration of an event given certain process conditions. How To College. This modelling then allows the designer to select an appropriate fire/blast wall design to ensure the wall remains intact for the required duration, thus minimising the likelihood of escalation. One example of the writing Stenden of Applied Sciences use of Business, fire/blast walls is in the design of an offshore temporary refuge. The purpose of a temporary refuge is to provide an area for personnel to muster to assess an event and decide on the appropriate means of escape or evacuation if required.

To enable personnel to take refuge the TR must be adequately designed to withstand the effects of foreseeable fires or explosions for a sufficent period of time for personnel to take the required action. The survivability of the TR is ensured through the use of fire/explosion proof cladding along with HVAC design. Evaluation- Performance monitoring and importnace. An important aspect of essay writing Stenden Sciences, Health and The University Safety Management is. Performance monitoring. Procedures to. monitor, measure and record OSH performance on a regular basis should be. developed, established and essay writing tips Stenden University of Applied periodically reviewed. Harvard Publications Idyllwild. Responsibility, accountability and authority for essay tips of Applied Sciences, monitoring at different levels in the. management structure should be allocated.

monitoring and measurement should: means of determining the writing Bromsgrove extent to which OSH policy and objectives are being. implemented and risks are controlled; active and essay University of Applied reactive monitoring, and not be based only upon work-related injury, ill-health, disease and incident statistics; and. to determine whether the article of Glasgow day-to-day arrangements for hazard and risk. identification, prevention and control are in place and operating effectively; for decisions about improvement in hazard identification and risk control, and. the OSH management system.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. Evaluation - Performance Monitoring and Importance. up to my earlier comment, I thought I would talk more on Active and Reactive. monitoring should contain the elements necessary to have a proactive system and.

of the achievement of specific plans, established performance criteria and. systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plant and equipment; of the working environment, including work organisation; surveillance of workers' health, where appropriate, through suitable medical. monitoring or follow-up of writing tips Stenden, workers for early detection of signs and harvard business symptoms of. harm to health in order to determine the effectiveness of prevention and. control measures; and. compliance with applicable national laws and regulations, collective agreements. and other commitments on OSH to which the organisation subscribes. monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of: injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence.

records), diseases and incidents; losses, such as damage to university Stenden property; safety and health performance, and OSH management system failures; and. workers' rehabilitation and health-restoration. Safety and Health.

Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001). and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18000). and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001/18002), BSI. uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. While I completely agree that more work needs to be done. about the industry’s response to writing procedure School the subject to be more proactive than. reactive; we need to keep in mind that it is humans like us that design, operate and maintain these systems. I attended the writing university of Applied LRET lecture by Cologne Business School, Prof Torgeir Moan this.

evening and have a new found respect for all the essay writing university of Applied work that goes into. ascertaining that these structures are safe. An accidental limit state is. factored in during the design phase. That is proactive. But there is only so. much man can do. Factors of safety will be incorporated but the welder might. have had a bad day and West Buckland forget to tighten a screw… These things cannot be. Ofcourse Inspections have got to be as regular as possible.

but these are still done by man. HSE has regulations that these companies. adhere to as their licences depend on it. As we blame the operators, regulators, the government and so. on, may we remember that some things can just not be anticipated. Writing University University Of Applied. The industry. learns from previous mistakes to make the an expository essay Algonquin College future operations safer.

Safety Environmental Management System. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) In United States, BSEE regulates how safe and environmentally sound are the Operator's method to extract oil. The Macondo blowout resulted in certain improvements to system, particularly that contractors must comply with SEMS. (We all know that Halliburton and Cameron were critically blamed along with BP and Transocean). In general, SEMS applies to all drilling, production, construction, well workover, well completion, well servicing, mobile offshore drilling units, and Stenden of Applied Sciences Department of Interior pipeline activities and is based on how to essay College Cambridge, the following element of previously voluntary API RP 75: - Safety and environmental information. - Management of change. - Safe working practices.

- Assurance of quality and mechanical integrity of critical equipment. - Emergency response and control. - Investigation of incidents. - Audit of SEMS elements. - Records and Documentation. Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) To further elaborate on the SEMS, Operators need to pass SEMS audit within two years of November 2011 and essay tips university every three years thereafter. SEMS plans are to be audited be an independent third Party. A Strong Essay Abbey College Cambridge. Needless to say that there is a number of companies providing such services (Lloyds Register, for example). BSEE's position is that continual improvement in safety requires best practices followed by implementation and evaluation.

It is the responsibility of operator management to ensure the goals and essay tips university performance measures are established for write essay College, their SEMS. (a good example of goal-setting legislation). Specifically operators must: - Verify that personnel, including contractors, have received proper training and have the skills and knowledge to perform their assigned duties* - Conduct design suitability studies when the original mechanical or process design information no longer exists** - Ensure a contractor's hazard assessment and JSA documents are revised and essay university updated to write College reflect changes in their SEMS program. - Have a copy of all of the contractor's Safe Work Practices and ensure they cover all SEMS covered tasks and operations. * Side note. 10 out of 11 people responsible for well control and who failed to detect gas kick on 8 March 2010 (blowout averted, however) were on duty on 20 April 2010 when Macondo blew out.

** Side note. Before 20 April 2010 BP engineers changed the steps of well temporary abandonment procedure several times . Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. And final note in regards of SEMS: If SEMS audit shows any non-compliance to the safety program, there could be fines imposed on the operator up to $35 000 / day until the subject is closed and, in severe cases, the whole facility could be shut down. Since it is University Sciences, obviously an Operator's nightmare, Safety and Environmental Management Program is a great risk mitigation incentive. There are six stages in the life of a structure and ca a-g West Buckland School all six. stages require inspection management. Essay Tips University Stenden Sciences. They are: Fabrication of the structure. Launch and installation.

In the design stage, previous designs will be reassessed to. ensure the harvard business school Idyllwild Arts same mistakes are not repeated. This include material selection, fabrication methods, installation. techniques, service life conditions and essay writing Stenden of Applied Sciences as part of integrated corrosion. management. Computer and ca a-g requirements often scaled. models are used to demonstrate and simulate conditions. Tips University Of Applied Sciences. Designs are made to accommodate lessons. learned from previous mistakes.

As. development continues, the amount of mistakes made should naturally reduce. however as has been mention during the lecturers, we also increasingly push the. boundaries and more complex designs are created which always keep us in. pioneering environment where mistakes can and do happen. Designs have to consider codes and business publications Idyllwild statutory rules. (instruments) in the UK for example. DCR SI 913 (1996) Design. and Construction Regulations. PSR SI 825 (1996) Pipeine. PFEER SI 743 (1995) Prevention.

of Fire, Explosion and Emergency Response. MAR SI 738 (1995) Management. and Administration Regulations. PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Provision. and Use of essay tips university University, Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment). The main aim of harvard business Idyllwild, these design considerations is to reduce. risk to being ;’As Low As Reasonably Practicable’. uchenna onyia 51232632.

MSc Subsea Engineering. Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and conversion. to its gaseous phase. Throughout the history of the LNG industry, there were no. major hazards, and mainly that is because of the reduced dangers that the. liquid has while it is stored and transfer. LNG is stored in special storage.

tanks at writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences -160 oC, (the liquefaction temperature of the natural gas), without putting any pressure. So the pressure that is School, safely kept in its liquid. form is 1 atm. This results that, if a storage tank brakes or cracks and the. LNG liquid leaks to the environment, there will be no ignition or explosion,

and thus there will be no danger to the surrounding environment. Also, when the LNG is going to be converted in to gas, it is. transferred from the special storage tanks of the ship to the tanks that the. natural gas can be stored to its gaseous phase. Essay Tips University Of Applied. While the LNG is stored in the. tanks, there is natural convection from the environment and the liquid is been. heated up until it becomes gas. When this.

procedure takes place and the liquid starts to become gas, it creates a fog- a. vapor cloud- which can be igniting only if there is an ignition source. For this, safety devices and operational procedures are intended to minimize the. probability of a release of a vapor cloud. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. and Risk management in oil and gas industry. In the oil and gas industry. finding oil and essay introduction supplying it is not the only concern companies have. Safety is.

also a very important issue. Every day accidents occur on. the oil rigs and also while oil and gas is being transport. environmental issues must be concerned also. Steps should be taken for any. instrument malefaction because if any problem will take place oil and essay writing university University Sciences gas leak. is very pollutant. Companies nowadays are using.

a system for managing safety issues for the safety of The University of Glasgow, their workers, the. company it’s self and of course the environment. There are several ways to. ensure safety in the industry. Trained staff should be in. charge for safety issues and monitoring the working environment. Essay Tips Stenden Of Applied. There must be. a frequent maintenance and emergency plans on oil rigs. A good way to harvard avoid any. accidents is to learn from previous disasters and some mistakes should be.

Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and. conversion to its gaseous phase. Inside the LNG storage tanks, the liquids that are introduced. sometimes are from different densities and for that, several layers of the liquid. are created.

The liquid with the higher density goes to the bottom and the. lighter to the top. The heat from the side walls leaks inside to the top layer. and the tips Sciences heat from the side walls and from the bottom walls warms up the heavier. liquid. Once the heat warms up the bottom liquid, it starts to evaporate and. because of the hydrostatical pressure the vapor is superheated and may cause sudden. increase of pressure in the tank. Write Essay Algonquin College. This phenomenon is called rollover. This excess.

pressure may result to essay writing tips Stenden University Sciences crack or other structural failures of the tank and to. avoid this to happen; the density of the liquid that is introduced in how to write essay introduction Algonquin, the tanks. is always measured and if the density is different the essay tips university liquid is unloaded. accordingly. LNG tanks have rollover protection systems, which include. distributed temperature sensors and pump-around mixing systems. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering.

Is training of offshore rig personnel always adequate? We all know how important training is for the operation of Buckland School, complicated and sophisticated piece of equipment. Especially when mishandling it might result in catastrophic damages. There is no doubt offshore rig personnel undergoes extensive training and get numerous internationally recognized certificates. Huge number of companies provide training up to IADC standards, which are set to give Operators and contractors confidence in the knowledge that every program is tips university Stenden University of Applied, subject to review and evaluation by independent parties. [1]. Transocean, as the essay Abbey world's largest offshore drilling contractor, probably has the best and most extensively trained people in charge of well control. It known for a fact, however [2], that on March 8, 2010 The Deepwater Horizon crew had experienced a kick that went undetected for approximately 30 minutes. A kick is tips university Stenden Sciences, result of wellbore pressure that may suddenly force mud back up the how write essay Cologne Business wellbore with considerable. Essay Writing University University Sciences. Early kick detection is critical to maintaining well control and obviously crew members monitor various sensors on the rig that show fluid volumes and well pressures and analyze the data on electronic displays to identify potential kicks, among other things. BP did not conduct an Idyllwild Arts Academy, investigation into the reasons for essay tips university University Sciences, the delayed detection of the kick.

Transocean personnel admitted to BP that individuals associated with the. March 8 kick had screwed up by not catching the kick. Moreover, ten of the 11 individuals on duty on March 8, who had well control responsibilities, were also on requirements West, duty on April 20 during Macondo blowout. On the top of that, everyone on writing university, board the Deepwater Horizon was obligated to follow the harvard publications Arts Academy Transocean stop work policy that was in place on April 20, which provided that each employee has the writing Stenden of Applied obligation to interrupt an operation to prevent an incident from occurring. How To Write An Expository College. There were a number of reasons that the rig crew could have invoked stop work authority, yet no individual on the Deepwater Horizon did so on April 20 [2]. So the question remains - is training sufficient and adequate? 2. BOEMRE report on tips University, Macondo Blowout. Oil and Gas industry has evolved from a very basic setup. As the product cost was very high,it lead to furious development of the industry. Keeping these things in mind industry has also framed various standards to make sure that the design, manufacturing, processes, installation,maintenance etc are safe. There are organizations like DNV, API, ASME, IS etc which keep the data of essay writing procedure, them and update the standards regularly.

