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How to write literature essay Bishop’s College School

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au bon beurre resume Sujet : Il n'y a pas de quoi rire. Write Literature College School. De fretyl, le 25 mai 2010 a 23:10. Academy. En deux parties Au bon beurre dure trois heures. Write Bishop’s College. Telefilm diffuse dans les annees 80, realise par Edouard Molinaro avec une pleiade d'excellents acteurs : Roger Hanin, Andrea Ferreol, Claude Brosset, Dora Doll, Christine Pascal … Ceux qui l'ont vu ne l'ont generalement pas oublie. Review College. Dans Au bon beurre, on essay School, rit ; alors qu'en fait il n'y a vraiment pas de quoi. Article Strathallan College. Le film raconte l'ascension d'un petit couple de cremiers particulierement cyniques et immondes ( les Poissonard ) Roger Hanin et Andrea Ferreol. Literature Bishop’s College School. Ne reculant devant aucune saloperie pour essayer de tirer profit de l'occupation allemande. Petainiste au depart, allant meme a Vichy apporter des ?ufs au Marechal , puis Gaulliste … A la Liberation, bien sur… Le sinistre couple n'ecarte sous l'occupation aucune infamie, se transformant en une veritable caricature des Francais sous l'occupation.

Andrea Ferreol gentille a la caisse avec les clients, se revant bourgeoise et qui la nuit par mechancete et parce-que ca la demange envoie une lettre de denonciation a la Kommandatur, pour denoncer sa voisine, qui cache son fils evade d'un camp de prisonniers allemand. Components Of Essay St. Louis University. Le couple Poissonard, se ruant sur l'adolescente qu'ils ont embauchee et qu'ils exploitent, parce qu'elle a mange un bout de fromage, alors qu'au meme moment ils s'empiffrent dans la cuisine. Literature Bishop’s College. Marche noir, trafic, ils vont meme jusqu'a tirer profit d'un Juif dont la famille a ete deporte et dont ils se servent a la liberation pour accrediter l'idee, selon laquelle ils ont toujours ete de bons Francais. Et le pire : un brave Allemand avec qui ils sont devenu ami et que Roger Hanin envoie tout droit au peloton d'execution a la fin de la guerre, lorsque celui-ci se refugie chez celui qu'il croit etre son ami. Custom Services Academy. Je ne peux pas non plus, faire la liste de toutes les immondices dont ils sont capables… Pendant trois heures, on how to essay Bishop’s College, gravit inlassablement dans le cynisme, dans l'humour noir, dans le rire jaune. Essay School School. Contrairement a Gerard Jugnot avec Monsieur Batignole, Edouard Molinaro ne trouve aucune excuse, ni aucune redemption a ces salauds. How To Write Literature Bishop’s School. Ils finissent la guerre millionnaires, encore plus pretentieux ; alors que le resistant en face de chez eux, ne connait aucune gloire. Hillfield. Un fabuleux portrait de gens execrables, a qui on College, aimerait bien casser la gueule. Hillfield College. Un portrait d'une France, qui a certainement du exister. Bishop’s School. Une comedie, qui pourrait aussi bien etre un drame.

Roger Hanin parfois lourd est ici parfait et Andrea Ferreol est sans doute dans son meilleur role. Components Of Essay St. Louis University. De le Sage, le 26 mai 2010 a 01:51. Bishop’s College. Un portrait d'une France, qui a certainement du exister. Au sortir de la guerre, a la seule Prefecture de la Gironde, ont ete recensees pres de trois millions de denonciations… De Impetueux, le 28 mai 2010 a 11:02. Components Of Essay St. Louis University. 3 millions de lettres de denonciation pour la seule Gironde, ecrivez-vous, Lesage ? Ca me semble beaucoup pour un departement qui ne devait pas atteindre, en 1940, un million d'habitants (et une France a 40 millions…)… Le terrible, c'est que, si de tels malheurs qu'une Occupation survenait aujourd'hui, il faudrait surement multiplier les chiffres par trois ou quatre… De Le sage, le 29 mai 2010 a 23:31. How To School. 3 millions de lettres de denonciation pour la seule Gironde, ecrivez-vous, Lesage ? Ca me semble beaucoup …. Writing IMG Academy. Non, non, Monsieur..Et je vous sais bien mieux place que moi pour verifier et confirmer ce chiffre. How To Write Essay Bishop’s College School. Je l'ai lu X fois et, tres curieusement, tous les acces a cette information sont aujourd'hui Inaccessibles. Review Hillfield. Surtout sur internet. Write Literature College School. Mais je pense qu'il est encore (et heureusement) possible a tous de se procurer les livres de Jean Dutourd, pour ne parler que de lui.

De Impetueux, le 24 septembre a 17:31. Review Article Hillfield Strathallan. En tout cas son style d'ecriture et son sens de la derision se sont particulierement bien pretes a la transcription televisee. Write Literature Essay Bishop’s College School. Et on contoh review Windermere, peut d'ailleurs beaucoup regretter que sa veine n'ait guere ete exploree ni exploitee par le cinema ou la television ; il est vrai que fervent gaulliste et fervent monarchiste, il n'entrait pas dans les lucarnes etroites du politiquement correct . Write Literature School. (Au fait, il fait une toute petite apparition muette (un cameo ), en acheteur ironique a beret basque dans le telefilm). Custom Essay Writing Services St. Johnsbury Academy. Je m'explique : le roman a ete publie en septembre 1952, c'est-a-dire a un moment tres proche du deroulement des evenements relates, un moment ou toutes les manigances, les vacheries, les veuleries, les mediocrites racontees etaient encore bien presentes a la memoire des lecteurs ; je sais bien que celle-ci a tendance a oublier les petites crapoteries qu'on a commises et a valoriser ses minuscules courageuses reactions pour en faire des actes de resistance, mais enfin on write literature School, ne peut tout de meme pas raconter n'importe quoi, ni faire mine d'oublier qu'on a acclame le marechal Petain en avril 44 avant d'aller applaudir le general de Gaulle au mois d'aout et cela avec le meme enthousiasme. Writing St. Louis University (INTO). Hanin joue plutot sobrement et Andrea Ferreol est gluante et ignoble a souhait ; abjects ? oui, evidemment, mais comment ne pas noter non plus leur complicite amoureuse et leur ardeur au travail ? Comment ne pas voir qu'a de rares exceptions pres, ils sont entoures de bonnes gens qui, s'ils etaient cremiers a leur place agiraient a peu pres pareillement ? Et puis j'aime toujours revoir le beau visage triste et deja suicidaire de Christine Pascal, la petite bonne exploitee… Page generee en 0.016 s. Write Literature Essay College School. - 5 requetes effectuees.

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Investigating Writing Sub-skills in Testing English as a Foreign Language: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. National Institute of Education, Singapore. This study investigates the validity of a writing model proposed as the how to write Bishop’s College underlying structure of the writing skill in components of essay University, English as a foreign language (EFL). Four writing prompts were administered to 178 Iranian EFL learners. The scripts were then scored according to writing benchmarks similar to the IELTS Writing criteria but narrower in scope. After inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis, a three-factor model was posited for validation.

Structural modeling of the sub-skills revealed the two sub-skills of Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality are psychometrically inseparable, but the Vocabulary and Grammar sub-skills proved to have good measurement properties. Using parcel indicators, a two-factor model was then evaluated which had the best fit and how to write essay Bishop’s parsimony. Pay To Essay Curtin? The researcher concludes Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality appear to have similar conceptual and theoretical foundations and write essay School should be considered the critical jurnal Windermere School elements of one measuring criterion. Further research is required to how to write literature essay Bishop’s support this finding. [1] Measurable sub-skills of second language (L2) essay writing in analytic approaches have been extensively researched to the present day. There exist different construct definitions but the models postulated are not entirely homogenous (Weigle, 2002). Proposing and evaluating L2 writing models are not as well-researched as rater reliability and bias studies (Barkaoui, 2007; Knoch, 2007; Schaefer, 2008) or systematic rater training (Weigle, 1994), which are two steps in construct validation. In this light, the present study seeks to investigate the underlying structure of the writing skill and its measurable sub-skills.

Writing in an L2 is a complicated process, which may be similar to writing in gre essay writing IMG Academy, first language (L1) in some manners (Myles, 2002). Literature? As highlighted in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of L2 writing, a host of factors affect writing performance (Friedrich, 2008). For example, Mickan, Slater, and Gibson (2000) contended that syntax, lexicon, and task objectives affect L2 text writing. Their study also showed the role of “socio-cultural” factors in essay writing, a finding re-stressed recently by Lantolf (2008). Research also shows whereas external variables can directly affect the gre essay IMG Academy writing style and performance (Ballard Clancy 1991; Lantolf, 2008), the effective underlying factors considered in writing assessment have not exceeded a handful such as vocabulary, grammar, cohesion, and coherence (Leiki, 2008; Ferris, 2002).

It is possible to expand this list, but the measurability and separability of these components will remain uncertain. It has been common practice to construct analytic writing descriptors, each including several criteria to measure (Shaw Falvey, 2008). An example of lengthy lists to measure writing sub-skills is how to College School Weir’s (1990) list which has seven subcategories and an instance of a shorter (perhaps more practical) list is essay writing students Leysin Astika’s (1993) three proposed rating benchmarks. Writing assessment has been largely carried out in two forms: impressionistic (holistic) and analytical. “In analytic writing, scripts are rated on several aspects of writing or criteria rather than given a single score. Therefore, writing samples may be rated on such features as content, organization, cohesion, register, vocabulary, grammar, or mechanics” (Weigle, 2002, p. 114). This practice helps generating helpful diagnostic input about testees’ writing skills, which is the major merit of analytic schemes (Gamaroff, 2000; Vaughan, 1991). On a holistic scale, by way of write essay College contrast, a single mark is assigned to the entire written texts. The underlying assumption is that in holistic marking raters will respond to a text in the same way if a set of marking benchmarks are to guide them in marking (Weigle, 2002, p. 72). In relation to write Curtin (Navitas) the analytic assessment of the writing skill, Aryadoust, Akbarzadeh, and Nasiri (2007) discussed three criteria based on which to how to write College score the text, that is, Arrangement of Ideas and Examples (AIE), Coherence and Cohesion (CC) or Communicative Quality (CQ), and Sentence Structure and Vocabulary (SSV). Critical? The three areas also belong to the benchmarks in pre-2006 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing assessment criteria (Shaw Falvey, 2008).

These criteria were modified in 2008 and the current rating practice in the IELTS Writing test is based on essay College School a new exposition of jurnal School writing performance and assessment (Shaw Falvey, 2008); for example, it was agreed to separate the SSV criterion into vocabulary and how to write College School grammar. Also, the CC was found to be the most difficult area for IMG Academy raters to score. The second difficult criterion to rate was the write essay Bishop’s School AIE which is followed by the SSV. Shaw and Falvey (2008) capitalized on pay to write essay Curtin University the similarity of CC and AIE, which could cast doubts on how to essay Bishop’s School the inseparability of these sub-skills in writing. The following section reviews research into writing and proposes a model for the L2 writing construct. The model will be validated via structural equation modeling. Nature of Second Language Writing. The analytic standpoint on components of essay writing St. Louis (INTO) L2 writing has supplied much of the how to literature Bishop’s fuel for writing research. According to Hedge (2005), one can construct a list of “crafting skills”, which comprise such components as lexis, syntax, spelling, and communicating ideas in assessing writing and yet expand on the list in analytic writing.

Writing researchers have articulated other crafting skills influencing writing performance, that is, overall effectiveness, intelligibility, fluency, comprehension, appropriateness, and article Hillfield College resources which influenced writing performance the most (McNamara, 1990, 1996); control over structure, organization of how to write Bishop’s materials, vocabulary use, and writing quantity (Mullen, 1977); relevance and adequacy of content, compositional organization, cohesion, adequacy of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and spelling (Weir, 1990); content, language use, organizing ideas, lexis, and mechanics (punctuations and custom essay Academy spelling) (Jacobs, Zinkgarf, Wormuth, Hartfiel, Hughey, 1981); and sentence structure, vocabulary, and grammar (Daiker, Kerek, Morenberg, 1978). The efficacy of such frameworks has been studied; for example, Brown and Baily (1984) investigated Jacobs et al . How To Bishop’s? ’s (1981) and Mullen’s (1977) frameworks. Essay Curtin (Navitas)? They found using an analytic framework of organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics of writing, and style is a sound practice in assessing writing performance. In a similar vein, Ahour and Mukundan (2009) recently reported that Astika’s (1993) analytic framework helps diagnosing writing problems of English learners. Another postulated writing assessment framework is the how to write literature “linguistic/rhetorical” model (Connor, 1991).

The measure entails syntactic features, coherence, and persuasiveness. Harmer’s (2004) writing framework expanded on Connor’s model, bearing genre, text construction, cohesion, and register. Likewise, Moore and writing services Academy Morton (1999, 2005) stressed rhetorical functions alongside genre and the source of information in write essay Bishop’s School, writing assessment. The holistic approach toward writing and its assessment has also been researched to a certain extent. It has been stated that a high portion of variability in components of essay writing St. Louis University, holistic writing scores is ascribable to four subclasses of grammar competence, that is, sentential connectors, errors, length, and how to write Bishop’s College School subordination/relativization (Homburg, 1984). Further, Evola, Mamer, and Lentz (1980) reported meaningful correlation between the correct use of cohesive devices and holistic ratings. Intriguingly, the holistic approach has been advocated by several researchers investigating high-stakes tests. Among IELTS writing researchers, Mickan (2003) suggested that a more holistic approach to scoring writing would be more practical than a very analytical, pedantic approach. Also, Mickan and Slater (2003) took issue with the analytic scale since, as they claimed, “Highlighting vocabulary and pay to write Curtin sentence structure attracts separate attention to write literature Bishop’s discrete elements of a text rather than to the discourse as a whole” (p. University (Navitas)? 86). They proposed a more impressionistic approach to evaluating writing in lieu of the analytic method.

But their assumption was undermined in later research on writing. Contrary to Mickan and Slater’s (2003) study, recent investigations into the writing indicated that vocabulary and grammar accuracy appear to be complementary and are possible to be classified under a single rubric (Banerjee, Franceschina, Smith, 2007). Such a proposal is supportive of the assumption that similarities between writing sub-skills make it possible to have composite sub-skills where two or more categories are accommodated into a single rubric. On the other hand, Banerjee et al. How To Literature Essay? (2007) deemed it practical to reduce the rating criteria by accommodating several rating criteria into review article, more unifying headings. This way, the rater, as they stated, would not get bewildered as how to distinguish effectively, say, intelligibility and comprehension, and effectiveness and appropriateness in McNamara’s (1991) framework. In this light, the present study seeks to explore the write essay Bishop’s convergence and separability of sub-skills of a writing construct model including grammar and lexis, cohesion and components St. Louis coherence, and arrangement of ideas. How To Write Literature Essay Bishop’s College School? The following table presents the proposed definitions of writing descriptors in the present study. Table 1. Criterion and Descriptors to Assess and Score L2 Writing Samples. 2) aspects of contoh critical accurate and effective paragraphing.

3) elaborateness of details. 4) use of different and complex ideas and efficient arrangement. 5) keeping the focus on the main theme of the prompt. 6) understanding the tone and genre of the how to literature essay College School prompt. 7) demonstration of cultural competence. 2) using logical pronouns and conjunctions to connect ideas and/or sentences. 3) logical sequencing of ideas by use of transitional words.

4) the strength of conceptual and referential linkage of sentences/ideas. 2) correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization (the density and communicative effect of errors in spelling and the density and of journal article Hillfield communicative effect of errors in word formation (Shaw Taylor, 2008, p. 44)) 3) appropriate and correct syntax (accurate use of verb tenses and independent and subordinate clauses) 4) avoiding use of sentence fragments and fused sentences. 5) appropriate and how to literature accurate use of synonyms and antonyms. In summary of the table, the AIE is defined as an review College aspect of writing which concerns the appropriate tone of the text and genre, appropriate exemplification, efficient arrangement of ideas, completeness of responses to write essay Bishop’s School the prompt, and relevancy.

Therefore, it was made explicit to of journal article Hillfield Strathallan students in how to Bishop’s College School, the study that the reader of the text would be a university professor or an educated individual. In relation to the SSV, the use of appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and syntax was considered. The CC (or CQ) encompasses elements of writing Leysin School argument where components of causality and coherent presentation of ideas are essential. Two important aspects that help raters score the CC of the text are the effective use of cohesive devices and the employment of coherent-makers such as particular transitional words and rules. Within this definition are aspects of accurate and effective referencing and literature essay Bishop’s College paragraphing. This area is distinguished from the SSV in the effective use of the vocabulary and syntax elements to foster the coherence and cohesion in the entire text.

What measurable sub-skills underpin the writing skill? Is there evidence to advocate rating three sub-skills in rating L2 essays? Participants were 178 Iranian EFL students (74 males and 104 females) who took part in the study. They ranged in essay students Leysin, age from 19 to 34 ( M = 25; SD = 3.34), and Persian was their mother tongue. At the time of the study, the participants had completed general English courses (2 to 2.5 years of learning English) and were either applying for IELTS preparation courses or were recently enrolled in the course. The general English courses offered at the institute where the study was carried out essay were based on a curriculum which highlighted the communicative needs of the students in four language skills: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Therefore, the purpose of the courses was to critical jurnal Windermere bring up students to the level where they could communicate effectively in English. The main materials used in these courses were Interchange series by how to literature Bishop’s School Richards, Hull and Proctor (2004), which include three textbooks and additional materials such as videos and audio programs. Of Journal Article Hillfield College? The textbooks were replaced by IELTS materials when students completed them, so that students were involved in more communicative practices and write Bishop’s School activities. Writing was an indispensable section of essay writing for high school students both stages (Interchange textbooks and IELTS), which was instructed by write literature College the teacher.

After Lougheed (2004), Aryadoust et al. (2007) classified essay prompts into four main categories: (a) Agreement-disagreement (AD) (b) Stating a Preference (SP) (c) Giving Explanation (GE. (d) Making Arguments (MA) This classification is not made according to the responses to the prompt or manuscripts; rather it is centered on the wording and requirements of the prompts. Table 2 presents the sample wordings representing these prompt types. For example, in an AD task, the writer is required to show his/her dis/agreement with a statement or common belief. It is also important to components (INTO) underscore there is a fuzzy border between some prompt classes which makes it difficult for researchers decide on literature essay Bishop’s College School the task type (Aryadoust et al., 2007). Table 2. Definitions of Four Tasks Based on Their Prompts. In selecting tasks, following Mickan, Slater, and Gibson’s (2000) recommendation, prompts were chosen to contain the essay for high school students Leysin least socio-culturally biased point and have clear-cut meanings (see Appendix 1). Write Essay Bishop’s? In so doing, I presented 12 prompts to four experts who agreed on the clarity and write essay Curtin University objectivity of four prompts.

The selected tasks were administered to the testees in the same order as in literature College, Table 2. Strathallan College? Each student participated in two exam sessions where two prompts were administered to them (AD and how to Bishop’s College School SP in session 1 and GE and MA in Hillfield Strathallan, session 2). There was a 10-minute interval between each two tasks in each session. Each writing task was allotted 40 minutes and I scored the collected scripts initially. Next, two EFL teachers rated a considerable sub-sample drawn from the main sample. To help participants have a clear idea of the how to write Bishop’s possible readership of their text, I used the instructions similar to the ones formerly used in the IELTS Writing test. The instructions read: “ write an contoh jurnal Windermere School essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer [italics added] .” This instruction helps writers address the text to readers of their texts. Two major rounds of scoring were conducted.

I completed the first round of scoring based on how to write Bishop’s School the descriptors introduced by O’Loughlin and Wigglesworth (2003, pp. Contoh Review School? 100-113) and Hamp-Lyons (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) as summarized in literature essay Bishop’s School, Table 1. Other sets of useful materials were also used to write essay (Navitas) further study the structure of literature School scoring system and benchmarks in IELTS since a 10-point scale (0-9) like the IELTS Writing rating benchmarks was used, e.g. Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 3-6 (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), Jakeman and McDowell (2004), and critical review Windermere School Official IELTS Practice Materials (2007). The two recruited EFL teachers were also trained and exposed to how to literature essay College the sample writings in these materials. The researcher conducted their training in three sessions over the course of one week, each session lasting approximately two hours. The following table presents the scores descriptions and their meanings.

Table 3. Band Score Definitions of IELTS Used in the Present Study. Based on IELTS benchmarks, band levels range from 0 (not taking the test) to 9 (expert user). Because none of the manuscripts was consistent with the definitions of the band scores 0, 1, 8, and 9, we did not score any manuscript as 0, 1, 8, or 9. Each text was marked in three areas as displayed in Table 1. On the whole, 178 participants wrote on four prompts, which totals 712 essays (178 ? 4 = 712). A second round of scoring was conducted by two EFL teachers (as a measure of inter-reliability) and components writing St. Louis (INTO) then the researcher himself (as a measure of intra-reliability) to how to Bishop’s College School insure the quality of scores. Due to time constraints and other commitments of the writing two assistant raters, the researcher had to randomly draw 240 writing samples out of the how to write Bishop’s manuscripts marked (60 writing tasks in response to contoh critical review jurnal each prompt). Both teachers rated this smaller sample and the results were compared to find potential discrepancies. For the same reason, the EFL teachers did not perform a second round of scoring, and therefore no measure of their intra-reliability for teachers is available. Inter-rater and Intra-rater Reliability. To investigate the homogeneity and consistency of the ratings assigned by the three raters (the researcher and the two EFL teachers), the inter-rater reliability of the scores was investigated. In a well-constructed writing assessment, inter-rater reliability in implementing a set of rating criteria should be both substantive (in magnitude) and how to literature College statistically significant (Landis Koch, 1977). In this light, I employed the Cohen’s Kappa, ranging from contoh critical -1.0 to +1.0, which provides substance and significance of the inter-reliability.

Large reliability indexes indicated that the raters had implemented the write literature Bishop’s College School rating criteria homogeneously and consistently, making the ratings highly reliable. Indexes close to zero and below suggested that observed performances of the raters could be attributable to review School chance or intervening variables which significantly influenced the ratings, such as inconsistent rater severity or leniency. According to Landis and Koch (1977), Cohen’s Kappa values from 0.40 to write Bishop’s College School 0.59 are moderate, 0.60 to components (INTO) 0.79 are substantial, and 0.80 and above are outstanding. In a well-constructed, reliable measurement, significant Kappa values greater than 0.60 ( p 0.05 or 0.01) are desirable. SPSS for Windows (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used to calculate the how to literature essay School Kappa coefficients ( p 0.01).

Composite scores were constructed to report the performance of each participant on each sub-skill. For example, four scores on, say, CQ sub-skills as obtained from the essay writing Academy four prompts made a composite score for CQ. This facilitated the how to literature Bishop’s College investigation of inter- and intra-rater reliability. Table 4 presents a summary of the inter-rater reliability analysis according to the performance of each rater on each sub-skill. Table 4. Inter-Rater Reliability According to the Cohen’s Kappa and Intra-Rater Reliability Indexes. Note. All indexes are significant at 1% ( p 0.01).

Cq = communicative quality. Aie = arguments, ideas, and evidence. Ssv = sentence structure and vocabulary. Italicized figures report the Kappa coefficients. Bold figures present the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for rater 1 (researcher). In Table 4, italicized figures are Kappa indexes that report the inter-rater reliability. As we observe, these indexes range from 0.67 (substantial) to 0.88 (outstanding) ( p 0.01). I also used interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to evaluate intra-rater reliability coefficients.

That is, the ratings that were completed twice on gre essay writing IMG Academy two different occasions (by me) were correlated to calculate the ICC for each sub-skill. In Table 4, the ICC’s are displayed in bold figures, which are greater than 0.85 ( p 0.01). How To Write Essay Bishop’s College School? For example, the ICC for CQ was 0.89 ( p 0.01). In this study, Kappa and ICC indexes lent strong support to the inter- and intra-reliability of the ratings assigned by the three raters. In this study, a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), using LISREL computer program, Version 8.8 (Joreskog Sorbom, 2006) was performed. Gre Essay Writing? The SEM programs provide a model summary and how to essay Bishop’s fit statistics.

Fit statistics are to estimate the fit of the review of journal article Strathallan College model into the data, which is how to literature College School constructed based on a theory. For example, in the present study, the models presented in Figure 1 are based on the literature review reported above. Pay To Curtin? According to McDonald and Ho (2002), the most common fit statistics reported in SEM studies are: (a) Degrees of freedom ( df ) reported together with the chi-squared (? 2 ) statistic, and the ratio of ? 2 / df. For large sample sizes, the ? 2 value tends to be significant; therefore, other fit indexes have been developed to investigate the fit of the postulated model. (b) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), also known as the Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), which depends on the correlation among variables in essay Bishop’s College School, the model.

It is used to contoh review compare competing models or the initial model with a “null model” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004; Fornell Larcker, 1981). (c) Comparative fit index (CFI), which is an index similar to TLI. However, it also considers the increment in noncentrality (see Schumacker Lomax, 2004). (d) Root mean square error of literature College School approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root mean residual (RMSR), which is used to writing IMG Academy compare two postulated models for a set of data. These fit statistics show the “badness of fit” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004).

In other words, they should be low enough, so that there is some evidence that the model fits the data well. The first model (M1) on the left side of Figure 1 comprised three correlated latent traits (factors) as three big ellipses, for example, Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE), Communicative Quality (CQ), and Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV). Each of these latent traits is write literature essay Bishop’s College School measured by three variables displayed in custom services, rectangles. One-headed arrows run from how to literature School each ellipsis to rectangles, meaning the observed variance in each sub-skill (rectangle) is mainly attributable to (or caused by) the hypothesized latent trait. Latent traits are hypothetically correlated. Therefore, two-headed arrows have connected them. As expected, in each measurement there are some unsystematic errors, which are presented as small ellipses with an arrow running from them to the rectangles. According to Table 5, the first proposed model (M1) did not capture a good fit since the ? 2 was significant, the TLI and writing CFI values were below the tenable constraints, and the RMSEA and SRMR indexes showed the model had high badness-of-fit statistics (? 2 = 296.755 ( p 0.05); df = 51; ? 2 / df = 5.82; TLI = 0.87; CFI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.144; SRMR = 0.059).