It can also be obseved that industry updates there standards after every 3-6 months, which prove that we have not learned everything. It can be arguemented so because in well furnished industries like automobile or aerospace the industry standards are now the bible in the sector. Eg. DNV 2.22 has been updated regularly after 3 months in lasttwo roll outs where as Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have there standards fixed since 1987 in essay writing tips Sciences, terms of automotive field. The point where I want to throw the light is that since the STANDARDS which are supposed to writing procedure control the Oil Gas activities from concept to installation and then to writing tips university University of Applied decommissioning are still floating, which proves that all the requirements West School aspects of safety and essay university Stenden health are not fully in practice. How To A Strong. Hence its a responsibility of the companies to writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences carry out third party verification for them to how to write essay Algonquin ensure HS. Potential health hazards due to exposure to essay writing tips university mercury. Potential health hazards due to exposure. to mercury in the oil and how write essay Cologne School gas industry. Mercury is an element that can be.

found by the oil and gas process. Essay Tips University Stenden University. This element can cause health hazards to anyone. that is exposed on it by inhalation, injection, ingestion or absorption through. the skin. In the how to College oil and gas industry the mercury is removed from the university University other.

liquids and it is carefully treated so that it can be used for how to write Cambridge, other uses like switches. (such as thermostats), Transmitters, Paints and fungicides. Tips University University Sciences. The mercury that is. coming into the process stream can be trapped from engineering controls – which. are chemicals that absorb this element and do not let it proceed into the. As we mentioned before, the mercury. had potential health hazards and to how write essay Business avoid contact with mercury, the workers that. are unprotected must be kept far from the essay tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences places where mercury vapor is. gathered in high levels.

Furthermore, the workers must be educated in order to. know how to use the protective equipment from mercury and must be taught on how. they should prevent the exposure on mercury. Finally, special equipments measure constantly. the levels of mercury in the air. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Probabalistic approach to fire safety. I read a very interesting article the other day in October’s issue of “The Naval Architect” which, I think closely relates to reliability concepts we are reviewing in Safety Engineering course. There is a Research project called FIREPROOF which intends to change approach to fire safety as it is currently addressed in the main document promoting safety of essay Cologne School, life at sea (SOLAS convention). SOLAS, which is applicable to Passenger / Cargo ships, Drill ships and essay tips of Applied Sciences Mobile Offshore Drilling Units uses probabilistic approach for research The University, calculation of damage stability in writing university Stenden University, its Ch.

II-1 , but deterministic in Ch II-2 which deals with fire safety. The project’s objective is to develop a Risk-Based approach to fire safety, taking into consideration a number of Algonquin College, novel designs for ships and drill ship which will emerge due to global economy downturn and resulting competition of shipbuilders. In a nutshell, the Risk can be summarized by the formula: fr(N)=SUM OVER n SPACES of fr(space i) x pr(space i) x pr(N/space i), where. fr(N)-frequency of N fatalities per essay writing tips university Sciences, ship-year. fr(space i) – frequency of ignition in a space i per write essay introduction Algonquin, ship-year. pr(space i) – probability of fire escalation. pr(N/space i) - probability of experiencing N fatalities due to fire in space i.

Risk can therefore be represented in conventional Potential Loss of Life or F-N curves. The researchers used a number of writing tips university Stenden of Applied, modern software to account for various scenarios of high and a strong Abbey College low consequences of fire ignition and escalation. Ultimately, FIREPROOF framework will be submitted to IMO subcommittee for discussion. can be good. Without risk, there would be no reward ”. The purpose of the. risk management is not to eliminate risk, but to essay tips university of Applied understand it so that you can. take advantage of the upside and minimise the downside. exploration and production activities have many hazards and hazardous events. associated with them. “Safety first” is the most common phrase used in this.

industry. Essay Algonquin College. The oil and gas industry invests a lot of money in safety and these. investments have resulted in a steady improvement in safety performance. Of. course, accidents still happen despite this. The attention of the risk. management in oil and essay tips University gas industry is focussed on safety of the personnel and. the installation, prevention of environmental damage and production regulatory. Risk assessment, which include: risk identification, risk analysis and risk.

evaluation, is a key element in a risk management process. For offshore. operations in the North Sea, performance of risk assessments is required. In. Norwegian waters, this is covered by regulations issued by Norwegian Petroleum.

Directorate (NPD) and Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), and in harvard publications, UK waters by. HSE’s safety case regulations. Helicopter Accident 22/10/2012 (two days back) Two days earlier an unfortunate incident took place. A CHC helicopter flying from Aberdeen to West Phoenix Oil Platform collapsed in to the water. The incident took place when helicopter was performing ditching operations. It is assumed that the reason was low flying and rough sea or fuel error or anything else. The location of crash was 32 miles South-West from tips University of Applied, Shetland.

There were 19 people aboard and 3 were from Oceaneering. Write An Expository Essay Introduction. All the people were extracted from the helicopter and were transfered on life shafts. Essay Tips Stenden Of Applied. Luckily there were vessels nearby which helped in rescue mission, also the rescue helicopters were operating appriciably. All the people were safe including pilot and co-pilot and reached the mainland safe and ca a-g requirements West Buckland sound today evening (24th October 2012). Oil and Gas Union is now raising question for tips university of Applied Sciences, the safety in north sea. Agencies are actively looking into the issue and helicopter is getting towed to the mainland, investigation will follow once its on the aberdeen land. More information on 22/10 helicopter incident. Some further information on the CHC helicopter incident. A controlled ditch was performed by the pilots of the G-CHCN Super Puma EC225 LP after warnings that of article research of Glasgow, a failure of the lubrication system of the main gearbox (AAIB, 2012a). First an University of Applied, indicator light came on warning that the duty and standby lubrication pumps had failed, then, shortly after the pilots initiated the harvard school Idyllwild Arts Academy appropriate procedure to engage the emergency lubrication system, the essay writing Stenden of Applied warning light came on that indicated the failure of the how write Business School emergency lubrication system. The investigation being carried out by the Air Accident Investigation Branch (AIBB) is still in the early stages, but initial investigation of the gearbox components has found a full 360 degree circumferential crack on essay writing Stenden University Sciences, the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox, near the weld joining the two parts of the harvard business publications Idyllwild Academy shaft.

This type of shaft is found in all EC225 as well as some AS332 L1 and L2 helicopters. What is particularly important to note is that a similar ditching of the same type of Super Puma helicopter in May 2012 occurred after warnings that both the main and writing Stenden emergency gearbox lubrication systems failed (AAIB, 2012b). The early investigation into that incident also found a 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the requirements West main gearbox (the cause is still being investigated). Following the May incident the European Aviation Safety Agency issued an emergency airworthiness directive on AS 332 and EC 225 helicopters that required helicopter operators to writing University of Applied check vibrational health monitoring data related to the gearbox. However, this only applied to how to write a strong Cambridge specific part and serial numbers - which did not include that of the writing university University of Applied Sciences G-CHCN. The airworthiness directive is research The University, being urgently reviewed, but this could have been too late for University of Applied Sciences, the 19 people on board the G-CHCN helicopter. Is should be critical to business school Idyllwild Academy the on-going investigations that the reasons for limiting the most stringent vibration monitoring to writing University of Applied certain part numbers is reviewed.

AAIB. (2012a) Special Bulletin S6/2012 - EC225 LP Super Puma, G-CHCN [Online]. Available at http://www.aaib.gov.uk/cms_resources.cfm?file=/S6-2012%20G-CHCN.pdf [Accessed 28th October 2012] safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. and risk management in the oil and gas industry has always been a major issue. and a stand-point for procedure Bromsgrove, major oil industry disasters. Ranging from the of Applied Sciences deepwater. horizon to the famous piper alpha accident, it has always been one of reactive. rather than proactive approach. After the keep it flowing people. incident, the later regulations demanded that for every installation, there. must be a document to demonstrate how risks had been identified, the nature of.

the control measures to be employed and the adequacy of these measures in. providing safe working conditions. Now, the point is that the regulator who has. certified these documents will not be on the platform on daily basis to see to. the effective implementation, thus, it lies on the duty holder and its. me i would rather that these measures be carried out with all sincererity of. purpose for it is only by adherence to the principles and technologies in place.

that accidents may be prevented as employers always blame major accidents on. Reactive and proactive risk reduction. It is easy to article research The University say that companies and tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences regulators are reactive and not proactive. However it is immeasurable to quantify the number of accidents that didn't happen due to a piece of proactive legislation or implemented safety procedure. Much of today's safety barriers and procedures result from write an expository introduction Algonquin College, risk based analysis using probabilities of accidents occurring. Previous accident statistics will be used to calculate probabilities.

Unless an accident happens, if it is university University Sciences, already perceived to be highly unlikely, there is essay writing, no motivator to increase risk reduction measures. If the unthinkable occurs due to a sequence of unlikely events the essay writing Stenden Sciences risk must be re-evaluated as the probability has changed. Be responsible for article, your own safety. Many of the authors within this thread seem to believe that safety can somehow be prescribed or legislated. Tips Sciences. There seems to be an underlying belief that a few more laws or a few more regulators will keep us safe. Essay Writing School. It appears as if there's a desire to writing tips university of Applied Sciences have an army of regulators looking over each workers shoulder ready to business correct them should they stray into unsafe behaviors. The fallacy with this argument is that laws and even regulators are not responsible for our safety. We are all responsible for our own safety and the safety of those around us. Though it may seem a bit cliche, I found it to be true no matter what industry you work in.

It is normally fairly easy to spot a safety minded company. They are normally the ones in which the employees drive safety from the bottom up rather than management droning on and on about their latest safety initiatives. The employees are empowered to make changes and even stop production should the need arise. Excellent point on essay Stenden University of Applied, personal responsibility in how to write an expository introduction, assuring safety. I work in Classification Society and my site office is located inside a major South Korean Shipyard. HSE policy here is of utmost importance and writing university of Applied safety record for lost time incidents is harvard school publications Idyllwild Academy, almost perfect, which is one of the reasons why customers like Stena Drilling, PDC, Maersk Drilling, Chevron, Shell and others praise it so much. But one of the key contributors to safety in all the writing tips of Applied Sciences major Korean shipyards is people mindset. Full PPE at write Abbey College all times is a must (Safety shoes, overalls, gloves, goggles, hard hat, ear plugs and even full body harness always). Scaffolding constructed with highest level of integrity. Everyone, from welder to foreman will clean the working area regularly to avoid accumulation of residues on which person could trip. And of course the Stop policy - should anyone spot even possibility of danger it will be immediately reported.

Be careful, diligent, attentive, think about yourself and others - that's the key. Safety and Risk management in oil and Gas Industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in our working Environment. This is done by carrying out risk analysis of the system in all stages of operation: Design, Fabrication, Installation, Operation /Production and essay writing Stenden of Applied decommission. It helps to ensure that all possible failures are identified and mitigated as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP before commencement and during operation for safe and smooth running of the system. While agreeing with Mr Adavis that employees are responsible for their safety and that of others around them, his opinion to do not take into consideration systemic failure of the system due to poor design, failure of component as a result of sharp practices or standards not being adhere to. Corrosion is another major challenge of oil installation in the sea, how does one manage such safely if not adhering to legislation be it prescriptive or safety case. In conclusion, Legislations like the Offshore Safety Case Regs.2005, Health Safety at Work etc. Writing Procedure School. Act 1974 and the PFEER Reg. 1995 are meant to guide our activities and the Integrity of Installations or equipment used while Working safely help reduces occupational hazard and fatalities. It's true that I didn't address the methodology behind how we as engineers ensure that our designs are safe for the public in general.

However, I believe you're missing the point which is essay writing tips university Stenden, laws and regulations don't make us safe. When I design an apparatus or a piece of equipment, I review the safety aspects not because it's legislated but because its the right thing to do. It's the way I was taught and I truly would be horrified if something I had designed harmed someone due to my negligence. There are many tools I use to ensure a safe design. However, very few of those tools are regulations or laws. Most are simply good engineering practices. Don't get me wrong. Ca A-g School. I do believe legislation has a place in the world. I wouldn't want to live in anarchy.

Laws, Regulations, Industry Specifications are all useful tools to essay writing University of Applied help us keep safety in mind. However, they do nothing to ensure safety. Words on a piece of paper or computer won't keep you safe, unless someone chooses to review and follow them. Individuals have to decide to be safe and keep others safe. In fact, I could argue that too many regulations can be detrimental to safety. I'm sure we can all think of examples of regulations that have grown to article The University of Glasgow the point of being incomprehensible. A regulation or law can sometimes grow to the point where it takes a team of people just to essay tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences understand it. At that point, it's not much use to us as engineers.

I truly believe every accident/injury can be avoided. However to accomplish this, we all have to change the how to write essay introduction College way we view safety. We have to think about safety at home, at work, as we walk through the airport. US/Canada regulatory framework comparison. It touches upon risks and regulations in deepwater drilling. Two authors from United States and two from Canada review current legislation in US and Canada and have a debate in the end of the paper. Both groups, however recommend (surprise-surprise) a move towards more goal-setting regulatory system in the US . Particularly, they emphasize significant differences between these two countries in national versus regional control, in prescriptive versus goal-based regulation, in penalties imposed on companies for infractions, and in the degree of independence granted to the safety regulator. So first off - US regulatory system. Significant changes were introduced into the regulatory framework post-Macondo. The late Mineral Management Service (MMS), which was understaffed, having only one inspector for every 54 offshore facilities in the Gulf of essay tips university Stenden of Applied, Mexico Region and didn't even have a comprehensive handbook addressing inspector roles and writing procedure School responsibilities, was replaced by three separate federal bodies , each with clearly defined responsibilities: to collect revenues (the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)), to manage development (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)), and to essay tips university of Applied Sciences enforce safety precautions (Bureau of article of Glasgow, Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)).

Offshore regulation by tips university University of Applied, the Mineral Management Service (MMS) had generally been highly prescriptive. An Expository Essay College. There were hundreds of pages of technical requirements that offshore operators were supposed to follow on specific issues, yet with advance of drilling technologies these specific prescriptive regulations became increasingly outdated. MMS failed to keep up with industry changes and, where possible, took shortcuts. There was also a historical weakness as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 which exempted leases in the western and central Gulf from the development and production plan requirement and, therefore, the essay writing university Stenden of Applied environmental review. After DWH, BOEMRE introduced the Workplace Safety Rule, which requires offshore oil and gas operators to create and maintain Safety and Environmental Management Systems (or SEMS). This rule introduces p erformance-based standards which move away from emphasizing prescriptive regulations and toward a regulatory environment more similar to the safety case requirement in the United Kingdom. BOEMRE also has instituted a Drilling Safety Rule and requirements School the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee was created as a permanent body of experts to provide guidance on offshore safety, well containment, and spill response. To better prepare its employees, BOEMRE has established the National Offshore Training Center and has developed its first formal training curriculum for new inspectors. However, authors emphasize that unlike in writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, other major developed nations such as Canada, the ca a-g requirements Buckland School United Kingdom, and Norway, the U.S. system still basically constitutes a prescriptive, top-down regulatory system . While this prescriptive system has some benefits, particularly as it gives the federal government the authority to specify exact requirements, it has trouble staying current in light of the rapidly changing nature of the offshore industry. Also, a strictly prescriptive approach discourages any innovation.

By contrast, a goal-based system encourages operators to find better, more innovative ways to achieve safety standards. Another issue is the liability cap for the United States which remains at $75 million. By contrast, in the United Kingdom, for example, where average penalties are also relatively low, the potential penalty for a breach is unlimited. In addition, in writing Stenden University Sciences, both Norway and the United Kingdom, serious non-fatal safety breaches can be criminal charges punishable through imprisonment of key executives. Authors concluded that the United States has made strong progress in strengthening the framework for harvard school Arts, offshore drilling but suggest that further improvements could be made.

Canadian system, which allows the provinces and territories to collect royalties; gives developmental, regulatory, and safety responsibilities to joint federal-provincial boards; and essay writing University of Applied allots major decision-making power to local populations. The boards generate guidelines, while the provincial and ca a-g West Buckland School federal governments work together to writing Stenden University draft amendments to legislation and regulations. Each of the requirements Buckland School National Energy Boards is Sciences, tasked with the regulatory responsibility to ensure safety, protection of the environment, and proper exploitation of the resources. The Board has no part in the establishment or administration of royalties or taxes for harvard business, any offshore activity and essay university University Sciences therefore does not promote the Industry. After the Deepwater Horizon incident in write an expository Algonquin College, the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the Senate of Canada concluded that the regulation of the industry is more than adequate . It specified three Canadian advantages in particular: - Effective January 1, 2010, Canada moved from writing university Stenden of Applied, prescriptive to goal-oriented regulation, which involves the regulator setting goals and specifying outcomes, but not the means of achieving compliance.

- The shared federal and provincial jurisdiction over the boards means that the persons most affected by drilling (the residents of the adjacent provinces) have a significant voice in decisions. - The boards have no role in the collection of royalties. Also, a Certificate of Fitness issued by a third-party certifying authority is to operate all the equipment on a drilling installation. How Write Cologne School. If a single underlying certificate or permit cannot be obtained, the essay writing Stenden Sciences Certificate of Fitness is canceled. In final argument authors point out requirements School, how difficult it will be for the US to roll-out goal setting approach. They mention that any rapid increase in the size of a regulatory bureaucracy presents a number of essay tips University of Applied, risks. More staff and introduction College the fundamental restructuring of multiple departments can easily lead to essay writing tips organizational chaos. Important questions are: How difficult will it be to staff and train three bureaus rather than one?

How will these regulators establish boundaries among their separate authorities? How to how write balance potential conflict of interests with multiplicity of essay writing, regulators? Authors cast doubt on the idea of ca a-g, creating more regulators and emphasize, that without a structured process , there is a considerable risk that the objectives in the new goal-oriented regulation will follow the old prescribed regulations, or even change for essay university University Sciences, the sake of change. Risk Management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk is an essential part in the oil industry. Failure to manage risk can bring an requirements, end to a Project. Essay University Of Applied. Risk is ca a-g requirements West School, any potential future event that may influence the achievement of a Project.

The main aim why we focus on Risk is to eliminate the Unfavourable downside risk. Essay Stenden Sciences. examples of Negative Impact are : Increased cost, Disruptions to schedule,Reduced quality,Reputation damage,Financial Penalities,Late Delivery and many more. There are alot of Benefits to Risk Management: Example, Fosters clear understanding of write an expository essay introduction College, challenges ahead.Mitigation of writing tips Stenden of Applied, risk is all about taking the right step at the initial start of the Project. HSE goals should be : NO ONE GETS HURT AND NOTHING GETS HARMED . prevention of accidents in oil and gas sector. Oil and gas industry is vast very complex sectorand development is not easy there are many risk involves like technical risk ,construction risk,technology risk, operational risk ,regulatory risk,workers risk including various types working at height, chemical exposure etc and writing School it iscomplicated to essay tips university Stenden University of Applied prevent the occurrences of incident/accidents. owner, operators,contractors, and suppliers working in petroleum industry all must find innovative solutions to minimize complexity and risk in these massive undertakings, as it becomes a top priority to have all players on a project team work more closely together. to prevent the occurrences of accidents If we Compared Incidents/accidents with past we can see that there is rapid industrial development it reflects less awareness of safety measures to essay School workers has led to a high rate of incidents/accidents. Faiza khatri M.Sc oil and gas engineering.

I agree with this topic motto need, and by saying that i would like to share a recent development on the Statoil Norwegian North Sea Njord field platform that was evacuated this afternoon. http://www.newsinenglish.no/2012/11/07/hundreds-airlifted-off-tilting-platform/ Instead of writing tips university Sciences, trying to fix the problem with all onboard, statoil considered to be a serious matter and in my view correctly opted to minimise its risk by maintaining strictly needed personel on board to try and how to write an expository essay introduction stabilize the problem. We cant forget that the essay tips university Stenden main issue in the Nort Sea is the water temperature, which for a normal person with those temperatures should only Cologne Business School last for university Stenden University, 5 or 10 minutes, therefore a quick moving fleet to essay procedure School evacuate was taken. The platform started tilting because one of the tanks an acnhor ruptured on of the balast the pontoons in the quarters area ruptured and starting filling up. Safety and risk management in industries. term safety has been used to tips Stenden University of Applied an extent that means to preclude the event of. failure. But in our world, every device, and even human life, is how to an expository Algonquin, bound to fail.

No matter how long it takes, the life of writing university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, everything comes to an end. Thus, it. has become a necessity that when one event is about to fail/end, it should not. lead to essay Cologne School the end of other events which had a, perhaps, longer time before its. In the oil industry, much care. has been taken to ensure that certain known factors do not cause events that. are likely to bring to an end, an otherwise long-living event. There have been. major failure events that have happened in the past and tips university University these are what have.

shaped the oil industry. Some of the hazards have been prepared for because. according to human and computational estimates, those were likely to happen. But. for those that there have been no previous knowledge, they are likely to be a. huge burden and more likely to happen. events are more likely to have able bodied resolutions to them than others. But.

the oil and gas industry is more reactive to how to write Abbey College major incidents. Although the. industry is quite old, it has not faced all possible hazards that are likely to. occur. In this regard, all institutions in charge of generating ideas to solve. major risks have resorted to tips Stenden University not being “prescriptive” in their ways of handling. safety and business Arts risk.

is usually the duty of business owners to evaluate every possible hazard and. risk at a worksite so as to inform their employees the possibility of danger. This directive is very well advised. It goes to essay writing Stenden of Applied benefit the government and also. help managers and owners of businesses to correctly protect those who are. helping them generate wealth. from HSE Lectures, EG50S1 and EG501D.

Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and gas Industry: The Oil and gas industry can be. said to be divided into ca a-g requirements West Buckland, three different sections i.e. upstream (exploration and. appraisal), midstream (production and transportation) and downstream (refining, petrochemical and decommissioning).From the early days of till date, this. industry has faced and still facing various safety and risk concerns in its. various sections. Over the last four decades several accidents have occurred as. a result negligence, equipment failure, improper training of staffs etc. As a result.

of these accidents, several laws have been passed in different regions in essay writing tips university of Applied Sciences, the. hope to prevent and eliminate these occurrences, despite these laws put in. place by the governments of different nations these events keep occurring e.g. the Gulf of Mexico Oil spill in 2011 resulting in The University of Glasgow, the death of 11 personnel’s. Comparing the UK Health and. safety Legislation to that of the essay writing tips university Stenden Norwegian government, that of the UK. government is built on a prescriptive approach i.e. it specifies the safety. measures to essay be carried out but does not give room for improved safety, innovation, changing industrial processes and it requires constant updating. Essay Writing University Of Applied. But that of. the Norwegian government is more of a goal setting approach i.e. it gives room.

for the identification of hazards, risk assessment and write Cambridge taking steps to. eliminate them. This other approach has its advantages and disadvantages but it. has been a better method used to university University prevent the occurrence of accidents in various. industries and it has given a better result than the prescriptive method.

Going through several papers. before writing this piece, I noticed other sectors of the oil and gas industry. were neglected, there was more focus on the offshore section of the upstream. section, but this doesn’t leave out the research of Glasgow fact that there have been several accidents. in other sections which have occurred onshore. Due to essay writing university University Sciences recent accidents in this. industry, I feel more countries should use the Business goal setting approach. legislation currently in university Stenden University, use by the Norwegian government to how to essay Algonquin reduce the amount. of accidents occurring in essay university University Sciences, this industry. 1) November 2008, J.S. How To. Munro,

An Overview of Regulating Offshore and Onshore Major Hazards. 2) March 2011, ERM, Sustainable. Solutions for the Oil and Gas Industry. Today's risk management system is HSE which assesses companies' performance on managing different types of risks. However, a new system may hopefully replace HSE in the future according to the report of International Association of Oil Gas Producers (OGP).

The Operating Management System (OMS) is currently been developing by a joint OGP-IPIECA Task Force. It is updating and expanding the guidance which had already been published in 1994. The OMS aims to decrease the probability of adverse consequences by providing a consistent approach to risk management by: Consolidating, in one place, the company's knowledge and requirements to safely and writing university Stenden University responsibly manage its assets and activities. Setting out a systematic process to be used throughout a company, with clear accountability, so that planned activities are carried out as intended. Measuring the success in implementing these activities. The revised OMS guidance is planned coming out at the end of this year. It will provide a flexible framework that companies can adopt, in a manner appropriate to their risks and business approach. OMS and the iied: shared value, shared resposibility.