LISREL 8.8 provides a set of literature modification indexes for models that do not fit the data well. Modification indexes for this model recommended freeing some error terms in order to augment the fit of the model (i.e., covary errors of custom writing services Academy measurement from different indicators). Applying modifications to the model needs to be theory-driven (Geldhof, Selig, McConnell, 2008) and write School should not override the theory. Theoretically, error terms from the same tasks can correlate when they have some features in common such as “common method variance” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004, p. 170). Technically, this denotes knowing residuals of a measured variable helps us know residuals of Hillfield another variable. For instance, the write literature essay Bishop’s College School Halo effect is suspect to have affected individuals answering items on a questionnaire that surveys their social status, that is, they may be inclined to review of journal overestimate themselves. We assume, therefore, that items assessing the same trait are influenced by the same Halo effect, and their errors correlate. In the present study, error terms associated with the measured variables in, say, the Making Argument task can correlate. How To Write Literature? This can neutralize the potential influence of the Halo effect that might have been a reason why similar scores on three variables were assigned to students’ performance by raters.

That is, it can be a theoretically sound hypothesis that a rater might assign a high score to, say, CQ, only because other scores assigned by him were high. St. Louis University (INTO)? In addition, errors on literature the same items from different tasks may correlate, e.g. SSV in two task types. Writing School School? Taking heed of this theoretical reasoning, I analyzed the covariance indexes to decide on the best modification indexes to apply. Write Literature Essay College? For example, the large modification index generated from freeing the contoh critical review jurnal corresponding error covariance parameter between the error terms of GECQ and GEAIE could improve the fit very well and decrease the chi-squared statistics.

This modification is how to literature essay Bishop’s College also theoretically sound since both of custom services St. Johnsbury Academy these error terms belong to the Giving Explanation task and performance in write essay College, one area, say AIE, can correlate with performance in CQ. Model 2 (M2) is the modified form of M1. Figure 1. Model 1 (M1) and the Modified Model (M2) with Standardized Parameters. Model 2 (M2) displayed a better fit to the data (? 2 = 136.77 ( p 0.05); df = 47; ? 2 / df = 2.91; TLI = 0.907; CFI = 0.937; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.071). The goodness-of-fit indexes (TLI and pay to write Curtin University (Navitas) CFI) were fairly large and essay the badness-of-fit (RMSEA and SRMR) fell below the constraints tenable.

These constraints were proposed by Hair, et al. (2006) who recommended cut-offs according to the sample size. Nevertheless, the ? 2 index was significant, which can be attributed to the relatively large sample size. Table 5. Fit Indices of the of journal article Hillfield Models Postulated in the Study. RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. GFI = Goodness of Fit Index. TLI = Tucker Lewis Index. SRMR = Standardized Root Mean Residual. CFI = Comparative Fit Index. Df = degrees of freedom. M1 = three-factor model or model 1. M2 = M1 modified. Although M2 showed very good fit indexes, as Figure 1 illustrates, the correlation between AIE and CQ is greater than unity (1.03).

This occurs when the two traits are so considerably similar that cannot be separated. How To Literature College School? Therefore, another model was postulated to consider this limitation and remove it. A Limited Study to Evaluate other Models of Writing. Vocabulary and grammar proved to be the write Curtin elements of one measuring criterion, yet the statistical separability of literature essay Bishop’s College AIE and CQ was not established. Therefore, I investigated the validity of a two-factor model in a limited study. Accordingly, parcel scores were constructed from AIE and CQ by aggregating scores from AIE and CQ (researcher correction) and dividing the sum by two to get the contoh critical jurnal arithmetic average ([AIE + CQ]/2 = new variable). This measure was taken to help explore the how to features of a model comprising two factors (SSV and AIE + CQ) and compare it with the previous models. Custom Essay Services? This would denote that the AIE and write literature essay Bishop’s College School CQ are not theoretically and St. Louis University (INTO) statistically distinguished and the measured variables have addressed different elements of the trait. This further would mean there should not be any significant difference between the new composite variable and a double scoring of the texts based on SSV and AIE + CQ traits.

The definition for the AIE + CQ trait did not vary from the proposed definition in Table 1. In other words, the AIE and CQ definitions were accommodated into a single trait definition. Next, 60 texts were randomly selected to score. Due to how to write literature essay Bishop’s time and gre essay budget limitations, I managed to essay College School recruit only one of the of journal College assistants (teacher 1) to help rescoring the texts. At the end, there were eight measured variables in the new model. To investigate the differences between the parcel AIE + CQ and the rescored AIE + CQ within and between raters, a series of write literature t -tests (within and between designs) were performed. A within-subjects design test showed that teacher 1 had significantly higher mean scores (Mean = 4.98) than did the researcher (R) (M = 4.87) in ADAIE + CQ ( t (103) = 3.22, p 0.05) only. A between-subjects design test, however, did not present any significant difference between the means. Then, the following model was generated based on the rescored manuscripts, which is displayed in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Writing For High? A Two-Factor Model of Writing with Standardized Parameters. The hypothesized model in Figure 2 shows significant goodness-of-fit indexes and also captures good parsimony (? 2 = 39.10; df = 19; ? 2 / df = 2.05; TLI = 0.975; CFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.065). How To Write Literature Essay Bishop’s? There is also a moderate correlation between the latent traits (0.35), which means while the traits are separable, they are relevant and parts of the same measurement model. This study set out to investigate the validity of a writing model. To investigate the underlying structure of the writing scripts and answer the study questions, a SEM was performed. It was found a three-factor model and its worldly indicators (shown in rectangles in of journal Strathallan College, Figure 1) cannot fit the data due to the difficulty with separability of AIE and CQ. Write College? This is in part due to the low discriminant validity of the model. Discriminant validity indicates how distinct a construct is from gre essay writing IMG Academy another separated construct by “discounting plausible rival interpretations” (Messick, 1988, p. 13).

A discriminant validity criterion in SEM models is that the Bishop’s School correlation coefficients should not be too high to be considered inseparable (Hair et al . , 2006). Excessive correlation coefficients jeopardize the discriminant validity (Brown, 2006) and therefore the model does not capture any discriminability (Kane, 2006). Because the correlation coefficient between two latent traits was greater than unity in contoh critical jurnal Windermere, M1, the write essay nomological validity, which is “the degree that the summated scale makes accurate predictions of other concepts in a theoretically based model ” (Hair et al., 2006, p. 136; emphasis in original), is at stake. M1 and M2 failed to show good features of discriminability in terms of their traits. This observation concurred with the Shaw and essay writing for high school Leysin American Taylor’s (2008) assumption that Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE) and Communicative Quality (CQ) are very similar and may prove to be non-separable. How To Literature Bishop’s? It may be due to Curtin (Navitas) the structure of the AIE which can assume a subcategory of how to write literature essay Bishop’s College coherence and cohesion under its heading.

For example, to arrange ideas, information, and examples, it is necessary to components writing University use cohesive devices to make the movement within and how to essay Bishop’s College through sentences of a text smooth. Therefore, the gre essay writing border of the literature College AIE ad CQ may not be clear-cut to the raters as assumed by the designers of the assessment. To isolate CC and AIE may appear conceptually fine, but this study yielded no statistical evidence for such an assessment strategy. A statistical solution offered was to manufacture theory-couched parcels by aggregating scores of the AIE and CC that had correlation coefficients greater than unity (Widaman, 2002). Contoh Critical Windermere School? Building parcels is an acceptable practice if we rely on the pragmatic philosophy of write literature essay School science, which holds representing each cause of variance (especially minor causes) in custom services St. Johnsbury Academy, scores is impossible. But more conservative a philosophy considers the idea of a “transgression” which states that all dimensions that cause the variance should be displayed. This is difficult in social sciences and troublesome in language assessment where the how to essay Bishop’s School range of skills in performance is pay to write essay very extensive but their separability and measurability may be neither desirable nor possible. Considering this, I constructed the parcel score; however, since this would have a higher range of scores than other variables in the study, the arithmetic average of the parcel scores was calculated to have similar ranges with other variables. How To Write Bishop’s College School? Rescoring within-/between-subjects studies showed that all but one composite score had similar mean scores.

The Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV) variables, on the other hand, loaded significantly on the latent trait in the three models, which can denote SSV’s measured variables have been on-target items measuring the trait sufficiently. Research shows that using grammar or vocabulary as a criterion in writing can produce constant results (Banerjee et al., 2007), although the range of vocabulary is not always consistent with the essay St. Johnsbury band scores and their definitions. Bishop’s College? Therefore, in analytical rating in L2 writing, it seems theoretically and IMG Academy statistically plausible to rate two major areas of the write literature School scripts: sentence structure and components of essay writing St. Louis (INTO) vocabulary and arrangement of write literature essay College School ideas and examples including the cohesion and coherence of the text. As the present study showed, this strategy can explain a significant amount of variance in scores and ease the process of scoring and decision making. It is also imperative to note the two-factor model still had a significant chi-squared index. There are different viewpoints how to interpret this index. Kline said of gre essay IMG Academy such observations: There are two problems with the chi square statistic as a fit index. How To Write Literature Bishop’s? First, although its lower bound is always zero, theoretically it has no upper bound; thus, its values are not interpretable in a standardized way.

Second, it is very sensitive to pay to essay Curtin University sample size. That is, if the sample size is large, which is required in order that the index may be interpreted as a significance test, then the chi square statistic may be significant even though differences between observed and write Bishop’s College School model-implied covariances are slight. (1998, p. 128) Schumacker and Lomax (2004, p. 100) also advocated the idea that the essay Curtin (Navitas) chi-squared value can be “erroneous” especially when the sample size increases. Nevertheless, more recently, McIntosh (2007) and Barrett (2007) argued that if the chi-squared value shows the failure of the model, the approximate fit indexes should be banned. This researcher is supportive of this view but would also have reservations to how to essay School fully overlook Kline’s position.

Therefore, for a more in-depth analysis of the findings from contoh review jurnal School this study, the use of a larger sample size and integrated writing criteria which divide the how to write literature Bishop’s College underlying construct into two major parts is deemed useful. Components St. Louis (INTO)? This researcher proposes the postulated two-factor model temporarily and apropos the findings of the current study. Last but not least, analytical scoring has long proved helpful, well established, and precise (Banerjee et al., 2007; Brown, 2006). To illuminate this area further, it is recommend that grammar/lexicon and the merged criterion of AIE + CQ, which I refer to as Idea Arrangement and how to write literature College School Task Fulfillment (IA-TF), should be further researched in future studies. The issue of contoh critical review jurnal Windermere statistical and psychometric separability of all proposed criteria is of a paramount importance in investigations into the construct validity of the proposed models.

Conclusion and Implications. As this study showed, a good model for assessing L2 writings entails rating criteria for two separate sub-skills: SSV and IA-TF. This implicates that very complicated models of writing assessments may not serve the purpose of assessment well. Investigating the effect of raters within a similar model and other proposed models can provide further evidence for the findings of the present study. It is also helpful for the L2 writing teachers to focus on such skills as SSV and IA-TF in writing courses by providing different types of exercise for their students because, as it appears, a good underlying model for L2 writing must bear at least these two components (see Coxhead Byrd, 2008). [1] A previous version of this article was presented in the ICELT 2009 Conference in Malaysia, Melacca. S. Vahid Aryadoust is a PhD candidate in applied linguistics from National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His areas of interest include assessing language skills, validity theory, and measurement. Ahour, T., Mukundan, J. (2009). Essay Bishop’s College? Analytic assessment of writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3 (2), 195-208.

Aryadoust, S. V. (2009). Validity arguments in the context of high-stakes tests of second language listening: A quantitative and of journal article Hillfield qualitative study. Unpublished confirmation report. How To Write Literature Essay School? Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of Education, Singapore. Aryadoust, S. V., Akbarzadeh S., Nasiri, E. (2007).

IELTS writing tutor: Writing task1, academic module . Tehran: Jungle Publication. Archibald, A. (2002). Hillfield Strathallan? Managing L2 writing proficiencies: Areas of change in students’ writing over time. International Journal of English Studies, 1 (2), 153-174. Astika, G. G. (1993). Analytical assessment of foreign students’ writing.

RELC Journal, 24 (1), 371-389. Bachman, L. F. Write Essay School? (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ballard, B., Clancy, J. (1991). Assessment by misconception: Cultural influences and intellectual traditions. In L. Leysin? Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. Literature Essay School? 19-36). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Banerjee, J., Franceschina, F., Smith, A. Custom Essay Services? M. (2007).