A very relevant comment Liu Yishan: I clicked on your link and found a mountain of information about the OMS and an iied report. I particularly found the iied document: “shared value, shared responsibility” of an expository essay introduction Algonquin College, interest. It highlights that employee and contractor influence towards safety is increasing within the essay university oil and gas industry affecting the ca a-g Buckland environmental and social responsibilities of large organisations. The future vision of this document aims towards removing the “tick-box” mentality which hinders the implementation of essay tips university Stenden Sciences, good practice standards. However, I imagine that it would be very difficult to change many opinions away from thinking and operating the “tick-box” system.

This organisational change of behaviour would have to how write Cologne extent all the way down to the individual employees and contractors who (I have already mentioned) have a growing influence in their own methods of writing tips university, working. School Idyllwild Academy. Change would be a slow process, even with our current safety culture. MSc Subsea Engineering. Preventative measures are the essay tips Stenden of Applied most effective means of minimizing the how to an expository essay introduction College probability of equipment failure and its associated risk. Protection systems are not substitutes for well-designed and well-maintained detection, warning and shutdown systems. However, they can protect the structure and process equipment, limit damage to writing tips university Stenden of Applied these facilities and prevent escalation of fire.

Examples of Risk reduction measures implemented on existing installations include; prevention, detection, control, mitigation, and EER (Evacuate, Escape. For risks lying below the maximum tolerable, but above the broadly acceptable level, it is expected that: 1. the nature and level. of risks are properly assessed and an expository essay Algonquin the results used properly to determine control measures; 2. the residual risks are not unduly high and kept ALARP; and. 3. the risks are periodically reviewed to writing tips Stenden University of Applied Sciences ensure that they still meet the ALARP criteria. Duty holders should not assume that if risks are below the maximum tolerable level, they are also ALARP. This should be demonstrated through: 1. Requirements Buckland School. application of relevant good practice and sound engineering judgment; and. 2. Writing Tips University Stenden University. consideration of what further measures can be adopted to reduce risks ALARP.

In essence, the duty holder’s ALARP demonstration should address the question “What more could I do to reduce risks, and why haven’t I done it?” The degree of rigor of the ALARP demonstration should be proportionate to the level of risk associated with the how write essay School installation. In choosing between design options, duty holders should: 1. Essay University Stenden Sciences. consider risks throughout the whole life-cycle of the project; 2. choose the option which achieves the lowest level of residual risk, provided grossly disproportionate risks are not incurred; and. 3. confirm that the residual level of risk is no greater than that achieved by the best of harvard business Idyllwild Arts, existing practice for comparable functions. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Barriers to Stenden Sciences the development of a safety culture. management of safety and risk in how to an expository essay introduction Algonquin College, the oil industry is an writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, issue of great concern. With public concerns and activities of various pressure groups; there has been.

a drive in the industry to achieve near to perfect safe operations. This I believe. can happen by Cologne, practicing a safety and maintenance culture. Tips University. Safety Culture is. seen by many as a way of ensuring high levels of safety performance in. organisations, in contrast to the systematic engineered management of ca a-g requirements Buckland, hazards. and effects. They are mostly defined by values, beliefs, common working. practices and essay writing tips University of Applied Sciences response to essay Abbey College unusual situations. Writing Tips Of Applied Sciences. However, the development of.

safety culture experiences so many obstructions and I discuss a few of them. CULTURES: The levels of bureaucracy and red-tapes that exist in the oil. industry and health and safety regulations pose a great challenge which most. people are oblivious of. An organisation that has struggled to become proactive. may easily revert, especially in the face of success. Business Publications Idyllwild Arts Academy. At such levels of success. and development, hierarchical structures begin to break down under high tempo. operations.

This is mostly experienced when an organisation tries to transit. from ‘reactive to generative’. AND THE LAW: This may come as a surprise to most of writing tips university Stenden of Applied, us but the West School regulator is. also a form of barrier. Regulators are more inclined to the ‘letter than the.

spirit of the law. This can mean that regulators will not support experimental. improvements, which is typical of a proactive industry. Rather, they may set. high standards which are hard to meet and this can be an essay, obstacle for safety. FAILURE: A cultural change is very drastic and doesn’t happen overnight. Changes in top management may prevent the advancement of safety culture in an. organisation as priorities may also change. IS HARD: It is article research The University, very difficult for personnel to accept new situations which are. different from the university University normal standard procedures of operation.

This makes it. impossible for how to write a strong Cambridge, a new convention or code of practice to implemented or enforced, or in most cases take longer periods before they are incorporated into the. practice of essay tips university University of Applied, a well organised safety culture will to a very large extent manage. risk in Buckland, the oil and gas industry.

Though this may at times prove difficult and. costly, a good management practice can ensure they are well enforced. I recently attended an essay tips university, SPE. organised event where one of the Rig Managers at Archer Ltd. shared some of article The University of Glasgow, the. practices the operators emphasise to improve safety and reduce risk in the. risk-prone environment that they work. Below are the writing university Sciences points he. highlighted and referred to as ‘Focusing on Tempo’ Adjust the pace of operations to fit the least. proficient member Operate within the limits and capacity of the.

equipment Make the time to carry out necessary inspections. and maintenance All tasks shall be risk assessed, planned and discussed. The reason I bring this up is. because we have been so focused on what has not been done and are not appreciative. of the fact that with every setback or accident, the industry learns and puts. measures in place to make sure the occurrence of these unfortunate incidents is. The point to drive home from the. above listed points is this: In the everyday operation of the oil and gas.

production facilities, the workers and everyone involved realises the write an expository essay Algonquin eminent. risks associated with their operations. Essay Writing University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Therefore extra care and caution is. taken by every member of the how to team because one slip-up could lead to a potential. While regulations are made, it is. very important to remember that the observance of these to the letter by all. involved is the essay writing tips Stenden of Applied key to minimising the occurrence of accidents and ca a-g West improved.

I see that all my colleagues have with enthusiasm covered much of the writing tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences aspects of Safety in the Oil and essay writing Bromsgrove School Gas Industry and I’d like to essay writing tips university Stenden Sciences briefly refer to the safety training of the article The University of Glasgow individual worker within this industry. The minimum safety requirements are covered by the acronym ‘MIST’; this is the essay writing university of Applied Minimum Industry Safety Training and the expectation is that all workers are trained to competently undertake their professional duties, while being fully aware of the following main points with respect to safety: 1) To understand the writing procedure Bromsgrove hazards of working in an off shore environment. 2) To be able to work safely and follow all the safety regulatory measures. 3) To be able to assess the tips Stenden of Applied Sciences risks involved with their work. 4) Understanding the permit to work system. 5) A working knowledge of platform integrity.

6) Manual handling. 7) Control of Substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 8) Working at how write Business School height. 9) Mechanical lifting. These points are often referred to essay tips university of Applied as the 9 Elements of procedure, MIST. More advanced training covers Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training, known by the acronym ‘BOSIET’, this covers how to exit a helicopter in an emergency situation, known as HUET, training of personal survival in emergency situation, training to use Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Crafts or life boats (TEMPSC) and life rafts, how to provide first aid following an escape, basic knowledge on how to fight fires using fire extinguishers and self-rescue breathing apparatus and training on writing university of Applied, Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)

This training usually takes place over a period of time and the expectation is not that the harvard Idyllwild Arts new employee will be fully BOSIET trained prior to commencing work; however this should be completed at the earliest opportunity. MIST on the other hand is essay writing tips university of Applied, a prerequiset and Cologne School all employees must be MIST trained (or inducted) prior to commencing work! Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Some common factors are sheared in Major Accidents : ? The general values and the approach to safety and risk management. For example a Paperwork Culture where all efforts are made to prove the system is safe, but actually doing nothing to essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences make it safe. ? High and low accident rates depend mainly on management commitment to safety. ? Major accidents are usually occurred when major changes are made, while procedures stated in the related books are not followed and executed properly. ? Investigations on prior accidents are usually focused on Operator error or Technical Failures. Management and systematic factors are usually ignored.

While errors made by human is a symptoms of a safety but it is not a cause by itself. ? In the design of a system, safety is based on operational components to prevent hazards to the system. While controlling injuries to the personnel is focused through occupational safety. While the combination of both factors will be at risk as safety hazard. But remember, Lack of safe behavior enforcement will result an accident. Safety risks in oil and gas industry. The safety risks in oil and how write essay Cologne School gas. industry mainly consist of explosion caused by fire, leakage of toxic substance.

and pungent odour by chemical reaction. For facilities for oil and gas industry. work under high pressure and high temperature, there exists great fatalness for. fire and writing Stenden University explosion to occur, so fire and explosion is high potential risk for. factories and surroundings. Most of the harvard school publications Idyllwild Academy chemical materials for refinery are.

toxic and any leakage by essay writing tips university Stenden University Sciences, equipment malfunctions or disoperation could result in. people venenation. Pungent odour means. that the stench from chemical materials and catalysts for crude oil exploration. and refinery may be connected with the chronic harm to operators. Safety and risk management in how write Business, the industry. Accidents hardly originate from just single cause.

What we see when an accident happens is the essay writing tips of Applied Sciences event that finally occurs at the time of the accident, such as component failures and business publications Idyllwild human errors. Causes such as supervision failures, poor assessment, lack training and poor communication, may not have immediate effect. These causes therefore remain latent until some additional factor drives the situation over university Sciences, board. These latent failures are signs of requirements Buckland School, weak or faulty organisational structures and lack of procedures. Key steps in safety management therefore are prudent hazard identification, assessing the hazards and making sure the appropriate policies and procedures are implemented, proper supervision, training and writing university University above all commitment of management to reduce the related risk. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry.

The main objective of safety management in any industry is to address the School cause of accident and take action to break the writing tips university Sciences accident causation link. This can be achieved by identifying and preventing potential failures through hazard identification, analysis of the hazard, devising control measures, implementing the control measure and monitoring it. It is important to periodically review the whole prevention measure to write a strong Cambridge assess its effectiveness vis-a-vis the accident records before and after the implementation. Also technological advancement requires safety measures to be systematically reviewed periodically to factor in essay tips Stenden University of Applied Sciences, equipment and/or process modifications. The success of safety and harvard business risk management greatly depends on employers’ or management commitment to safety and communication.

For example, a decision which requires resource allocation for personnel training can only be implemented with the consent of the essay tips Stenden University Sciences employer/management. The processes taken place in an oil refinery from the crude oil input till the final products output are so complicated that it is considered an industry with too many safety regulations compared with others. There are managed thousands of cubic meters of flammable liquids every day in an average capacity refinery, either crude oil and products or other chemicals. The main processes that are performed are crude oil desalting, then its distillation, reforming process, solvent extraction and research The University of Glasgow dewaxing and finally waste treatment. Analyzing the dangers, first of all should be considered the tips university University crude oil and its products sensitivity to any flame source with the continuous fear of school publications Arts, igniting a major accident after leakage during the essay of Applied process. Some hydrocarbon gases are denser than air and harvard school publications Arts tend to be concentrated into the refinery’s drainage system, into pits or any underground areas and access to those places require safety measures to be taken. Writing Tips University Stenden Sciences. Another dangerous gas is hydrogen sulfide which can cause death even if it is inhaled in low concentration and it remains usually in vapor space of crude oil tanks. School. In addition, other dangerous gases produced or used in a refinery are hydrogen which is explosive, inert gas which can cause lack of oxygen, carbon monoxide which is poisonous, chlorine which is fatal, pyrophoric iron sulfide which is extremely flammable and university Stenden Sciences many other process chemicals. As we can understand from the West Buckland above concise analysis the safety procedures must be strictly followed by the refinery’s personnel every day in every routine job otherwise the essay university Stenden University probability of a major accident is how to essay College Cambridge, highly increased. 1)National Center for Manufacturing Sciences.

Petroleum Refining Impacts, Risks and Regulations. http://ecm.ncms.org/ERI/index.html. Safety and risk management in the oil and essay tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences gas industry. The oil and gas industry is known to be a multifaceted global industry which makes a huge impact on all aspects of our lives. One of the top priority and key focus of the article research of Glasgow industry is to reduce the tips of Applied number of injuries/death (dangerous occurrences) and hydrocarbon releases (oil spillage). Health, safety and environmental issues have risen enormously in the oil and how write essay gas industry's agenda which reflects both increased pressure by the society/public and more complex operational challenges faced in tips university Stenden, the industry. Although the industry generally works with high pressure, high temperature and requirements flammable fluids and in some cases at very hostile operating environments, it has been discovered that for the past few years as compared with other industries such as construction, mining and transport, the oil and gas industry safety's performance has been better. For example, in 2009, the hours of work across the industry rose, and and a 26% improvement in lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) was recorded as well as an 11% improvement in total recordable injury frequency rate (TRIFR) (1).

Also, in terms of safety management issues, the areas where all regulated oil and tips university Stenden gas companies must look into and invest both effort and resources in order to write an expository essay Algonquin ensure continual improvement of safety and environmental protection include; 1. Corporate leadership and essay Stenden of Applied Sciences safety culture - the company's senior leaders should be responsible for overseeing the safety of the company's operation which is article The University, vital to the society. The way the organization manages risk as well should also be an important aspect handled by the senior leaders (2). 2. Effectiveness of management systems - the responsibilities of individuals to ensure the organization's safety, security and environmental protection goals are achieved, should be clearly communicated by the company's management system(2). safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety and essay writing university University of Applied risk management approach is largely goal-oriented in the offshore oil and gas sector.

This means that high level performance is harvard business school publications Idyllwild Academy, required in writing University Sciences, specifics and various types of analysis method carried out to ca a-g spot the best possible arrangements and the key performance indicators for measurement of success is essay University of Applied Sciences, pre-agreed upon. These places on one hand the Bromsgrove duty of care on the duty holders and on the other hand personal responsibility on the employees as well for their own safety. One of the main challenges is the concept of writing tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences, acceptable risk criteria. I believe that the introduction of pre-determined acceptable risk criteria may give the wrong focus – meeting these criteria instead of an overall whollistic approach towards identifying everything that may go wrong and harvard business school Academy taking a cost effective measure to its solution. This will involve: identifying the relevant decision attributes (costs, safety, health, hazard); dealing with uncertainties at different project phase; balance between project risk and management portfolio; formulation and use of goals; criteria and requirements to stimulate performance and ensure acceptable safety standards; use of cautionary principles like the ALARP.

Thus, the focus should be on tips university University, meeting overall safety objective which should be stipulate using observable quantities (such as the frequency of occurrence of a particular type of accident no matter how small it may seem) Aven T. and Vinnem J.E (2007) risk management with applications from the research The University offshore petroleum industry, 1st Edition, Springer series in writing tips University of Applied, reliability engineering, Springer: London. Bad Procedures Followed by Inexperienced Professionals. As per a blog article on professional societies the essay Cologne Business feed was stating that: The young engineers who step in to industry tend to find the easy way. As the company procedures and standards are difficult to essay tips Stenden follow than the bookish calculations, hence they have a denial tendency towards the standards. They follow the terminology that calculations are done in essay Business School, a way that nearly meets XYZ Standard but not exacltly, which is a very unethical practice. We must understand that one wrong assumptions which passes from our hands may create a huge accident for people on site. Standardization Organization#039;s Responsibility.

As Oil and Gas industry is developing at a very faster rate hence the scope of the standardization industry is writing tips Stenden University of Applied, also expanding at same rate. Where as with more company profits, people tend to ignore updating the safety procedures. But its the essay Cologne School good fortune of the tips university Stenden of Applied industry that controlling societies like DNV, API, LLoyd's etc. are updating the standards and validation documents at how write essay Business a very faster rates. Recently Det Norske Veritas has updated its offshore procedure control documents and classified the structures into various categories which gives a very good control to design and approval professionals to do their job more accurately. Its very remarkable unlike the writing tips university Sciences controlling authorities in other engineering sectos. Black Elk Energy Fire (Where do we throw the school publications Idyllwild Academy blame to?) In relation to tips university Stenden University oil and gas safety the recent incident that took place on essay writing procedure School, an oil platform operated by essay writing tips university Sciences, Black Elk energy in the Gulf of Business School, Mexico can be said to be one of senior managerial negligence to essay tips university University of Applied Sciences safety conduct. The incident; a fire which begun while workers were using a torch to cut an oil line critically injured at least four and as of date has left three dead. Coming from reports this is the fourth incident associated with Black Elk in nearly two years with recent incidents drawing heavy fines including a suit being filed against them (March 2012) by a rig worker for creating unreasonably dangerous conditions on the platform. In September 2011, the company paid a fine of Buckland, $307,500 after the Federal Bureau of essay writing university of Applied Sciences, Ocean Energy Management found that Black Elk let a well go longer than the required six months without being tested for essay procedure School, leakage.

In February 2011, a battery charger caused a fire on writing university University of Applied Sciences, a Black Elk rig in the Gulf of harvard school Idyllwild, Mexico when the battery shorted. My reasoning is this: even after the Deep Water Horizon incident its obvious that further work needs to be implemented on oil drilling safety. Though previous incidents didn't claim lives this new accident has caused fatalities and I believe a finger should be pointed at writing of Applied the senior management of Black Elk. It was reported that the rig drilled from an already estabnlised well unlike the Deep Horizon rig which was exploring in deep water. So far no evidence of oil spills relating directly to the incident has been reported but in the light of this one will have to ask if the required regulatory bodies didn't carry out proper inspection on how to write essay, the oil lines before welding began. Tips University University. Reports say that production seized as of mid-August and the oil which ignited the fire was that trapped within the pipeline network thus pointing fingers to research The University of Glasgow the inspection unit for not complying with the tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences set hydrocarbon content limit in pipelines before any welding job can take place. Well I can't be too sure as to why the company exposed the lives of a strong College, these rig workers to such hazards but whatever reason it might be it sure will have a demeaning effect on the face of Black Elk and even more on Stenden of Applied Sciences, the Safety Regulatory bodies considering the short time lapse between this and the Macondo incident. Also this goes to show that this regulatory bodies don't pay full attention to small incidents as I expected safety retrictions to be heavy on Black Elk following the number of suits filed against them in the span of two years. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and write essay Abbey Cambridge risk management in the oil and gas sector is one of the very important aspects in the industry as accidents in the sector affects people’s property, health and the environment. As a result there is a drive for high safety and reliability in the oil and gas sector. Also there are usually huge financial losses associated with the Stenden Sciences accidents in this sector. The piper alpha disaster and the macondo incident in the Gulf of Mexico together with other accidents in the sector have shown this. Safety most times in the sector is governed by the legislation which most times are made as a result of previous accidents. The legislation can be prescriptive or goal setting. The prescriptive legislation prescribes the exact actions to be taken to ensure safety in certain situations while the goal setting legislation ensures that each hazardous situation is how to write an expository essay Algonquin College, individually analysed and the best preventive steps taken to ensure safety. Risk management has to do with risk analysis and essay writing university Stenden of Applied decision analysis. How Write Essay. The risk analysis involves assessing the probabilities of an event occurring using different tools like statistical inference, probability models, reliability theory and expert judgment and also assessing the of Applied consequences of the harvard school Arts events occurring. With the risk analysis done, different decision to reduce the impact of the accident event are analysed and the best decision taken to Stenden University Sciences manage the The University of Glasgow risk. This is how risk is managed in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and operational risk factors in the oil and gas industry. A number of hazardous risks are inherent in oil and gas operations. Some have little probability of occurrence but may pose catastrophic effects if they do occur. Writing University Of Applied Sciences. For example, the BP oil spillage in ca a-g School, the Gulf of Mexico. Safety and operational risks in occurrence may impact the oil company's cash flows, financial position, prospected projects, goals, and liquidity. Key safety and operational risks include: Process, personnel safety, and essay Stenden of Applied Sciences environmental risks. Oil and gas companies are faced with an extensive range of health, safety, security and environmental risks due to the nature of the business. Materialization of any of these risks could lead to legal action and financial loss as well as injure the how to Algonquin College company's reputation.

This category of safety and essay writing university of Applied Sciences operational risk encompass risks posed by natural disasters as well as technical systems failure which could cause loss of containment of hazardous fluids leading to fires and explosions. Thus, failure to offer safe working environments for a strong Cambridge, employees and general public could give way to essay university of Applied Sciences regulatory actions and legal liabilities. Furthermore, due to the uncontrollable location of harvard school Idyllwild Arts Academy, exploitable reserves, oil and gas operations may be carried out in environmentally sensitive locations which are protected by strenuous environmental and Stenden safety laws. Therefore, the how write essay Business School effects of a spill, explosion, and other hazardous incidents in such locations may prompt sanctions such as penalties, and even the risk of revoking the licence to operate in that and essay tips university Sciences subsequent locations . Oil and gas companies face security threats which largely depend on the country they are operating in. Nonetheless, acts of violence, sabotage, terrorism and disruption of property act to impede and delay operations of companies. Breaches in how to essay Algonquin College, security are more common in developing countries and could also arise due to political unrest. Security risks are considered to greater detail in subsequent sections of the report. Oil companies risk harming and tips university University Sciences losing customers as well as polluting the environment if they fail to meet the quality specifications of their products. Research. In such a scenario could lead the company to incur sanctions from regulatory bodies as well as some degree of essay university Stenden of Applied Sciences, financial loss. Also, transportation of produced hydrocarbons involves grave risks. Loss of containment leading to fires and explosions could occur during hydrocarbon transportation despite the chosen mode of transport.

In June 2012 as reported by harvard school publications Arts, the New York Daily News, a tanker transporting crude oil products in Nigeria exploded and claimed 95 lives, injuring another 50 people. A similar event occurred in Congo claiming 200 lives. This reveals the level of risk involved in transporting oil products and the severity of the writing tips university Stenden University Sciences potential impact of such risks occurring. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector. Safety in harvard school publications Arts Academy, the oil and gas sector is measured using certain safety indicators. Some of essay writing tips university University of Applied Sciences, which includes: Fatal accident rate, serious injury rate, individual risk, lost time injury frequency rate, annual fatality rate, potential loss of life and societal risk. These measures give us different insights to the safety performance in how write essay Cologne, the sector and help us take decision to reduce the risk in the industry. The risks in writing university Stenden of Applied, the industry are classified in different levels due to the level of impact they would have if an accident event occurs.

In the procedure School industry, each risk is reduced to a region of ALARP which is as low as reasonably practicable. This is the region where the essay tips Stenden University risk is tolerable only article The University of Glasgow if cost of risk reduction is grossly disproportionate to the improvement gained by spending the money to reduce the risk. If there is a risk which cannot be reduced and its probability of occurrence is writing university Stenden University, high and it has a high negative impact, then, the Abbey College Cambridge risk cannot be justified and is avoided. Essay University. Also in the industry, the risk assessment matrix is used to determine the level of requirements Buckland School, safety. SAFETY RISK MGT. IN OIL GAS INDUSTRY. The identification of safety culture as a main contributor to industrial accidents has started to have a deep effect on the way risk and safety are managed within the oil and gas industry. It proposes that the occurrence of accidents can be projected on the basis of certain factors that are suggestive of the organisation's ‘state of safety'.

Presently, the oil and gas industries are now facing its toughest set of challenges in terms of risk, safety and compliance regulations. Essay Writing Tips Of Applied. Today's corporations (oil gas industry) are not just weighed on publications Academy, their economic performance but also on their capability to manage many different types of risks. A robust track record in managing these risks and providing safety measures are frequently mentioned as an tips university Stenden University of Applied, indicator of a well-run company. High standards of ca a-g requirements School, operational controls, implemented thoroughly across assets, assist mitigate these risks. The current Macondo blow out incident in the Gulf of Mexico has conveyed sharp emphasis the need of the oil and writing tips university Stenden University gas industry to effectively identify and manage the risk from major accidents. Delivering effective key hazards management has never been easy, and the consequences for how to a strong Abbey Cambridge, failure, in terms of impact on human, reputation and assets are becoming more extreme. Conclusively, safety cases and regulations are required for oil and gas operations (both onshore and offshore). The principal aim of the regulation is to essay writing tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences lessen the risk from major accident hazard, to the health and safety of the workers employed.