Documenting features of written language production typical at different IELTS band score levels. (IELTS Research Report No. 7, the British Council/University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate). Barkaoui, K. (2007). How To Write Literature Essay College? Rating scale impact on EFL essay marking: A mixed-method study. Assessing Writing, 12, 86-107. Barrett, P. (2007). Structural equation modeling: Adjudging model fit.

Personality and Individual Differences, 42 (5), 815–824. Brown, J. D., Baily, K. M. Review Article College? (1984). A categorical instrument for scoring second language writing skills. Language Learning, 34 (4), 21-42. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2002 ). Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2005 ). Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2006 ). How To Literature Essay College? Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of pay to University Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2007 ). Write Essay Bishop’s College? Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Connor, U. (1991). Linguistic/rhetorical measures for components St. Louis (INTO) evaluating ESL writing.

In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in write literature Bishop’s College School, academic contexts (pp. 215-226). Of Journal Article Hillfield? Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Coxhead, A., Byrd, P. (2008). Preparing writing teachers to teach the vocabulary and grammar of academic prose. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16 , 129–147. Daiker, D., Kerek, A., Morenberg, M. (1978). How To Write Essay Bishop’s College School? Sentence combining and syntactic maturity in freshman English.

College Composition and Communication, 19 (1), 36-41. Evola, J., Mamer, E., Lentz, B. (1980). Gre Essay Writing? Discrete point versus global scoring for write School cohesive devices. In J. Gre Essay IMG Academy? W. Oller K. How To Literature Bishop’s College School? Perkins (Eds.), Research in language testing (pp. 177-181). Rowley, MA: Newbery House. Ferris, D. (2002). Treatment of error in second language student writing. Of Journal College? Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Fornell, C., Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Write Literature? Journal of Marketing Research, 48 , 39–50. Friedrich, P. (2008). Teaching academic writing. NY: Continuum. Gamaroff, R. (2000).

Rater reliability in language assessment: The bug of all bears. System, 28 (1), 31-53. Geldhof, G. J., Selig, J. P., McConnell, E. K. (2008). Interpreting LISREL output . Retrieved December 5, 2008, from http://www.quant.ku.edu/pdf/Interpreting%20LISREL%20Output.pdf. Hair, J.F, Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R.L. (2006). Article? Multivariate analysis . NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991a). The writer’s knowledge and our knowledge of the writer. In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 51-70). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991b). Basic concepts. In L. How To Write Literature Essay? Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 5-15). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991c). Essay Writing For High School Students Leysin American? Reconstructing “academic writing proficiency”. In L. Write School? Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 127-154). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Harmer, J. (2004). How to teach writing. Essex, UK: Longman. Hedge, T. (2005). Writing . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Homburg, T. J. (1984).

Holistic evaluation of ESL composition: Can it be validated objectively? TESOL Quarterly, 18 , 87-107. Jacobs, H. L., Zinkgarf, S. A., Wormuth, D. R., Hartfiel, V. F., Hughey, J.B. (1981). Testing ESL composition: A practical approach. Rowley, MA: Newbery House. Jakeman, V., McDowell, C. (2004). Set up to IELTS . Components Writing University (INTO)? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Joreskog, K. G., Sorbom, D. (2006). LISREL 8 (Version 8.8 ) [Computer Software]. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc. Kane, M. (2006). Essay School? Validation. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed.) (pp. 17-64). Westport, CT: American Council on Education, Praeger Series on essay writing St. Johnsbury Higher Education. Kline, R. B. (1998).

Principles and practices of structural equation modeling . New York, NY: Guilford. Knoch, U. (2007). Little coherence, considerable strain for how to write reader: A comparison between two rating scales for he assessment of coherence. Assessing Writing, 12, 108-128. Landis, J. Strathallan? R., Koch, G. G. How To Essay Bishop’s? (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33 , 159-174. Lantolf, J. P. (2008). Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. London: Oakville, Conn., Equinox Publishing. Lougheed, L. (2004).

Barron’s how to custom essay services St. Johnsbury prepare for the Computer-Based TOEFL essay . NY: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc. McDonald, R. P., Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses . Psychological Methods, 7 (1), 64-82. McNamara, T. F. (1990). Item response theory and how to write literature College the validation of an ESP test for health professionals. Language Testing, 7 , 52-75.

McNamara, T. F. (1996). Measuring second language performance . Article Strathallan College? NY: Longman. Messick, S. (1988). How To Literature Bishop’s? Meaning and values in test validation: The science and gre essay ethics of assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, Princeton.

Mickan, P. (2003). What’s your score? An investigation into language descriptors for rating written performance . (Research Report No. 4, IELTS Australia). Mickan, P., Slater, S. (2003).

Text analysis and how to write literature College the assessment of academic writing . (Research Report No. 4, IELTS Australia). Mickan, P., Slater, S., Gibson, C. Custom Essay Writing Services Academy? (2000). A study of response validity of the IELTS writing subtest. (Research Report No. 3, IELTS Australia). Moore, T. Morton, J. (1999). Authenticity in the IELTS academic module writing test. (Research Report No. How To Essay Bishop’s School? 2, IELTS Australia). Moore, T. Morton, J. (2005). Dimensions of difference: A comparison of university writing and IELTS writing.

Journal of English for essay for high school students Leysin Academic Purposes, 4 , 43–66. Myles, J. (2002). Second language writing and research: The writing process and error analysis in student texts. TESL-EJ , 6 (2), A-1. Retrieved January 31, 2009, from http://tesl-ej.org/ej22/a1.html. O’Loughlin, K., Wigglesworth, G. How To Essay Bishop’s College? (2003). Contoh Critical Jurnal School? Task design in how to write College, IELTS academic writing task 1: The effect of quantity and manner of presentation of information on candidate writing. Contoh Jurnal Windermere? (Research Report No. 4, IELTS Australia).

University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. (2007). Official IELTS practice materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schaefer, E. Essay Bishop’s College School? (2008). Of Essay Writing University? Rater bias patterns in an EFL writing assessment. Language Testing, 25 (4), 465-495. Schumacker, R. E., Lomax, R. G. How To Literature Essay? (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling.

London: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. Shaw, S., Falvey, P. (2008). The IELTS writing assessment revision project: Towards a revised rating scale : Retrieved January, 08, 2009, from writing students American School http://www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/research_reports_01.pdf. Vaughan, C. (1991). Holistic assessment: What goes on how to in the raters’ mind? In L. Pay To Write (Navitas)? Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts , (pp. 111-126). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Weigle, S.C. (1994). Effects of training on write Bishop’s College raters of ESL compositions.

Language Testing, 11, 197-223. Weigle, S.C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Weir, C. (1990). Writing Students School? Communicative language testing . NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Widaman, K.F. (2002). Bishop’s College? To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9 (2), 151–173.

The HTML version contains no page numbers. Please use the PDF version of this article for components St. Louis University citations. The main prompt for how to literature essay Bishop’s School Task 2: You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Custom? Write an how to essay in response to review jurnal the following question/statement for how to write Bishop’s School a university professor or educated person.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Components St. Louis? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. 1. Stating a Preference Hotels, restaurants and businesses do not allow smoking inside. In public places such as airports smoking is write literature Bishop’s School banned. This is a good idea, but it takes away freedom of choice. Components Of Essay (INTO)? Some smokers do not like the bans.

Do you agree or disagree with banning smoking in public places? — Mickan (2003, p. 130) 2. Agreement/Disagreement Some people like to write literature essay Bishop’s School travel with a companion. Writing School Leysin American School? Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. — Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 74) 3. Giving Explanations Traffic is a very serious problem. Pedestrians and bicycle riders are facing more and more dangers. Many gardens are being sacrificed to build highways.

What are the best ways to satisfy citizens? Explain. Write Literature Bishop’s? — Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 63) 4. Making Arguments Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many Societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society? — Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 74)

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Medical assistant volunteer Medical assistant shadowing Medical assistant short term work Medical assistant internship. We'll show you how to list your medical assistant resume duties in the sections below. Pro Tip: If you did an externship, list it just like work experience. Show the hospital or clinic, then add bullet points to demonstrate accomplishments. Examples for Aspiring Medical Assistants with No Experience.

You've got no experience for literature Bishop’s your professional medical assistant resume. But do you really? Check out the sample below. Served as medical assistant in a small private practice. Essay Writing St. Johnsbury? Handled patient scheduling, phone work, took vital signs, spearheaded all EMR documentation. How To Write Essay Bishop’s College School? Noticed a recurring flaw in the way ICD 10 codes were submitted. Corrected it with management help and saved the review of journal Strathallan practice an estimated $50,000/yr. Managed inventory and supplies.

Sourced a better vendor and saved 15%. Assisted with the creation of a HIPAA Risk Management plan. I don't have any medical assistant experience yet but I'm a fast learner. Putting volunteer work (or an externship) in your healthcare resume can impress the hiring manager. That's true even if you're not exactly separating conjoined twins just yet. Pro Tip: Don't have an externship for your great medical assisting resume?

Don't panic. On-the-job training works even better for most clinical medical assistant jobs. To make your professional medical assistant resume as healthy as possible, use action words. Write Essay Bishop’s College School? Want some? See our guide: 80 Examples of gre essay IMG Academy, Resume Action Words for Every Profession Is Your Education Section Flatlining? It Might Be. Not every medical assistant needs to essay Bishop’s take a formal program. So you can phone in your education section from the golf course. Article College? Right?

Of course you know, the answer's no. It's true you don't need a medical assistant program to get a job. In some states you can do on-the-job training and challenge the test. But you want a certified medical assistant resume that makes you look like the next Denton Cooley or Gazi Yasargil. That means you need to pay attention to Bishop’s your education section. BA, California College of San Diego. GPA 3.95 Completed medical assistant program.

Filled all medical school prerequisites. Excelled in physics and essay school American School, organic chemistry. Active member, American Medical Student Association (AMSA). Wrote a monthly column on the changing face of how to essay Bishop’s School, healthcare for contoh review Windermere The Vista. My article on literature essay Bishop’s, EHR was reprinted by Engadget and gre essay writing IMG Academy, got 100,000 views.

GPA 3.95 Completed medical assistant program. How to write literature essay Bishop’s College Fix a Weak Medical Assistant Resume with Education Mastery. So you finished your MA resume. It's got a lot of white space. Feeling a bit like Dr. Hibbert from the for high school American Simpsons? Get that resume into how to write literature essay College, remission with some simple changes to your education section. Add your GPA if it's higher than 3.7. Highlight areas of study where you excelled. Essay Writing Services? Tout student associations and other extracurricular activities. Just adding kudos and achievements to write essay College your education section can make even a student medical assistant resume glitter.

Pro Tip: Wondering whether to add a detail? Ask yourself if it shows you fit the of essay writing St. Louis job description in some way. Write Bishop’s School? If not, toss it in the biohazard bin. How to essay University (Navitas) Put Skills on a Medical Assistant Resume. Your medical skills will get you hired. That tired HR manager will see them and have palpitations. What the how to write literature Bishop’s College hiring manager really wants to know is, do you have the school Leysin American School skills she needs? And can you prove it in your professional medical assistant resume? See, a list of skills as long as an ACE bandage doesn't help if it's paper thin.

So, list your medical assistant skills that match this job description. Then, back them up in how to write College, your experience and education sections as accomplishments. Patient care, administering injections, documentation, exam room prep, taking vital signs. Exceptionally skilled at EHR software and ICD 10 Code entry. Pay To Write Curtin? Strong medical inventory management skills. Deep understanding of HIPAA compliance and Risk Management Plans. Compassionate, detail-oriented, with good customer service and time management skills. Patient care Administering injections Taking vital signs Exam room prep. Skills to Bishop’s College List on a Medical Assistant Resume.

One good use of skills? They make great medical assisting resume keywords. Recruiters use software to St. Johnsbury Academy find the how to write resumes they're looking for. Find out what keywords the hiring manager wants by peeking in the job posting. Use the medical assistant skills keywords below to critical review jurnal School get a good head start. Medical Assistant Resume Skills List. Need more medical assistant skills to list on your resume? Search through job offers on literature, LinkedIn and components of essay writing St. Louis University (INTO), other job boards. Pro Tip: One big skill for medical assistants is EHR or EMR.

They both mean the same thing, so put each somewhere in literature Bishop’s, your resume. See the sample resume up top for writing services St. Johnsbury an example. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Want your resume to how to literature College School look like all the others? Of course you don't.

So, add sections for awards, hobbies, or passions. Are you in med school? Have you published articles? Been to conferences? Are you an writing for high school students American, EMT?

Anything that shows your passion for all things medical is fair game for how to Bishop’s College medical resumes. Volunteer work shows you're service-minded. Groups or sports prove you're a team player. Examples of Medical Assistant Resume Additional Sections. Here are two professional medical assistant resume samples. Attended AMSA conference, 2015. My blog post, How to Put Patients at Ease received honorable mention for an ACD Medical Journalism Award and was linked to gre essay by BeckerHospitalReview.

Regular listener, Sawbones podcast. Avid backcountry hiker and skier. Biweekly yoga instructor. I really, really love cats. Bishop’s College School? I'm extremely excited about Game of pay to essay Curtin, Thrones. Bishop’s College School? I love driving. Suggested Additional Resume Sections.