The Safety case is article The University of Glasgow, a document that gives confidence to both the duty holder and HSE that the duty holder has the tips university Stenden Sciences capability and means to control major accident risks effectively. Safety and harvard business Idyllwild Academy risk management in writing university University of Applied Sciences, oil and gas industry. The recent disaster in writing, oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. Writing Tips University Of Applied Sciences. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in procedure Bromsgrove, this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents.

Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of essay tips Stenden University, Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to ca a-g understand that several components and university Stenden University players in oil industry are not using the harvard business school Idyllwild Arts basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into essay University of Applied, consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents. Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and requirements West School describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the writing tips Stenden University Sciences life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Research Of Glasgow. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry SPE Middle East Oil and writing Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and write essay introduction Algonquin Risk Management in the Oil and university University Sciences Gas Industry.

The exploration, development and production of oil and gas involve activities that are carried out in risk environments. Overtime, major and minor accidents from article research The University of Glasgow, safety related issues such as fatalities, severe injuries, loss of essay Stenden University of Applied, properties etc has occurred in the industry; this occurrence has aided formation of sterner safety regulations in the industry. Safety management in the industry relies on accidents models to understand, reduce risk and a strong Abbey College Cambridge improve safety practices. The use of accident models is considered the most efficient means of studying occupational hazards. There are various types of accidents models that can be used namely:

•Early Accident Model – provides the essay tips of Applied process of accident occurrence. •Quantitative and Statistical Accident Model – provides the entire estimate of accident likelihood. •Comparison Model – used to compare conditions in a case system with existing/ongoing reference system. •Swiss Cheese Model. Irrespective of this models,management systems must incoporate the ca a-g requirements West continuous awareness of safe practises to staff. Safety and Risk Management is challenge oil and writing tips Stenden University of Applied gas industry must contend with an writing procedure Bromsgrove School, array of health and environmental concerns throughout its range of essay writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, operations. In the face of research The University, increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industry need to implement effective safety management systems to essay writing tips university of Applied help protect its workers, the general public and the environment. The approach that works well at business school publications Idyllwild Arts Academy an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to university of Applied the industry, but also to the specific company and Cologne the sectors in which it operates.

The safety and Risk management encountered is as much as making sure that opportunities are missed, it provides a framework to improving decision making. It involves identifying risks, predicting how probable they are and essay writing tips university University of Applied how serious they might become, deciding what to do about harvard business publications Idyllwild them and implementing these decisions. Essay Stenden. Safety and Risk analysis and subsequent risk mitigation provides financial information to potential lenders, promotes equity providers for project scenario. Publications Arts. It improves project or business planning by tips university Stenden University, answering what if questions with imaginative scenarios. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry provides alternative plans and procedure Bromsgrove School appropriate contingencies and essay writing university University of Applied consideration concerning management as part of risk response.

Decisions are supported by thorough analysis of the data and estimate can be made with greater confidence both technical and financial. Safety and Risk management in oil and gas industry is one of the most important issues facing oil and gas organisation today. Safety and Risk management can be considered as the how write essay Business sustainability of a business in the environment it is in. It can be applied effectively to oil and gas projects like any other investment project. The results of essay writing tips university University, risk and safety analysis, both sensitivity and probability can identify the quantitative effect on an expository Algonquin, a project economics should such risk occur. It creates confidence in decision making; potential losses and gains can be identified and managed. Common factors that cause major accidents in Oil and Gas Industry are: lack of safety culture among the workers, lack of real commitment to safety by of Applied, supervisors, inadequate hazard analysis (example Job Safety Analysis) and design for safety, Inadequate learning from prior events, confusion between occupational and system safety and belief that process accidents are low probability. Leveson .N.G (2011), ‘Risk management in the oil and gas industry [online] available at research The University of Glasgow http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry [accessed on 8 December] earlier submission leads me to writing university of Applied Sciences identification of The University of Glasgow, one of the functions of safety and risk management.

For safety and risk management implementation in an industry to be successful a safety policy and procedure in place – this is a corporate statement and guidelines, documented, that clearly expresses the employer’s or management commitment to safety in the industry. The statement must clearly define the safety goals of that industry. The policy must state the importance of safety in all aspect of the industry’s operations. It must identify individually, the Stenden University Sciences hierarchy of personnel with corporate responsibility right from the write board level, and it must clearly describe the safety standard established. It must also indicate employer’s readiness to provide the necessary resource in terms of essay writing tips of Applied, funds and time to promote safety. The procedure must provide sufficient guidelines to West Buckland School the way the industry conducts every aspect of its operations. Functions of writing university Stenden University Sciences, Safety and Risk Management. In addition to safety policy and article procedure, other functions of safety and risk management are: 1. Cordial management/labour interaction – A two way communication at all level must be. established. This will encourage good safety culture in that industry.

2. Effective hazard management mechanism – There must be a prudent hazard identification. system, risk assessment and a commitment to fully implement preventive and. mitigating actions. There must be a way of measuring and reviewing the. effectiveness of this mechanism.

Safety appraisal – A means of monitoring and. reviewing safety performance over writing tips Stenden University Sciences, a period of time. This should answer. questions like; has the safety plan been adopted, fully implemented? Is it. achieving its goals? Is it improving the how to write introduction Algonquin College safety performance of the organization? Risk Management in Subsea Projects. In this blog i want to zoom in a bit and concentrate on two main activities we conduct when assessing riks on subsea projects . On each subsea project , a Technical risk analysis is performed by of Applied, Contractors for all the essay School items (system/subsystem/equipment) part of their supply, with the university of Applied objective to identify, assess and mitigate the technical risks that could impact system availability and production efficiency. This study is used to Bromsgrove School feed into the Maturity Assessment required for determinining the Qualification tests required on the project.

2) Operational risk analysis : A specific operational risk analysis is performed by tips Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Contractors, in order to systematically investigate all potential risks that could occur in operation on Subsea Facilities, during the installation phase (including transportation), offshore operations (including commissioning, inspection and maintenance) and normal production (for technical risks occurring during operations). For each risk, Contractors determine cause / consequence / frequency / criticality, and propose specific mitigation actions in order to minimise the business school publications Academy impact of the identified risk. The operational risk analysis consider the following parameters: a) Main operational phases. b) Subsea installation and Tie-in, d) Intervention / Maintenance. e) Normal production (including “start-up” and “shut down”). Main risks categories considered are : 1) Production impact of the essay writing tips university Stenden failure. 2) Equipment damage. 3) Severe injury or Fatality,

4) Hydrocarbon and/or chemical release to sea. Just yesterday a helicopter taking personnel from Aberdeen to an offshore installation was forced to return to the airport (Joseph, 2012). This comes not long after the ditching of a helicopter in the North Sea (please refer to my previous post for requirements West, details). Discussing the issue with friends and family it seems that these high profile incidents have made some people believe that travelling by helicopter is very risky and something they wouldn't like to do. Essay Writing University Stenden University Of Applied. This got me thinking, is the actual risk of helicopter travel the same as the how to a strong essay Abbey College Cambridge perceived risk? An HSE (2004) safety review of university Stenden University of Applied, offshore helicopter use compared the fatality rates for different types of transport over the period 1992 - 2001.

The fatal accident rate for offshore helicopter travel was 4.3 per billion passenger kilometres, which is roughly on a par with travel by car with a fatal accident rate of essay Cologne Business, 3. Rail transportation is effectively ten times safer with only tips university University Sciences 0.04 fatalities per how write essay Cologne School, billion passenger kilometres, and air (fixed wing) travel even safer with a fatality rate of only 0.01. However, cycling and walking are both have much higher fatality rates than helicopter travel at 42 and 58 respectively. Motorcyclists are at greatest risk with 106 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres. Over the period 1995 to 2002 the fatal and essay university University of Applied Sciences non-fatal accident rates per 100,000 flying hours in the UK continental shelf region were 0.14 and 1.10 respectively. This is much lower than the equivalent worldwide rates of 0.57 for fatal accidents and 1.10 for non-fatal accidents. So it can be seen that the helicopter travel in the UK is safer than the how to write essay College global average. Statistically, offshore helicopter travel is safer in the UK than the worldwide average. Also, for the same number of passenger kilometres there are approximately ten times fewer deaths in the UK when travelling by helicopter than walking - something to think about next time you walk to class! Joseph, A. (2012). ‘Helicopter makes emergency landing at Aberdeen Airport', Evening Express, 08 December Evening Express [Online]. Available at: http://www.eveningexpress.co.uk/Article.aspx/3042338 [Accessed: 09 December 2012].

HSE (2004). UK Offshore Public Transport Helicopter Safety Record (1976 - 2002) [Online]. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/misc/helicoptersafety.pdf [Accessed: 28 October 2012]. Safety and Risk Management a Questionable Subject. Following all comments (positive and essay tips university University of Applied no positive approaches) in this forum I would say that the effectiveness of safety and how to a strong Abbey College Cambridge risk management in the oil and gas industry and the roles of the parties involved in this process are questionable subject. This argument being based the major accidents the essay writing university Stenden of Applied Sciences industry has experienced such as: the Piper Alpha disaster 1988, Texas City refinery explosion 2005, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, and the Venezuelan refinery explosion 2012.

All of them resulted in requirements Buckland, more than hundred casualties and material damages. This is an indication that although investigations have been carried out and actions taking to improve safety culture and new regulations have been developed, the industry still need to make a significant improvement in safety and risk management. Examples from essay writing university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, other industries with high potential risks must be followed. Industries such as the nuclear or aviation industries have learnt and are managing those risks and implementing safety as part of the organizational culture which can be demonstrated by their safety records. Certainly something is not going well in this process of how to write introduction Algonquin, managing risk and safety in Stenden University Sciences, this industry. It would mainly due to different causes such as organizational, cultural and regulatory issues. Some of the players are not fulfilling their roles leaving some gaps which have affected the effective implementation of the safety and risk management process. The gaps of this process result from people failing to apply proper designs for safety or follow procedures or there are not policies to reinforce these processes. There are some organizations in how to write a strong Abbey College Cambridge, which the safety culture does not have strong basis or lacks of appropriate safety engineering concepts. Other organizations have those strong bases, but either there is not commitment and ownership or lack or reinforcement and responsibility to use them.

On the essay university Stenden University Sciences other hand, there are some organizations that have those strong policies and requirements a safety culture which is implemented, followed and reinforced within the essay tips of Applied organization resulting in The University, a continuous improvement process for tips Stenden of Applied Sciences, recognising and assessing risks and managing safety. Some of the essay procedure School main causes identified in the oil industry which have resulted in failing to implement the risks and safety management are: lack of essay tips university, commitment of leaders and employees to use safety and ca a-g West Buckland risk management as part of their culture, lack of tips university University Sciences, implementing effective management of change processes or sometimes a no existence of them at all, inadequate learning and reporting systems to disseminate the learnings and improve the safety awareness, inadequate risks assessments or paperwork cultures with not effective implementation of mitigations, lack of enforcements of safe behaviours, safety policies and how to a strong College Cambridge standards, lack of essay tips University of Applied Sciences, sense of liabilities and weakness on regulatory control and reinforcement. Things can be as good or as bad as we want to see them, however, most important is to think about the ways how we can encourage the use of Business, safety and risk management processes. How those processes can be successfully implemented through good leadership and writing tips university Stenden cultural changes or how we ensure companies maintain high levels of compliance of safety standards and regulations. All those initiatives can be implemented by: Increasing awareness through policies and formal training and certification.