The sections below can provide a helpful setting for your past achievements: For a good rule of thumb, ask, What are the critical Windermere School duties of a medical assistant? If your other information shows you can till those duties, add it to your resume. Pro Tip: Don't have other info? Build some. Do a couple days of write literature essay, volunteering or job shadowing. Write an article or attend a conference. Contact Information is Not as Basic as It Seems. It's easy to contoh review School put contact info on a medical assistant resume. Sadie Fisher, CMA - sadieqfisher@gmail.com - 858-777-5351. Sadie Fisher, California Certified Medical Assistant, 3837 Beechwood Drive, San Diego, CA 92101 - Email: sadiefunfuncattoyz58837@yahoo.com - 858-777-5351.

These days, you'll also need your LinkedIn handle, Twitter, and a personal website if you have one. That way, a curious manager can see you're more than just a sheet of how to School, paper. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. “Nobody writes cover letters anymore.” Put that one right up there with the Minotaur and Zeus' headaches turning into offspring. 60% of hiring managers don't read cover letters. The rest consider them essential.

To write the best cover letter for your medical assistant resume, make it personal. Make it passionate. Read up on the company, the job offer, and the HR manager. Then tailor your cover letter to match that knowledge. Don't toot your own horn. Instead, troll your resume for high points to contoh review Windermere School catch the hiring manager's attention. Use the how to literature essay College School manager's name. Mention a detail you like about the contoh review jurnal Windermere hospital or clinic. Then use your achievements to show how you can help.

Do this, and you'll stand out like you invented scrubs. Even with great medical assistant resume templates to write literature essay work from, it's tough to write your own. Inject life into your experience section with achievements or volunteer work. A medical assistant resume with no experience may as well be on life support. Custom fit your resume to the job description. Make every bullet point fit a skill or requirement in the posting. See the contoh critical review Windermere medical assistant resume sample up top for write literature essay Bishop’s College School help.

Finally, send a cover letter, and follow up. You want your resume to show you as a human being, not a sheet of components writing St. Louis University (INTO), paper. Got questions on how to make the essay Bishop’s College best medical resume or lab assistant resume? Give us a shout in the comments section! Tom Gerencer is review article Hillfield Strathallan a founder and literature essay School, former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom.

A full-time writer in essay services St. Johnsbury, the fields of personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in how to write essay College School, West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.

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Advice on Putting Together Your Application. How To Write Bishop’s. Students commonly want to know what part of the essay writing school students Leysin college application “carries the most weight.” The truth is, there are many parts to your application, and together they help us discover and how to write College appreciate your particular mix of qualities. Academic criteria are important to Hillfield College Yale#8217;s selective admissions process, but we look at far more than test scores and grades. Every applicant brings something unique to the admissions committee table. Perhaps one application stands out because of sparkling recommendations, while another presents outstanding extracurricular talent; maybe your personality shines through a powerful written voice, or maybe your keen mathematical mind packs more punch. How To. Our goal is to assemble a diverse, well-rounded freshman class, and for high school School that means admitting exceptional individuals of all types. You may find this answer unsatisfying, but we assure you that it is true: the part of the application that carries the College School most weight is different from applicant to review of journal article Hillfield Strathallan applicant. This section of how to write College School our website aims to help you submit the very best application possible.

We asked admissions officers to write essay (Navitas) weigh in with their own thoughts on each topic and we have compiled their responses below. We know that the how to write essay Bishop’s School application process can be confusing, daunting, even overwhelming, and IMG Academy we hope this page proves helpful as you compile your applications, not only to Yale but to how to literature essay Bishop’s College School every school on your list. Of Journal College. When you write your essays and short answer responses, write about something that matters to you. Literature Essay College School. Use your own voice. Do not worry about making a special effort to contoh review Windermere include impressive vocabulary words or overly complex sentences. If you sound like yourself and discuss something you care about, your essay will be more effective. We know that no one can fit an entire life story into a few short pieces of writing, and we don’t expect you to how to literature College School try. Essay For High School Leysin American School. Pick topics that will give us an idea of who you are. It doesn’t matter which topics you choose, as long as they are meaningful to you. We have read wonderful essays on common topics and weak essays on essay, highly unusual ones. Your perspective – the lens through which you view your topic – is school students Leysin American far more important than the College specific topic itself.

In the past, students have written about family situations, ethnicity or culture, school or community events to which they have had strong reactions, people who have influenced them, significant experiences, intellectual interests, personal aspirations, or – more generally – topics that spring from the life of the imagination. Finally: proofread, proofread, proofread! Share your essays with at least one or two people who know you well – such as a parent, teacher, counselor, or friend – and ask for feedback. Remember that you ultimately have control over your essays, and your essays should retain your own voice, but others may be able to catch mistakes that you missed and contoh critical review jurnal Windermere School help suggest areas to cut if you are over the word limit. Your record of extracurricular experiences ideally should demonstrate a number of things: You engage your community beyond the classroom. Yale is home to over 300 student organizations, and write Bishop’s School we want to admit students who will take advantage of these resources and contribute to Yale’s vibrant extracurricular community. Writing For High Students Leysin School. You take leadership positions when they are available, and you invest your energies into the activities you choose.

You do not need to be president of a national organization to how to essay Bishop’s College School impress the admissions committee. Gre Essay IMG Academy. But, the committee would like to see that you have spent time pursuing meaningful opportunities and write Bishop’s School that you have had a positive impact on people around you. Contoh Critical Jurnal School. You demonstrate a deep commitment to and genuine appreciation for what you spend your time doing. The joy you take in the pursuits that really matter to you – rather than a resume padded with a long list of activities – will strengthen your candidacy. Interviews are another way to help your application stand out. How To Literature. If you are offered the opportunity to interview, we strongly encourage you to take it.

Share whatever additional information you feel the admissions committee should consider in order to fully appreciate your ideas, intellectual curiosity, character, and values. Do not be a passive interviewee! Although the review interviewer will get the Bishop’s College School ball rolling with questions, come prepared to be an engaged conversationalist. Rather than answering a question with a one-word, direct answer, approach each question as an writing opportunity to elaborate on various aspects of who you are. Tell your story, ask questions, and raise any concerns you may have. Interviewers can learn as much about candidates by how to write essay Bishop’s, the interesting, thoughtful questions they bring to the table as they can from the answers they give. Recommendations tell us a great deal about the way you think and pay to Curtin University (Navitas) learn, how you contribute to your school community, and what you add to a classroom dynamic. The best recommendations are not always from the teachers in whose class you earned the how to write Bishop’s College highest grades, but rather from essay for high students School those teachers who know you best and can discuss the substance of your intellect and character.

We are as interested in how to write essay Bishop’s School your intellectual curiosity and critical review Windermere resilience as in your innate ability and work ethic. Literature Bishop’s College. A string of generic superlatives is not as useful as a specific, thoughtful discussion of your strengths. Review Of Journal Article Strathallan College. We prefer these letters to be from teachers who have taught you in your junior and/or senior years. These teachers will best speak to your recent progress, your preparation for rigorous collegiate coursework, and your potential contributions beyond the how to School classroom. Supplementary materials can provide broader context to some parts of your application, but they can just as often be superfluous and distracting. For example, a letter from someone who supervised your extracurricular research project may answer important questions about the work you’ve done.

But a third recommendation that raves about you, just as your other letters do, will not necessarily enhance your application. In fact, it may dilute the effect of the two required recommendations. Writing School Students Leysin. Your transcript is a significant part of your application. How To Essay Bishop’s College School. We look at your overall record, from freshman through senior years. We always remain mindful of context: what courses are available at your school? Did you take a rigorous curriculum given these course offerings?

Are there patterns to your transcript that reflect on your academic potential? We rely on school profiles and guidance counselors to IMG Academy give us an understanding of how to College School your school and the ways in which you have been academically engaged. We also consider your standardized test scores. Think of testing as just another part of the application, and certainly do not spend most of your weekends test-taking! Only retake a test if you feel you will significantly improve your scores. Gre Essay Writing IMG Academy. If your testing is in the right ballpark, then it probably will not be the deciding factor for your candidacy. In other words, don’t worry about trying to get an extra twenty points. Essay College. Instead, spend your time on things that will help you grow as a person: school work, extracurricular opportunities, time with friends — the things that will give you a stronger sense of yourself and, as a result, make you a stronger college applicant. (Bonus: they will also prepare you to make the most of your college experience and of life!). Yale College Undergraduate Admissions.

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essay on lifespans Running head: LIFESPAN INTERVIEW. Lifespan Interview with a Focus on how to write essay the Effect of writing services Dystonic Outcomes in. Erickson’s Stages from Bishop’s School, Infant to Adolescent on later Lifespan Development. Northern Arizona University - Yuma. This interview documents the lifespan development of a 70-year old female with a focus on the observed affect of review of journal College any dystonic outcomes of Eric Erickson’s first five stages of personal development on the quality of identity formation during adolescence and its affect on later developmental stages. The focus of the interview was the completion of write literature Bishop’s College 34 questions designed around documented systonic and of essay writing University (INTO) dystonic outcomes of Erickson’s first five stages. The subject demonstrated a clear 1st stage dystonic outcome resulting in how to College a pattern of essay writing for high students School mistrust in adolescence resulting in identify confusion. This led to write Bishop’s School a failed marriage, isolation, and a present-day “stagnation” in Erickson’s 7th stage.

Intervention, should it be desired, should consider re-establishing trust through consistent and supportive exploration of the subject’s issues with relationships. Lifespan Interview with a Focus on contoh critical jurnal the Affect of write essay College Distonic Outcomes in. Erickson’s Stages from Infant to Adolescent on later Lifespan Development. The Lifespan Interview. The lifespan interview was conducted with a single female, 70 years of age. The purpose was to document the contoh critical review subject’s lifespan history with recollections of important or significant events in write essay College School her development.

Focus of the Interview. The focus was to identify any distonic outcomes during any of the 1st five stages of critical Windermere School Eric Erickson’s 8 stages of personal development. Write Essay Bishop’s College School. (Muuss, 1996:42) leading to his fifth stage, the establishment of review of journal Hillfield Strathallan College identity (See Appendix for complete list of how to literature essay focus questions). It was hoped that the questions could isolate specific areas and incidents that may have hindered any one stage of development thereby influencing the subject’s later view of adolescence. This focus is inspired by University (INTO), Erickson’s emphasis on the identity crisis as the write College “psychosocial aspect of adolescing.” (Erickson, 1968:91) This taxonomy of adolescence requires the active coalescing of previous stage outcomes to form an identity or identity confusion, which would form the basis for future physiological growth and social responsibility. Pay To Write Curtin (Navitas). All the stages that precede this stage end with some degree of a resolution of literature essay Bishop’s College conflict, however, the degree and quality of identity established in adolescence is important because it the first experience of identity. The interview structure was designed to test the theory that later year views of life and recollections of adolescence would be influenced by gre essay IMG Academy, any identified distonic outcomes in Erickson’s first four stages.

The interview was conducted by telephone in one interview lasting approximately 2 hours. The request for approval to interview was completed by e-mail. The subject was informed that the purpose of the how to College interview was to obtain her recollections of her lifespan with specific emphasis on adolescence. The interview was taped with permission. The subject was asked a series of general questions for the purpose of establishing the subject’s personal history. The subject was also asked to list the major highlights and major disappointments of her life. Following this, the subject was asked 34 focus questions. School Students Leysin American School. The interview was then concluded. Focus Question Methodology. The focus questions were developed to coincide with Erickson’s first five stages of development: (1) Trust v. Write Literature Bishop’s College School. Mistrust, (2) Autonomy v. Shame, Doubt, (3) Initiative v. Guilt, (4) Industry v. Inferiority, and writing University (INTO) (5) Identity v. Identity Confusion (Erickson, 1968). The questions were based on outcomes of both systonic and dystonic conflict resolutions of each stage documented by Rolf E. Muuss (Muuss, 1996) and how to write College School Eric Erickson (Erickson, 1968).

It is assumed that dystonic expressions in statements relating to each phase would contribute to some degree of identity confusion in custom services adolescence as well as later life and perhaps provide some guidelines to a review of the subject’s lifespan development. Stage 1 Questions. Because the major developmental crisis of write this stage of development is trust, the central approach in this phase was to write (Navitas) test the degree the how to write literature essay College School subject is a trusting or mistrusting person (Muuss, 1996:47). This included the subject’s trust of others and herself. Time confusion was tested both directly by questions of sleeplessness and goal setting. Stage 2 Questions. Questions in this stage tested the subject’s response to of essay writing St. Louis issues involving autonomy and independence and write literature College self-doubt.

Questions tested the essay writing degree of retentiveness and stinginess as well as cooperation. How To Bishop’s College School. Confidence in work achievement as well as vulnerability and defiance of authority was tested in this stage. Stage 3 Questions. Stage 3’s contribution to identity involves the successful development of purpose through initiative and curiosity. Questions in this area tested the subject’s degree of gre essay IMG Academy enthusiasm with regard to ambition, curiosity, and initiative. Stage 4 Questions. This stage involves accomplishment and literature essay Bishop’s College the feeling of success, approval, and recognition with regard to review School tasks.

Stage 4 questions centered primarily on a general sense of competency and inferiority as well as success in school during this phase of how to write Bishop’s College lifespan development. Stage 5 Questions. Questions in this phase tested the contoh critical subject’s direct experience of how to write literature essay College identity. During this phase a person assesses strengths and weaknesses, becomes involved in active planning for the future, becomes aware of the diffusive conflicts of identify formation, and experiments with love relationships. Gre Essay Writing. The subject’s reaction to write literature these questions would provide important clues to writing school Leysin the characteristics of her struggle during this phase. Overview of Lifespan. The subject is how to write Bishop’s College School, 70 years old Caucasian.

She wished to remain anonymous. The subject will be referred to as “Ruth.” She was born in Wilmington, Delaware. She is the oldest of four children; two younger sisters and a younger brother. Her parents are deceased. Custom Essay Writing Services St. Johnsbury Academy. She now lives in Middletown, Delaware approximately 30 miles south of Wilmington, Delaware. She is single having been divorced in 1979 and has not remarried. She was born on Broom Street in how to Bishop’s College School Wilmington, Delaware. Her earliest recollection is at the age of approximately 3 years old when she simply walked down the street and took the bus about two miles into center city to go to the local candy store. An event like that would certainly never occur today, nonetheless, she doesn’t not recall any obstacles to her adventure. The local candy store was called “Reynolds” and had all the chrome and mahogany fixtures of a turn-of-the-century candy store. At the alertness of the owner, the police called her parents and they came and took her home.

Later, when she was 4 years old, her family moved to a small farmhouse outside the city. Her father’s mother lived with the family. That was her first recollection of a history of family arguments precipitated by her mother. Apparently, her mother, at the time, was extremely underweight after the birth of her second daughter and was ordered by the doctor to drink cream. One night her mother came into of essay writing St. Louis University (INTO) the kitchen and found her mother-in-law drinking the cream. This caused a huge argument resulting from the how to literature essay College expulsion of the mother-in-law from the family. The family then re-located to Chester, Pennsylvania for of journal article Hillfield Strathallan College, several months while their new home was being constructed. How To Write Literature Essay College School. This was her mother’s family. The subject did not recall much about this period, except to indicate that due to the cramped circumstances, it was not pleasant. When Ruth was 5 years old, the family moved into a new home in a neighborhood called “Swanwyck” about writing school Leysin American School 9 miles south of Wilmington, Delaware.

It was a new neighborhood and her earliest memories are of trying to make friends with the children her age. One girl down the essay College street was “rough” and Ruth’s mother made her “defend herself” by standing up to her confronting behavior. Custom Essay Writing Services St. Johnsbury. Ruth did not like doing that and never made friends with the girl. How To Write College School. When another girl her age moved into the neighborhood, Ruth’s mother told her to pay to write essay hurry to how to write make friends with the new girl before the other girl did. It was too late, the other girl befriended her first. Ruth’s recollections from this time until 7th grade are of a mother who was involved in the local garden club and very active with scouts. Life was routine. She went to school.

Her father was an engineer with the DuPont Company. The family was considered upper-middle class. Ruth did well in school and essay for high students American School everything at how to School, home was recollected as normal with an occasional loud argument between her parents. Her first major disappointment in life occurred during this period. Essay For High School Leysin. Since her mother was in the garden club, both Ruth and her sister decided to grow a garden and literature essay Bishop’s enter a neighborhood garden contest. Ruth spent a lot of time with her garden. Her sister did not care for jurnal Windermere, her garden and, according to Ruth, it was just weeds. When the how to write literature judges came, they gave an award to her sister, not Ruth.

She was emotionally devastated. Ruth indicated that adolescence began with her menstruation in 8th grade. It ended when she began working at contoh jurnal Windermere, age 17 between her junior and senior year in write literature essay Bishop’s high school. The beginning of adolescence in 8th grade was marked by the school using her as a substitute teacher in the lower grades when the teachers were absence. “I did that a lot”, Ruth stated. It was a remarkable accomplishment and recognition of her success in school. Essay School. She also remembers learning algebra and “falling in love” with math. Algebra was easy for her and how to through the rest of her schooling she excelled in math and custom essay science. During this period, Ruth babysat for some extra money for herself.

Her first year in high school was a positive experience. The school had the best football team in the state. How To Literature School. She excelled in essay writing services St. Johnsbury school and had good relations with her friends. How To Literature College. In her first year in high school she began working at a local 510 store. Around this time, Ruth became aware that her parent’s fights were about review of journal article Hillfield Strathallan College her. According to Ruth, both parents drank a lot.

Her mother would always fight over money. Her mother would be obsessed with confronting any spending that did not involve her. If any money was spent on anyone else, she would become extremely angry. Her parents would argue so violently that her father would rush out of the essay Bishop’s College house in anger and not come home for a few days. As a result of these arguments, between her 9th and 10th year in contoh jurnal School high school, Ruth ran away from home for write Bishop’s School, over two weeks. Essay. She went to her uncle’s in Chester, Pennsylvania.

Her father picked her up and Bishop’s School no one in the family spoke of or mentioned the incident. Ruth indicated that from review jurnal Windermere, that time on, her mother pretty much left her alone. In her 10th year in high school, the school accepted students from another part of the county. This started cliques between the local students and the others. Ruth would have nothing to do with it and chose to how to literature Bishop’s College School isolate herself from of journal article Hillfield Strathallan, intimate friendships at school. She used to take the bus to town and how to essay College School go to the dances there. She started dating older boys from other schools. She dated a “Wilmington hood”, but her mother intervened and it ended quickly. Ruth’s second major disappointment occurred during this period. The school was going to start a cheerleading team. Ruth and all the girls began to train and practice for the team.

She looked forward to it with great enthusiasm. However, in the end, the of journal article teacher put all the candidates names in a hat and choose the team by chance. Essay. Ruth was not picked. She was devastated. What hurt her most was the girls that never practiced got the job. During her 10th year, Ruth did extremely well in school and worked at review article College, a dress shop in the evening to how to Bishop’s College School earn money for herself. She began driving when she was 17. Her mother would not let her drive earlier because she did not earn enough money to pay for her own insurance.

This was Ruth’s self-declared end of adolescence because she could drive, she was earning money, and her mother was leaving her alone and let her be independent. Ruth, however, admitted that she knew absolutely nothing about sex. Nonetheless, this was a fun time for custom essay writing services St. Johnsbury, her. She went to all the dances in the neighboring town, dated a lot of boys, and had fun. She went to another high school dance every Friday night to watch Bill Haley and the Comets before they became famous. When she was 17 year old, she met “J.T’. He was 21 and was in the Air Force and based nearby. College School. She ended the engagement after one week because she wanted to review article Hillfield College go to literature Bishop’s college and he would probably be sent somewhere else with the Air Force.

She knew she would go to college. Ruth’s third major disappointment came during her senior year, when she was 17. She was publicly picked a the essay writing for high school Leysin top student in the graduating class, the Valedictorian. How To Essay Bishop’s College. However, a few hours later, the teacher called her into the office and Hillfield Strathallan said a mistake was made. Ruth was second, the write essay Bishop’s College School Salutatorian. Ruth was devastated.

She then went to the University of Delaware as planned. She lost her scholarship because she did not maintain a 3.5 grade average. After her first two semesters, when her mother found out her father was giving her $20 a month in spending money, violent family fights erupted. Ruth dropped out of college to avoid the trauma. She never went back. For a short period after college, Ruth lived at home, had her own car, and worked. She went to the beach to party each weekend. Review Article. It was a very pleasant time for her. This is how to write literature essay Bishop’s, when she met her future husband.

He was handsome and a very sociable person. School Leysin American. They had boats, went water skiing, met friends, and had a wonderful time. How To Bishop’s. This is when Ruth had her first experiences with sex. She was 21. Ruth and Tommy got married when she was 23. According to Ruth, the relationship was perfect in every way. She bought a dress shop and opened her own business.

It was successful. She went to New York a lot to custom essay writing Academy buy clothing for the store, they had affluent friends, had parties, took up flying and boating, and had plenty of money. Life was great. After 15 years of marriage, however, she found out how to Bishop’s School, her husband was a “womanizer.” “He was so bad, near the end, he would even ask women on dates with me present”, Ruth said. She still hears stories about his amorous adventures.

He was adulterous during the entire marriage. She became suspicious when her husband started accusing her of write University cheating on Bishop’s him. The accusations were so bizarre that she became worried. It reminded her of how her mother treated her. Ruth divorced her husband in 1980. She remembers sitting on essay writing school Leysin American School a step with him and hearing him say: “All these years, I have never wanted to be married to you, but now I do.” It was too late.

This was her fourth disappointment in life. After the divorce, Ruth sold the dress shop, worked in a variety of temporary jobs and became involved in the local astrology movement. It gave her support and consolation during this period. Four years later, she was “hooked” on how to Bishop’s College School the subject and its message and went to the annual meetings. She became the regional coordinator, responsible for several states and pay to write essay Curtin University eventually coordinated the national meeting.

Ironically, she points out, the conference chairperson’s name was picked out of a hat. Ruth now supports herself as a professional astrologer. She travels a lot, has many friends, and literature Bishop’s College loves teaching the critical astrology business. How To Essay School. She has even skydived. She has never remarried and essay services St. Johnsbury she says she never will. Literature College School. She has had some dates with men, but they always have problems. She can’t figure it out, she just doesn’t trust them. Major Highlights and Major Dissapointments. Ruth’s recollections of adolescence center on writing St. Louis University (INTO) her mother and her disappointments as well as the highlights. Her positive experiences were all adventures. Her trip to Reynolds’s candy store was an adventure.

The time her maternal grandmother took her to Philadelphia to buy clothes was an adventure. The dances and fun for her were an expression of independence and how to write literature essay Bishop’s excitement. Her disappointments all had a common theme: don’t compete, or you will be disappointed. The garden contest, the cheerleading, and pay to write University (Navitas) change of honors status hurt her deeply. The conspiracy of her marriage devastated her. To this day, Ruth will not compete in anything. Ruth stated that she later realized that her mother was a manic-depressive alcoholic. She indicated that when she was an how to literature essay School, adolescent, she should have confronted her mother sooner. Contoh Critical Windermere School. It might have made a difference.

She wonders why she can’t be intimate with men. She considers herself bright, competent in her field, having fun, and, as always, never has any worries about money. She has always made it on how to literature her own. Focus Question Results. Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust. A total of 10 questions cover this stage of development. Gre Essay IMG Academy. The first series of questions addressed the literature essay Bishop’s issue of the extent of trust in a variety of relationships. Asked when she was an adolescent, did she trust her mother, father, and of journal friends, Ruth indicated that she trusted her mother because she told the truth, but she could not rely on write essay Bishop’s School her to keep her word. For example, if her mother said she would give her a ride, she would later say no. Pay To Write Essay Curtin. Ruth could not trust her mother to write literature essay Bishop’s School keep her word. She was ambivalent about her father.

During adolescence, Ruth trusted her father. He was smart and gentle, however, later in life she found out he was a womanizer and had rented an apartment in gre essay writing IMG Academy town as a hideaway from the family fights and his adulterous activities. She indicated that his behavior modeled the wrong behavior and led her to make wrong decisions with men. Ruth trusted her female and male friends and especially trusted her own abilities. In responding to questions that attempted to help her articulate her view of her identity as an how to write Bishop’s School, adolescent, she described her identity as smart and accomplished. Contoh Critical Jurnal. She knew she was the “class brain”, but beyond that, at how to write literature essay Bishop’s College School, that time, didn’t know what identity was and “it was not a big deal.” When Ruth was asked what were her expectations of her mother if she asked for something, she responded: “absolutely no”, but clarified it by stating that her mother typically cooperated with her in, for example, purchasing her prom dress and other items. However, when she began to essay for high Leysin American School drive, her mother would give her nothing. Because a child learns about giving through interaction with the mother during this stage (Erickson, 1968: 99), Ruth was asked if, during adolescence, she was a “giving” person, if her personality was altruistic.

She would help with homework, but that was expected. How To Literature Bishop’s School. No one got into trouble, so there was no need. Writing School Leysin. In later life Ruth describes herself as a very giving person. With regard to the question concerning the dichotomy between mutual cooperation and trust and Bishop’s College School isolation, Ruth responded that she did not have problems with her peers, but she did have important friends outside of school and dated older men who were not her schoolmates. The final question in this stage explored the students American School dimension of time confusion and, as an exploratory question, asked if she had trouble going to sleep at night. She indicated she did not. Stage 2: Autonomy v. Write Literature Essay Bishop’s School. Shame and Doubt. Responding in this area, Ruth indicated that she felt affection for her father because of his gentleness as well as affection for her friends. Contoh Windermere. With regard to time, she indicated that she was always punctual, calculated time in how to write literature essay College School her head, and was always organized. Nonetheless, she stated that she “never had a goal in my life.” School was extremely easy and required no planning for homework or special projects.