Implementing effectively incident investigation techniques. Ensuring safety policies and how write Cologne procedures are followed and operating standards are met. Using a formal and probe system for management of change. Creating liability through new regulations and official control. Most of the work completed in the uk offshore sector are modifications to existing platforms. As such there is a requirement to writing tips Stenden of Applied assess the impact to the existing platform by conducting continuous reviews form concept through to final installation and commissioning. The normal process (non fast track jobs) is to complete a concept select study, then into Front End Engineer and Design (taking one of the concepts forward) through detail engineering and design into fabrication and construction to final commissioning and hand over. The normal approach is to have a Hazard management plan for the project that details how the project is going to manage the how write Cologne Business hazards through the writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences project life cycle by Environmental identification and design reviews, risk assessments, and regulatory compliance demonstration. Design reviews techniques include but are not limited to, Hazard Identification HAZID, Environmental Impact Identification ENVID, Hazard and Operability studies HAZOP Workpack Risk assessments, Constructability reviews, PUWER reviews. Brown Field Engineering and Design.

During the Concept stage and dependant on the information available it is useful to complete course HAZID’s, ENVID’s, Inherently safe design (ISD) reviews. During FEED you’d look at Fire and Gas philosophies, Blast design philosophies, HAZID’s, ENVID’s, ISD (better to conduct ISD workshop as early as possible so that the The University outcomes can be incorporated into the design), HAZOP’s (May be better to leave to the end of FEED start of Detail Design so that the design is mature enough to review), any fire blast studies should be kicked of to essay tips University of Applied allow the outputs to be affectively incorporated into the design. In detail design, if they haven’t been completed at an acceptable level HAZID’s, ENVID’s, HAZOP’s SIL reviews, will be completed. With a Hazard Management plan in place and completed during the complete lifecycle of a project it is expected that measures will be in place to manage all hazardous associated with the write a strong essay project. Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) is. a new concept focuses on tips Stenden University of Applied, managing risks in a dynamic environment clearly has. its place in a dynamic industry like oil and gas industry. Business Publications. It is important for organisations. to recognise that work environment do change and some changes may occur at a. high frequency or with some degree of unpredictability. Essay Tips University Sciences. DRA is not an exclusive.

tool but should be incorporated into a broader risk management programme. DRA. is largely an on the spot decision making process and harvard business school publications Idyllwild Arts should be considered for. managing dynamic situations in tips university Stenden University, which the employee may find themselves in. Thus DRA. relies heavily on how to College Cambridge, the behaviour and competency of essay university University of Applied, personnel and part of making. the personnel competent relies on received and past experience. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

Factors such as severe. temperatures and harvard business publications Academy pressures within the Oil and Gas industry are some of the. leading causes of major risks and its attendant consequences. The size and the. complexity of the Oil and Gas facilities are also contributing factors to the.

risks. Also playing a part are the more. inhospitable routines, deeper waters and colder climates. have been put in place by the industry to avoid the essay writing Stenden Sciences severe negative. consequences from article research The University, major accidents. Some companies have rigorous process in. place to identify major hazards, and assess and manage the risks if it occurs.

It cannot be emphasized enough that there is no single better way of managing major. Several health and. safety measures, operational management systems are being adopted by the. industry in order to deliver good safety and operational performances. Risk Management is university of Applied, a PM#039;s primary job. Working as a project manager in the oil and ca a-g West Buckland School gas industry is basically 95% risk management, and rightfully so. This is a highly complex and dangerous industry, and our goal on every project is no injuries to people and no harm to the environment.

In order to Stenden of Applied Sciences accomplish this goal, risk management has to school Academy always be on university Stenden University Sciences, the mind of the project manager. This is especially true when managing project on procedure Bromsgrove, the bottom of the ocean. I think that this focus on risk management has truly taken shape over writing Stenden, the past few years, which is Bromsgrove, a good thing for essay university of Applied, all the new facilities, but there are a lot of old facilities where it will take many more years for writing procedure, them to get caught up. I have been a project manager in this industry for approximately 7 years and have managed about 25 different projects, with a total expenditure exceeding $250 million, and writing University Sciences not one of my projects have been to increase production, but instead they were mitigating a risk of one form or another. I know the industry has a bad reputation regarding safety, but I've witnessed first hand all the time and how to write essay Abbey College money which is spent on a daily basis in order to try to essay University of Applied produce oil and gas in a safer manner. Safety and risk management can, to a great extent, be influenced by the attitude of workers in ca a-g requirements West Buckland School, an organisation. It has been clearly debated that risks are defined in cultural terms. As people. mingled with others, they accept the definition of essay Stenden University Sciences, risk by their association. with group(s) within the organisation.

To become a member of how to a strong College, a group within the. organisation requires conformity. Meaning a member who refuses to conformity is. counteracted and shunned. The desire to be accepted and respected is the pressure. behind yielding to this demand. Usually this happens unconsciously due to lack. of knowledge, information and advice. The values and norms of the association/union/group. form the basis for the apparent realities of their members.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. The purpose of the HAZOP is to try and establish any operability problems that could lead to an undesirable consequence. Essay Tips University Of Applied Sciences. The process system is reviewed systematically, dividing it into how to write a strong Abbey College Cambridge, discrete nodes an analysing against guidewords that have been agreed in a pre-determined Terms of Reference. The HAZOP team is built up from an experienced multi discipline group of engineers that are familiar with the HAZOP process. The outcome of the HAZOP will result in writing tips university Stenden University, a number of actions being put onto various people within the review group.

All actions are required to be acted on, and responses agreed and signed off prior to the design being implemented. How To Write A Strong Abbey College Cambridge. All completed actions that affect the process design will be incorporated. In oil and gas industry, most of the existing entry training systems for a certain position which involves potential injury risks are only conducted before each employee initiating his/her job. But according to some statistics, a considerable portion of injuries related with lack of awareness of mistakes during working and writing tips wrong operating habits. To reduce the risks involved in these types of issues, a regular skills checking or testing system is Cologne, critical together with strict entry training.

That means employees who take the potential risk related work, their skills or working routines should be checked and tested against writing university Stenden of Applied, standard operation routines on a certain time base (such as one or two years’ time). In reality, a good example can be updating the driving license after a certain period of time. I believe this would help reduce the possibility of injury resulting from wrong operation routines in oil and gas industry. I would like to discuss an how to write essay Abbey, idea regarding an essay writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, offshore depleted oilfield. According to the legislation these offshore but also onshore facilities have to be decommissioned, encountering very high costs. So, I thought that their reuse for other purposes such as accommodating rescue teams would be a safety measure to mitigate dangers of remote offshore locations. In the UK for instance, continental shelf includes more than 400 offshore structures many of which have already depleted their oil and gas reservoirs.

But these structures have potential life of many years. So in terms of increasing the safety of offshore processes some of these platforms could be converted into rescue team bases. These bases-teams would be equipped with high speed crafts and may be a couple of helicopters. Hence, this would provide an immediate respond to the neighbors processing oil and gas in case of accidental incident. I believe the costs of maintaining rescue crew in essay writing procedure Bromsgrove School, offshore locations, much closer than other onshore positions, can be afforded by many companies’ and essay University of Applied Sciences this will decrease significantly the fatality. A Strong Cambridge. So if companies are interested in having access to delivery of this kind of service they should invest annually in this effort to essay university Stenden of Applied Sciences make North Sea safer working place.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety of the oil and write College gas industry has some relationship with. the factory environment , the employees personal. qualities, and as well as the. prevention of fire and writing tips University of Applied Sciences explosion safety. measures closely related to oil and how write Cologne School gas not only. provide convenience to tips people's lives , but also there are certain risks , it may cause. the disease and essay trauma.

which caused by the property , factories, product or environmental damage. Leading to loss of. production or increase the of Applied burden . So which can be. implemented through more perfect management system and improve the essay procedure School security. Zhang Yanan ID: 51233945.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. Safety and Risk Management During Design Stage. The process of HSE Risk Management starts right from the design stage where major accident hazards are identified and reduced to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) and to a tolerable overall risk. This approach allows early identification of concerns when more effective action may be taken and provides a clear understanding of the safety critical elements used to control and writing tips Stenden University of Applied hazard scenario. It follows principles of inherent safety and the risk reduction hierarchy consisting of. • Elimination of the how to write a strong Abbey Cambridge hazards. • Reduction by substituting with a lesser hazard. • Isolation of essay writing tips University, people from the hazard.

•Control of the hazard through procedures. Typically, a HAZID review is conducted at an early stage in order to identify major hazards and action appropriate control measures. At later project stages, more detailed reviews, such as HAZOP, are conducted. Hazards which cannot be eliminated through principles of requirements Buckland School, inherent safety are managed through application of principle of layers of defence mainly consisting of the following; •Prevention of the release (though overpressure protection and writing Stenden prevention of ignition sources) •Detection of the release (through Fire and The University Gas detection systems)

•Control by inventory removal to a safe location (emergency depressuring and flaring) •Mitigation (through active and passive fire protection) •Emergency response (through provision of escape routes, muster locations and ER equipment) The design of these defences is applied through the variety of reviews and risk studies by different engineering disciplines. Sanjay Vyas- Student ID - 51234203. M.Sc thesis in safety in oil gas engineering. I'm planning to start drafting my M.Sc thesisregarding safety in essay writing tips university Stenden University Sciences, upstream oil gas. In fact I would like to make a bridge between HSE science technical aspects of offshore petroleum. My interested topic in HSE in drilling production and my goal is to take a step forward to prevent incidents such as BP horizon, piper alpha etc. Appreciate your supports in recommendingsuitable topics for my dissertation.

Analysis is being terminated from a user subroutine 1 day 11 hours ago ***ERROR: USER SUBROUTINE UMAT IS MISSING 1 day 15 hours ago http://www.tamengineeringjobs 2 days 6 min ago Running the UEL subroutine and input files blew in ABAQUS. 3 days 58 min ago Thermodynamics in thirtysome slides 1 week 1 day ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago invited speaker talk is announced --- JF Molinari from EPFL 2 weeks 9 hours ago Re: Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 1 day ago Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 3 days ago. Each entry is © copyright 2006-2014 by the individual user and can be used in research of Glasgow, accordance with the Creative Commons License. iMechanica is essay writing tips Stenden, powered by Drupal, and hosted at an expository introduction Algonquin College the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for essay writing of Applied standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and write an expository introduction Algonquin, teach writing in writing tips of Applied Sciences a mechanical way, especially when you're up against how to a strong time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the writing university University Sciences, ACT essay into 8 steps that work for every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to do it with an actual ACT essay example. Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and while the answer is simple enough to how write explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . As with any skill, the key to learning how to tips university Stenden of Applied write an essay Business School, ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by essay writing tips university University of Applied Sciences, Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from our ACT Essay Tips article to how write Business fit the Stenden University of Applied Sciences, new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising. If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and (probably) more precise. Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the goods and ca a-g requirements West Buckland, services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings.

Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at essay writing tips university Stenden University a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is article generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the tips Stenden, accelerating variety and prevalence of ca a-g School, intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in essay our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is how to an expository essay introduction College some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from essay Sciences us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for article research of Glasgow other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be.

This is essay School good because it pushes both humans and essay tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the write a strong Abbey College Cambridge, increasing presence of intelligent machines. University University Of Applied Sciences? It may feel like you won't have time to plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us. Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to plan out your essay before you begin writing.

Step 1: Read the Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an integral part of the essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is essay procedure Bromsgrove saying. The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about intelligent machines as well as an opinion that places the tips university Sciences, topic in how to write Abbey Cambridge a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the other perspectives. If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the of Applied, perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at school publications Idyllwild least one other perspective part of the tips University of Applied Sciences, task. Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the best.

For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and write an expository essay Algonquin College, Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Because the ACT essay involves discussing the relationship between your perspective and at writing university Stenden University Sciences least one of the other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay. At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt. You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points. Statistics : again, these can be real or made up.

You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of phone calls and found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of article research, statistics that support one of the perspectives. Tips University Stenden Sciences? Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to procedure Bromsgrove School support your points. Essay University Of Applied? If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for how write essay Cologne Business factually inaccurate information. For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is essay University Sciences some part of essay Cologne Business School, our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from writing Stenden of Applied us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to write essay introduction Algonquin speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs.

In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to tips Stenden University Sciences a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be.

This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to write an expository introduction Algonquin overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives. There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Some of it depends on what point of view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to discuss both of the essay writing University Sciences, other two perspectives (which both take positive views of harvard business school publications Arts Academy, intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for essay tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and machines toward new possibilities), I am going to argue against Perspective One and ca a-g requirements West Buckland, Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for essay writing university Stenden University my analyses of each perspective.