She managed her adolescence day-by-day, however looked forward to gre essay writing the weekend dances. Her relationship with money has never been an issue. How To Essay College. She has always earned and saved money, but never got too concerned about it. She tends to give money rather than hoard it. Ruth indicated that she discarded everything. She even did not save her prom flowers. With regard to cooperation, Ruth generally feels that she should do things herself because she can do it faster. Contoh Critical Jurnal Windermere. She always did the major tasks alone. She would, however, cooperate with peers by starting up a girls baseball team in high school that later turned into an intramural team and she wrote and directed plays. She did get her most respect through cooperation. Ruth indicated that she freely participated in class, but that the teacher never called on her because she knew she knew the answer.

She was always certain she was making the correct decisions and was never ashamed as an adolescent. She was never afraid of being in an exposed or vulnerable situation. With regard to authority, Ruth indicated that she never was defiant of authority, but explained that at write essay Bishop’s College, the age of 14, she ran away from home for two weeks. She explained that this was not so much defiance, but rather an unwillingness to tolerate her being the subject of constant family fights. When asked if she ever tried to get away with things if she couldn’t get caught, Ruth responded that she would weigh the consequences of each action and review if she could handle the potential consequences, she would do it. Finally, with regard to her perception at the time of adolescence toward her development as an how to write literature Bishop’s College School, adolescent, she felt at the time that the other peers were more immature, “silly”, and she looked forward to being 16, then 18 years old. Her perception in later life is that she was behind with regard to social development.

Stage 3: Initiative v. Guilt. There were only two questions in of essay St. Louis University (INTO) this section. Both tested Ruth’s attitude during adolescence about initiative, curiosity, and ambition. She responded that she not only how to essay Bishop’s College School liked new initiatives, but also created them if they weren’t there. She was very creative and did not hesitate to embark on contoh Windermere School new initiatives. She was extremely curious about science and how things worked. She stated that she felt very ambitious about becoming a cheerleader, but did not consider work a result of ambition. Work was a necessity.

Ruth indicated that she showed no ambition regarding setting goals, she could handle any opportunity that came along. Stage 4: Industry v. Inferiority. Responses to these questions were uniform. Ruth was an accomplished student. How To Literature College. She felt competent, but did not have an overriding need to be praised. She indicated that her mother put her in charge of everything.

With regard to custom essay writing services Academy inadequacy, she indicated that she felt the normal sense of periodic inadequacy any girl would feel going through adolescence, but she never had a general feeling of inadequacy. She felt and how to literature essay Bishop’s College School acted very competently. Stage 5: Identity v. Contoh Critical Review Jurnal. Identity Confusion. When Ruth was an adolescent, she never remembers assessing her strengths or weaknesses. When asked what she wanted to write literature essay Bishop’s College do when she grew up, she responded “everything.” She wanted to go to of essay writing college, be a biologist, a scientist, even an actress and how to essay Bishop’s School adventurer. She said her mother asked her that question and in response to how she could do it all, she responded: “I will live long enough to do it all.” Since identity can be found only in interaction with significant others (Muuss, 1996:52), Ruth was asked about the essay St. Johnsbury extent of her peer group involvement. She responded that in 8th grade, she interacted extensively, however, when the new girls came in from a nearby town, she began to disassociate with them.

She indicated that all they wanted to do was go steady and wear makeup and be a “social butterfly.” She said she avoided peer pressure and dated boys outside of how to write school. She did interact extensively with outside friends, but not so much within the school setting. With regard to components of essay St. Louis goals, Ruth repeated that she did not have goals, however, she did want to go to how to write essay college. She stated that at the time, she never wanted to get married because she could not tell which boy was better than the next. Gre Essay. She wanted independence. She did indicate that she had a relationship with a boy. They were very close in 7th and Bishop’s College 8th grade.

He was shy. Ruth rejected him later because he wouldn’t go to dances. She considered him boring. Windermere School. She lost interest. She was asked if she had something in her life that she was strongly committed to. Something she was willing to how to Bishop’s College School commit to. She stated that “getting ready to go to components of essay writing St. Louis University college” was important.

She asked all kinds of how to write literature essay Bishop’s School questions about getting there and wanted to go. When asked how she would answer: “Who am I?” when she was an of essay writing, adolescent, she stated that she would say that she was the Bishop’s College best in the class, popular, and someone who danced all night, but that was something she never was concerned about. In responding to: “Where are you going?”, she responded: “To college.” She wanted a scientific life, but it didn’t happen. Finally, she responded emphatically that she never was concerned with or pre-occupied with the opinion of others. A review of review Strathallan this subject’s lifespan offers an interesting example of Erickson’s epigenetic principle of development, which emphasizes the how to Bishop’s College “developmental interaction between maturational advances” (Muuss, 1996:43), that every stage is developmentally related to the previous stage. In each stage, the outcome of the conflict is either positive or negative and becomes the of essay writing (INTO) more dominant part of the ego affecting further development through the subsequent stages (Muuss, 1996:46). This case study shows the possibility that a dystonic outcome in one stage does not automatically distort a subsequent stage, but rather, may manifest its influence as other related parts of identity development begin to form an how to literature essay College School, identity in Stage 5. Specifically, a clear outcome of mistrust in Stage 1 appears, with this case study, to later manifest its dystonic influence during Stage 5 by creating a distancing to interpersonal relationships thereby causing identity confusion. A discussion of each phase follows.

Stage 1 Discussion. There appears to be a serious absence of trust between mother and daughter. It has been shown that early parental responsiveness in the first year and a half of development provides a foundation on which children feel their needs will result in predictable, supportive responses thereby developing trust in their parents and environment (Landry, 2001). The subject’s initial trust of the father that is eroded beginning in adolescence creates additional negative underpinnings with interpersonal relationships creating mistrust and distancing beginning in adolescence. As mentioned earlier, this mistrust interferes with the quality of interpersonal reciprocation needed for article Strathallan College, identity formation.

The subject stated she had close relationships with school peers prior to adolescence, but later found friends outside the school environment with older more mature friends. The subject appeared to rationalize her distancing by write literature Bishop’s College, finding offense to behavior characterized as “wearing make-up”, “going steady”, and “acting silly”, which are typical behaviors associated with exploring intimacy, the very behavior she was avoiding due to the paralysis created by the mistrust. Stage 2 Discussion. The subject responses showed no overt negative outcomes during this stage. Her sense of independence and pay to essay (Navitas) confidence was extremely high. How To Write Literature Bishop’s College School. She appeared to have unquestioned trust in herself. The fact that she took a bus into town at 3 years old shows a high level of independence and self-assuredness. She was so sure of essay for high American School herself that she was a substitute teacher when she was in eighth grade. The discussion suggests the possibility that success in this stage created a strong positive outcome in autonomy relegating mistrust solely to external relationships rather than affecting the perception of her own ability, but this would require further investigation.

Stage 3 Discussion. Responses with regard to initiative v. How To Write Bishop’s College School. guilt also manifested no dystonic outcomes in this stage. The subject’s perception of initiative was almost unlimited. The case study, however, did not test any actual pre-adolescent experiences that might have identified issues with role experimentation essential during this period of development. Stage 4 Discussion. With regard to the development of the sense of contoh review jurnal Windermere industry, again, the subject manifested superior mastery of this stage of development. The subject was an write literature School, accomplished student and showed no indication of pay to Curtin University inadequacy or inferiority.

Observation suggests that future analysis consider the possibility that this superior level of write literature Bishop’s success was not an of journal, overcompensation for latent issues with mistrust. Stage 5 Discussion. During adolescence, the subject described no signs of essay Bishop’s College any identity crisis. There is no indication of conflict with role identity, goal conflict, value conflict, or intimacy conflict resulting from gre essay, experimentation. Comparing this to literature School James Marcia’s taxonomy of adolescence (Muuss, 1996:59), the subject appears to of essay St. Louis University (INTO) fit into the “identity-diffused” conceptual structure because there is no crisis, identity is Bishop’s School, not a significant issue, and it was not resolved. However, the subject’s commitment to writing St. Louis University (INTO) going to college suggests that a better conceptual fit would be Marcia’s “foreclosure” status that also does not manifest a crisis, but the commitments were embraced without working through fundamental personal questions, values, and choices. Further inquiry concerning the origin of the subject’s desire to go to college may have confirmed an indoctrinated belief. When reviewing this subject’s lifespan development, there is a clear indication that mistrust in the earliest stage of development apportioned to the identity crisis in adolescence an how to write literature essay Bishop’s School, offsetting need to trust in others.

Ironically, this need precipitates a fear of a trusting relationship that paradoxically expresses itself as mistrust (Erickson, 1968:129). Of Essay St. Louis. Without conflict to confront this dystonic contribution to personality, the literature essay Bishop’s College subject is foreclosed to any real intimacy, a requirement for identity achievement. The subject’s lifespan development at the present time appears to fit “stagnation” in Erickson’s 7th Stage, however, with the onset of an external crisis, like loss of of essay writing St. Louis (INTO) income due to how to write Bishop’s College School health, the subject may be forced to deal with the symptoms of despair characterized in the final stage of development. Intervention, should it be desired or required, might consider establishing a very strict, consistent, and responsive interpersonal relationship aimed at reenacting identity exploration and formation. This context would establish a structure of writing IMG Academy trust until the original mistrust could be confronted and ameliorated. This subject has a high degree of essay School personal trust and feeling of contoh critical review jurnal Windermere competence which would support intervention, however, one would expect that if the personal autonomy is an overcompensation, disillusionment in this area might be expected. The below questions were developed in conjunction with the description of Eric Erickson’s 8 stages of development. The first numeral indicates the stage of development; the essay second the question number. 1.1. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your mother?

1.2. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your father? 1.3. Contoh Critical Review. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your female friends? 1.4. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your male friends? 1.5. Did you trust your own abilities?

1.6. How do you describe what your identity was as an adolescent? 1.7. How To Essay School. If you requested something from your mother what were your expectations, what type of response did you expect? 1.8. Can you remember during adolescence any examples of “giving” in the altruistic sense, to review Strathallan someone else? 1.9. How do you describe your relationship with peers during adolescence?

Did you trust them? Was there mutual recognition (v. isolation)? 1.10. As an adolescent, did you have trouble going to sleep at write, night? 2.1 As an writing IMG Academy, adolescent, describe how you felt about affection? Time?

Money? 2.2 Did you tend to hoard things or discard them? Did you throw stuff out of car windows? 2.3 When you did projects or other work as an adolescent, did you prefer to do it by yourself or get help from friends or peers? 2.4 Did you get the most respect through cooperation or insistence? 2.5 In high school, did yhou tend to how to literature College answer questions freely or wait until you were called on? 2.6 Were you proud of your accomplishments? 2.7 When you made personal decisions, were you certain you were doing the gre essay IMG Academy right thing? 2.8 Where there times when you were ashamed as an College, adolencent? 2.9 Were you ever afraid of gre essay writing being in an exposed or vulnerable situation? 2.10 Did you ever try to literature Bishop’s School get away with things if you couldn’t get caught?

2.11 With regard to your progress through adolescence, did you feel you were behind time? Needed more time? 3.1 Did you enjoy and review of journal Hillfield College look forward to new initiatives? 3.2 As an write essay, adolescent were you curious? Were you ambitious? 4.1 As an adolescent did you seek and get recognition of University (Navitas) work well done? 4.2 Did you have feelings of inadequacy or inferiority?

5.1 When you were an adolescent, did you remember assessing your strengths and weaknesses? 5.2 What did you want to be when you grew up? 5.3 Did you have a lot of peer group involvement? 5.4 In adolescence, what were your goals as an adult? 5.5 Did you have a love relationship as a teenager? 5.6 What is so important in your life when you were an how to write essay College, adolescent that you are willing to commit to it?

5.7 If I asked you when you were an adolescent “who am I”, what would you have said? 5.8 If I asked you when you were an adolescent “Where am I going”?, what would you have said? 5.9 As an adolescent, were you pre-occupied with the of journal article College opinion of others? Erickson, Erik H., (1968). Identity Youth and Crisis. New York, New York: W.W. Norton Company.

Landry, Susan H., Swank, Paul R., Assel, Mike A., Smith, Karen E., Vellet, Sonya (2001). Does Early Responsive Parenting Have a Special Importance for write essay College School, Children’s Development or Is consistency Across Early Childhood Necessary? Developmental Psychology, 37, 387-402. Muuss, Rolf E. Essay Writing Leysin American School. (1996). Theories of Adolescence (6th ed.).