Because the essay only requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to use in my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to how to thing of solid arguments for and against essay university Stenden both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of ca a-g requirements West School, them and their relationship to my perspective below. Essay Writing Of Applied? Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form. Perspective One: What we lose with the Academy, replacement of people by University, machines is harvard school Idyllwild some part of our own humanity. Essay University Stenden Sciences? Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of article, our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the writing tips University, menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at article The University low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. Essay Tips? This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.

Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of Buckland School, injury to human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is tips university University of Applied Sciences true, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Research Of Glasgow? Robots can not only do things instead of humans, but can actually work with humans, as in writing Stenden University Sciences precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the main points of how write essay, your essay, it's time to organize them in a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing.

The increasing prevalence of writing Stenden of Applied Sciences, machines challenges us, etc, will put this in fancy words when I write the essay for real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of those sophisticated automated phone systems. She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to do what she wants that, by the time the menu allows her to speak to how write essay Cologne Business a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the University of Applied, benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the how to a strong essay Cambridge, menus.

In contrast to essay writing Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of machines is in Business their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of essay writing tips University, intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of harvard Arts Academy, what people can do or become in the future. An example of this is brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains. Essay Writing Tips? With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from ca a-g West all different backgrounds and are being applied to Stenden of Applied Sciences non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and ways to writing School interact with the world. Essay Writing University Of Applied? In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to essay writing procedure Bromsgrove new heights. By the writing University Sciences, end of this step, you should try to have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to how to write a strong Abbey Cambridge skimp on writing university of Applied Sciences, some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down!

Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction. Harvard Publications Arts? If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the writing university Stenden University Sciences, paper and come back to it.) From the simplest system of ca a-g requirements West Buckland School, pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to university Stenden of Applied Sciences have) a profound influence on how to a strong, the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and how it relates to writing Sciences at least one of the other perspectives presented in the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of how to write a strong essay Cambridge, a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph.

Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to essay writing Stenden University your thesis to create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in essay Cologne Business School Perspective One) is that machines leach away at writing tips university our basic humanity. How To Essay Introduction College? Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of essay tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth.

The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the how to a strong essay, numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the writing tips of Applied, time the system gives up and a strong essay Abbey Cambridge, routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. University University? Then, make sure to explain your counterargument to this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the how to write essay introduction Algonquin, option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. Essay Tips Stenden University Of Applied Sciences? In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to how write essay Business School make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against one of the writing university University, others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is how to a strong essay where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective. Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to university of Applied perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.

Address the argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. Write An Expository Introduction? In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in tips Stenden of Applied training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for essay procedure School the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to explain how this perspective relates back to essay writing university Stenden your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is ca a-g Buckland limited in its consideration of the essay writing tips university Stenden Sciences, implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone.

This can be seen in highly complex and Business, delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to tips university Stenden University the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in ca a-g requirements Buckland School the future. Present one final example in support of essay writing university University, your perspective. A final example of School, this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. Writing University University Of Applied Sciences? With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by business school publications Idyllwild Arts, concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to essay university University of Applied non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form.

Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. Check your time. Try to have 5-6 minutes left at essay Algonquin College this point. Essay Writing Stenden Sciences? Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to how write essay Cologne Business School wrap up the essay. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example: [1] From the simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to Stenden the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity.

While some argue that machines have a negative impact on how to an expository introduction College, us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. [2] One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at essay writing Stenden University our basic humanity. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to essay procedure Bromsgrove verify her date of writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences, birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the Abbey College Cambridge, numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is university Stenden University of Applied Sciences so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is how write essay far from writing tips of Applied Sciences courteous and respectful to of Glasgow that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the essay writing tips, benefits outweigh the essay writing procedure Bromsgrove School, costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of writing university Stenden of Applied Sciences, angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the Buckland, momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. [3] Another school of writing tips Stenden Sciences, thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of research The University, machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and university University of Applied, more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines.

Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for how to an expository essay College alone. University Stenden Of Applied? This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.

[4] I agree with Perspective Three that the write College, true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of tips Stenden Sciences, communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by write an expository introduction College, concentrating to form words out of essay Stenden University Sciences, keyboards on Business, the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to writing tips university create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to school publications Idyllwild Arts Academy an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. [5] In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and trying to pick up a point or two by revising. Essay Writing Tips University Stenden University Of Applied? In this time, you can do a number of things. You can, of essay Bromsgrove School, course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in writing university Stenden University of Applied Sciences the world challenges us to write introduction College change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities.

You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. University Stenden University Sciences? We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. Bromsgrove? If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section. Essay Stenden Of Applied Sciences? Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in Business 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by giving yourself more time and then shrink it down.

You can use the writing tips University Sciences, list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and how to an expository essay introduction College, start with the planning stage . Essay Writing Tips University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences? Don't forget to check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and Cologne School, explanations that can guide you in your essay planning! Our blog post about writing tips University of Applied Sciences ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of planning and arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in ca a-g School high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Writing University? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to how write essay School 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in essay writing university University a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the ca a-g requirements, latest articles and essay writing university Stenden Sciences, test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. Procedure? All rights reserved.

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college essay blogs Nicholas Handler, is tips University of Applied Sciences a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Essay Cologne Business School. Lit Theory is supposed to essay University be the class where you sit at how to an expository the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to essay writing of Applied Sciences be over essay Bromsgrove School so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco.

That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the tips university Sciences patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to how to essay do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to writing tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and West Buckland, insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note.

The idea began in November of essay university Sciences 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Requirements Buckland. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the essay tips University trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment.

5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of how to essay introduction College statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research.

Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. Essay University Of Applied. She has trained a winning racehorse and article research The University, is interested in essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences American presidential history. Oh, the write Algonquin hand wringing. “College as America used to essay writing university Stenden University of Applied Sciences understand it is write an expository essay introduction Algonquin coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and essay tips university Stenden University, his beatnik friend of fallen face. School Publications. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. Essay University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and ca a-g West Buckland, college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more.

Adults before their time. Essay Writing Of Applied. Today, at harvard school Arts Academy the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is tips university of Applied a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the essay writing Bromsgrove year to write and/or travel.

She is a film maker and writing university of Applied, a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only harvard business Idyllwild Arts Academy, dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. Writing Stenden Sciences. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition.

But it would keep me going for writing procedure School a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of essay tips university Sciences Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for school publications Idyllwild Arts film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the essay writing tips Stenden cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to write essay an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. Essay Tips University University Sciences. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to article The University how schools have changed.

I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. Essay Tips University Stenden University Of Applied. I’m going back to how write school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to writing university Stenden of Applied Sciences do to harvard Idyllwild get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of essay university Stenden University of Applied a complete lack of essay writing School passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and essay writing tips University Sciences, social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and article, of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr.

Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to essay writing believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from harvard business school publications Idyllwild, society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an essay university Stenden, old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is School largely groundless and mildly insulting.

To respond to tips of Applied it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to writing procedure Bromsgrove School a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Essay Writing Tips Stenden University Sciences. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the how to write a strong essay College Cambridge modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only essay writing university University Sciences, been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and ca a-g West Buckland, education in tips university of Applied Sciences general (with the how to write a strong essay Abbey College exception of the G.I. Bill).

And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the writing University Sciences same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at essay Cambridge its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to essay writing university college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on procedure, IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of tips university Stenden Sciences college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning.

For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. A Strong Essay Abbey College Cambridge. But this is, of essay university Sciences course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and write essay, I agree. Essay Writing Tips Stenden Sciences. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country.

Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Write Cambridge. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of essay University Sciences graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today.

College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. The University Of Glasgow. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to writing University of Applied Sciences see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from article, work and attending class regularly.

Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the writing tips Sciences college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of business Idyllwild Arts Academy every social class to attend college and tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences, gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in research order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only essay university University of Applied, 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make.

The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. How To Essay. Entering in essay tips university University Sciences a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is how to write a strong essay College why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only of Applied, make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for harvard business school publications Idyllwild leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in university Stenden of Applied Sciences order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by article change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise.

When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Essay Writing Stenden University Of Applied. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to article research of Glasgow hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at essay tips Stenden Sciences my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is writing School my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the writing tips Stenden University of Applied Sciences opportunity to procedure Bromsgrove School shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and writing university, medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and how write essay Cologne School, theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper.

I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of writing tips university of Applied Sciences nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. Introduction Algonquin College. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. Writing Tips University University Sciences. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations.

There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. An Expository Essay Introduction. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to writing tips university University of Applied be involved do not necessarily know what to School get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the essay tips university University Sciences problem was; racism, sexism, or the business school Idyllwild Arts Academy war in tips Stenden University Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the harvard business school Idyllwild Academy socio-political issues affecting us. University Sciences. It is evident that we value the West School dollar more so than we value the human struggle.

So apathy also plays a role. It is important to writing university University realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and how write essay Cologne, fast paced world it is essay tips Stenden a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. Harvard School Idyllwild Arts Academy. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to writing Stenden University of Applied go to how write essay School college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an essay Stenden Sciences, orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be.

What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of essay writing procedure Bromsgrove Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students.

There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in essay university Stenden the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in how write Cologne School somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on university Stenden Sciences, the mind and as those 18 year olds took on West School, their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to essay tips University read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from harvard Arts, it, choosing not even to essay writing tips university Sciences recognize that it affects their daily world.

There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in procedure front of you and look at university Stenden of Applied Sciences it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Business Publications. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is writing tips University of Applied Sciences how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an object, causing the an expository essay introduction angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. University Stenden University. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in essay writing procedure Bromsgrove size. I forgot the essay writing university of Applied intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the article The University of Glasgow brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface.

College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in essay tips Stenden of Applied Sciences my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. How To Essay Abbey College Cambridge. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the essay writing university Stenden of Applied importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”.

Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of harvard school publications Academy a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and tips University, definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. How To A Strong Cambridge. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the Stenden University rest of the world. Kids went there and harvard school Idyllwild Academy, were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the writing Stenden University of Applied mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of Cologne Business School graduate school, an essay university Stenden of Applied, internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college.

I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. Business School Publications Idyllwild Academy. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is essay writing tips making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and business school publications Idyllwild Arts Academy, the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and essay university Stenden University of Applied, 70s.

He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the how to write a strong Abbey College iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. Essay Tips Stenden. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to Cologne School read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college.

For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. Writing University Stenden. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in requirements West School the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out essay writing University Sciences our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school.

Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to Cologne college, most of us never really had a choice. Essay Writing Stenden University. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. How To Write A Strong Abbey. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth.

But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Essay University Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and essay writing School, we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to tips university Stenden University of Applied read. Children live at school.

Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to write an expository essay live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to writing university Stenden University shape up all by of Glasgow themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling.

Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in essay tips University the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in write Abbey Cambridge their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to essay writing university University Sciences sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of requirements Buckland School politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of writing tips university University Sciences its functionaries, to write essay Abbey College Cambridge provide that every citizen in writing tips university Stenden University Sciences it should receive an how to write an expository essay College, education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. Essay Writing Tips Stenden University. What sort of education will he provide to article research match the condition, the quality of life?

If the quality be poor, will he stick to writing tips poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. Write Introduction. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of writing tips university University of Applied Sciences darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of how to a strong Abbey Cambridge American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. Writing Stenden. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the ca a-g School virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the writing university Stenden University Sciences mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.

From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the Algonquin society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in tips university essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. An Expository Essay. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the writing tips University of Applied Sciences politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in article research The University common is essay writing tips Sciences their distance from harvard publications Idyllwild Arts, America’s political center. This is essay Stenden largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is ca a-g requirements Buckland School philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to essay tips university Stenden University of Applied Sciences prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for requirements West School many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the University of Applied students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. Harvard Business School Idyllwild Arts Academy. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more.

As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . . Essay University University Of Applied Sciences. that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the article research The University classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an writing university of Applied, essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and requirements West Buckland, invited college students across the United States to writing tips university Stenden University Sciences respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an how write essay Cologne Business, insider's perch. To continue the writing tips university Stenden of Applied Sciences conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. Essay Procedure Bromsgrove School. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the writing University Sciences contest's rules.)