New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Eugenics: Progressivism’s Ultimate Social Engineering. According to the received account of the Progressive Era, an enlightened government swept in and regulated markets for goods, labor, and capital, thereby protecting the hapless masses from the vicissitudes of unrestrained laissez-faire capitalism. Write Bishop’s. The Progressives had faith that experts would rise above self-interest and implement wise plans to create a great society. Contoh Critical Review Jurnal School. The resulting state-level workplace safety regulations, restrictions on literature essay Bishop’s College School, child labor, and minimum wages restored dignity and safety to critical Windermere the trod-upon and exploited workers. Despite the widespread acceptance of this narrative, there are many reasons to question whether it accurately portrays the motivations and hopes of some Progressive-Era reformers. In a 2005 article in the Journal of Economic Perspectives , “Eugenics and Economics in write essay College, the Progressive Era,” the custom writing, economist Thomas C. Leonard offered a completely new historical account of the sources of how to write literature School, Progressive-Era labor legislation and the intentions of its supporters. Leonard’s work, including an important 2009 article coauthored with legal scholar David E. Bernstein for Law and Contemporary Problems , “Excluding Unfit Workers: Social Control Versus Social Justice in the Age of Economic Reform,” indicates that lurking behind what many people see as humanitarian reforms was something much uglier. Leonard and Bernstein argue that some of the most prominent of the Progressive reformers were “partisans of of journal article College, human inequality.” They supported interventions as ways to essay forward their eugenic goal of a purer (that is, whiter) human race by eliminating the opportunities for the “unfit” to get meaningful work. The “unfit” here included not just nonwhites (especially African-Americans) but also the “insane,” immigrants (especially from central and eastern Europe), and in a somewhat different way, women. In other words, what we today think of as the unintended consequences of laws supported by today’s well-meaning but economically uninformed Progressives were actually the intended goals of some of their intellectual ancestors a century ago.

Early Progressive economists understood the review of journal College, effects of these interventions, but they thought those effects were desirable. The Progressive economists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw social science not merely as a means of inquiry and understanding but as a guide to social management and control. The advent and broad acceptance of Darwinism in the late nineteenth century, combined with a more general belief in the power of science and scientific management to solve social problems, led to a fascination with eugenics and the possibility of using public policy to ensure the “survival of the how to essay Bishop’s, fittest” and the purity and strength of the writing St. Johnsbury Academy, human race. In the hands of how to write essay Bishop’s School, many thinkers at the turn of the gre essay IMG Academy, twentieth century, Darwinian theory became a rationale for using the how to Bishop’s College School, power of government to weed out the “undesirable” and “unfit” in essay writing school School, much the way that the new understanding of evolution was changing agriculture and animal husbandry. Write Essay Bishop’s School. Eugenics clubs and societies grew rapidly and many of the leading intellectuals of the early twentieth century, including a number of well-known economists (such as John Maynard Keynes and writing IMG Academy Irving Fisher, perhaps the write Bishop’s College, most famous American economist of the time), were active in these groups and saw their work through the lens of eugenics. Eugenics and Intended Consequences. We look back on the eugenics movement with proper horror. Yet the same ideas that led to forced sterilization also led to restrictions in the workplace, because labor markets were one place where eugenics-oriented economists could combine their two interests. Pay To Write Essay (Navitas). They recognized early on that legislation which excluded the “unfit” from labor markets would advance their eugenic goals.

Most of these laws were enacted at how to write literature Bishop’s College School the state level during this period, but the New Deal era saw many of the same arguments applied at the national level. Consider minimum wage laws, for example. Today we tend to think people support them because they believe a minimum wage is a free lunch that will help the poor. Classical-liberal economists have long criticized such regulations, arguing they are a perfect example of the law of unintended consequences and of the disconnect between intentions and outcomes. In a competitive labor market any worker who can produce value is hirable at some wage up to that value. Even workers with limited skills are employable. What the essay writing services St. Johnsbury Academy, minimum wage and other mandated benefit laws do is create a minimum productivity criterion for hiring, closing off the labor market to workers whose productivity is how to literature essay College School too low to justify that cost.

Leonard’s work shows that some advocates of the minimum wage, including many giants of the early days of the economics profession, such as John R. Commons and Richard T. Ely, understood exactly what minimum wage laws would do and liked it. In addition, various Progressives and socialists who were not economists, such as Eugene Debs and Beatrice and Sidney Webb, also supported minimum wage laws and other interventions into the labor market precisely because they would weed out those who were deemed too stupid or lazy to compete in a market economy—in particular, women, immigrants, and blacks. Leonard writes, “the progressive economists . . For High Leysin American. . believed that the job loss induced by how to literature essay College School, minimum wages was a social benefit, as it performed the eugenic service ridding the labor force of the ‘unemployable.’” He quotes the Webbs’ statement that “this unemployment is not a mark of social disease, but actually of social health.” Further, he quotes Henry Rogers Seager of Columbia University, who suggested that minimum wages were necessary to protect workers from the “wearing competition of the casual worker and the drifter.” A. B. Wolfe, who would one day be a president of the American Economic Association, wrote in the American Economic Review in custom writing services, 1917 (quoted in part by Leonard and Bernstein): “If the inefficient entrepreneurs would be eliminated [by minimum wages,] so would the ineffective workers. I am not disposed to waste much sympathy upon either class. The elimination of the inefficient is in line with our traditional emphasis on free competition, and also with the spirit and trend of how to write literature essay Bishop’s School, modern social economics. There is no panacea that can ‘save’ the incompetents except at the expense of the normal people. They are a burden on society and on the producers wherever they are.” In the context of the early twentieth century this group largely included nonwhites, immigrants, and women, as well as white males with physical or mental disabilities—the very same groups the Progressive eugenicists thought were diluting the quality of the critical review Windermere, human gene pool. Unlike their modern successors, these supporters of minimum wage laws were under no illusion about the effects of write literature essay Bishop’s, their proposed policies; they understood and intended the negative consequences that economists now go to great lengths to argue will be the outcomes of the policies favored by contemporary Progressives.

A great irony of the Progressive movement for a minimum wage is that while it aimed at eliminating the “unemployable,” it in fact created a group of “unemployables.” Leonard’s research shows that even professional economists, including some for whom distinguished prizes and lectures are named today, engaged in a manner of thinking about issues like minimum wages that was profoundly—even obscenely, given their explicitly racist goals—anti-economic. According to some Progressives, wages were determined not by marginal productivity but by the living standards to which a particular worker was accustomed. Competition from women, children, and members of “low-wage races” threatened the dignity of white male heads of households, the robustness of the of journal Hillfield Strathallan, white genetic stock, and literature essay College School ultimately the social fabric. Leonard and custom essay services St. Johnsbury Bernstein quote sociologist Edward A. Ross, who wrote that “the coolie, though he cannot outdo the American, can underlive him.” If society was to endure, white male breadwinners needed protection from outside competition. Economists today sometimes argue that subsidies or expansion of essay Bishop’s College, negative income tax programs like the earned income tax credit are far more efficient ways to help the poor than policies like minimum wages. Review Hillfield College. Leonard and Bernstein point out that according to Progressive economist Royal Meeker, wage subsidies were undesirable precisely because they would create more employment, particularly among “unfortunates.” The virtue of the minimum wage was that it increased the supposed dignity of white labor while separating “unfortunates” and “defectives” from jobs they would have otherwise had. Minimum wages were supported by explicit racists seeking explicitly racist ends. Fast-forward a few decades and the results are still the how to School, same even if the intentions are more noble. In a recent paper, “Unequal Harm: Racial Disparities in pay to essay Curtin University (Navitas), the Employment Consequences of Minimum Wage Increases,” William Even and David Macpherson argued that in states fully exposed to the most recent minimum wage increases, the law cost young African Americans more jobs than the how to essay School, recession has.

We should judge policies by results, not intentions. As the economist Thomas Sowell might say, whether a policy is deemed “compassionate” or not should depend on gre essay, its effects rather than the stated goals of its advocates. Eugenics provided an allegedly scientific pretext for write literature School protectionist legislation—specifically, restrictions on immigration. The eugenicists supported immigration restrictions because they believed that members of “low-wage races” would compromise not only whites’ living standards but also whites’ genetic stock through miscegenation. According to them, immigrants and other outsiders (read: African-Americans) would degrade the labor force and debauch the species. The Progressives proceeded on a model of society in custom services St. Johnsbury, which a (white male) breadwinner earned a “family wage” sufficient to write essay School support a (white) wife and (white) children. Women were to custom essay writing services Academy fulfill their roles as “mothers of the Bishop’s College, race,” and children were to be trained to do the contoh review jurnal School, same in the following generation. In his 2005 article Leonard pointed out that restrictions on child labor were enacted specifically to how to write Bishop’s College School prevent the lower classes from putting their children to work.

Presumably this would then cause them to think twice about write essay Curtin University procreating as well as limit their incomes. The Progressives used the same techniques to reduce the labor market opportunities of women. Women were seen both as fragile—in need of protection from the rigors of the workplace—and as having a special role in bearing children and managing the household as “mothers of the race.” This was in write literature College, contrast to the perceived “overbreeding” of nonwhites and custom writing services St. Johnsbury immigrants from places like eastern and southern Europe. Literature College School. Progressive reformers tried to keep women out of the labor force by gre essay writing, enacting a variety of “protective” legislation at the state level, including maximum hours and how to Bishop’s School minimum wage laws for women, both of which were set differently from those for men. Such laws made women less desirable and more expensive employees, which limited their labor force participation—precisely the goal of the reformers. The perils of the 1930s provided an writing IMG Academy, opening for additional burdens on the labor market designed to how to Bishop’s School exclude “unfit” workers. Pay To Essay University. Leonard and Bernstein report that the Davis-Bacon Act, for example, was “passed with the how to write literature Bishop’s School, intent of preventing itinerant African American workers and others from competing with white labor unionists for school students jobs on federal construction projects.” The amplification of interest-group politics was evident in write College School, the relatively transparent attempts by New Deal Progressives to protect special interests from low-wage competition from the South—from African-Americans and other “low-wage races.”

In the 1930s U.S. Rep. Services St. Johnsbury. John Cochran (D-Mo.) said he had “received numerous complaints in recent months about southern contractors employing low-paid colored mechanics getting work and literature essay College School bringing the employees from the South.” Rep. Clayton Allgood (D-Al.) joined in: “Reference has been made to a contractor from Alabama who went to New York with bootleg labor. This is a fact.

That contractor has cheap colored labor that he transports, and he puts them in components of essay writing (INTO), cabins, and write literature essay College School it is labor of that sort that is in components of essay writing St. Louis University (INTO), competition with white labor throughout the country.” The disemployment effects, for example, of the how to write essay College, National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) were stark. Leonard and Bernstein cite one estimate that the St. Louis University (INTO), NIRA’s “wage provisions directly or indirectly led to the dismissal of 500,000 African American workers.” They also write that “the American Federation of Labor took credit for the failure of the FLSA [Fair Labor Standards Act] to provide for how to write literature Bishop’s School a lower minimum wage in the South,” preventing southward capital flows. The Progressives, the Modern Left, and the Dismal Science. This history can be read as the American version of what happened earlier in England. David Levy has shown that economics became known as the for high school students Leysin, “dismal science” because classical-liberal economists (such as J. S. Mill) favored racial equality in a free labor market. How To Essay College School. Reactionary, elitist British Romantics such as Thomas Carlyle and John Ruskin argued that the free market, with its underlying assumption of equality, would eliminate racial hierarchies and bring a “dismal” future of racial mixing. Essay Curtin University (Navitas). It was the classical-liberal economists who were providing the intellectual support for that future. The moral of the story is that, despite the modern left’s continued claim that the pro-market philosophy is racist, sexist, and how to write School xenophobic, history demonstrates that classical liberals/libertarians were proponents of equality and opponents of racism, and that those who viewed the races as unequal were likely to Curtin seek backing from the State, particularly in labor markets. The historical record of the left on these counts is much more mixed than it is willing to acknowledge. Despite their odious views on race and the use of the State to enforce their eugenically informed vision of the write Bishop’s College School, future, Progressive-Era reformers were ahead of Hillfield Strathallan College, their modern liberal counterparts in one important way.

They understood that free markets, especially free labor markets, are the enemy of racism. You can read a Portuguese version of this article here. Art Carden is an write literature essay, Associate Professor of for high school students School, Economics at Samford University’s Brock School of Business. In addition, he is how to Bishop’s College a Senior Research Fellow with the Institute for Faith, Work, and Economics, a Senior Fellow with the Beacon Center of Tennessee, and a Research Fellow with the Independent Institute. H e is a member of the write University, FEE Faculty Network . Visit his website. Steven Horwitz is the Schnatter Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in how to literature College School, the Department of Economics at Ball State University, where he also is a Fellow at the John H. Review Of Journal. Schnatter Institute for Entrepreneurship and Free Enterprise. He is the author of Hayek’s Modern Family: Classical Liberalism and the Evolution of Social Institutions. and is a Distinguished Fellow at FEE and how to write literature essay College School a member of the FEE Faculty Network. Learn about gre essay scarcity, prosperity, values, cooperation, character, markets, spontaneous order, and entrepreneurship.

You'll see the profound effect of free markets on our standard of living across the how to write literature essay, globe and over hundreds of years. This work is gre essay writing IMG Academy licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except for material where copyright is reserved by a party other than FEE. Please do not edit the essay, piece, ensure that you attribute the author and custom mention that this article was originally published on FEE.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except for material where copyright is reserved by a party other than FEE.