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Resumes, Cover Letters, #038; Other Job Search Correspondence. Other Job Search Correspondence. Whether you’re applying for a new position, negotiating a raise, looking for freelance work or proposing a promotion, you’ll make more headway if you avoid common mistakes in career correspondence. Of Essay In English Princeton! Even the most ideal candidates and proposals can make a poor impression if they break basic formatting rules, ignore rules of articles for money Lake, business etiquette or fail to follow the right distribution channels. In this article, we’ll walk you through a variety of business correspondence, pointing out avoidable missteps along the way. Cover Letters Other Correspondence. Writing an effective cover letter boils down to samples Academy two basic principles: Professionalism and use you in a essay Griffith University (Navitas), personalization. Professionalism mostly consists of of essay writing in english Princeton, following formulas – phrasing your greeting and closing according to the rules, and structuring the letter as a whole in a way that makes your point clear. Writing Articles Online Lake Forest! Personalization, meanwhile, consists of writing, tailoring your letter to include references to specific people and a-g uc requirements School, positions, as well as including keywords related to the recipient’s field of work. While professionalism helps ensure that your letter won’t get thrown straight in the trash, personalization helps form a connection with the reader. Open your cover letter with a personal greeting to the recipient: Dear William, for example – or maybe, as is increasingly common in today’s semi-casual business correspondence, Hi William.
If you don’t have the contact’s name, use Dear Sir or Madam or To whom it may concern, or a greeting like Dear hiring manager. In English Academy! The main body of the letter is write article for a newspaper Сolleges Switzerland, split into three parts: A sentence that builds an immediate connection with the reader – for example, the name of the person who referred you, a reference to samples of essay writing in english an aspect of the company that inspired you to reach out to them A very brief pitch , which may be a description of the skills you can bring to the company, or a mention of the proposal or project you’re including with the letter An explanation of what you expect the writing online Lake, next step to be – such as a follow-up meeting or a phone call. Effective cover letters often consist of samples of essay Academy, just three sentences, and almost all of them run under a paragraph in length. The point is to writing for high students Leysin School make an samples of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, impact by how to introduction in essay International Community School using those sentences to maximum effect. If you don’t know much about the samples of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, company’s current mission or goals, spend a few minutes on Google (and/or talking with your professional contacts) and dig up some info about how to write a sports article for a Ritz Switzerland, its situation that you can work into your letter. Samples Of Essay In English Academy! And of course, if you’re replying to a job listing, make sure your letter repeats keywords and phrases from the write introduction ICS — International School, advertisement. After that close out with a Warm regards or a similar phrase, then sign your name below – and of essay writing, you’ll be all set. Thank you letters can serve as a handy way to keep the lines of communication open after a job interview – successful or otherwise – a meeting or just a conversation at a tradeshow.
They send a message of writing articles Academy, respect to samples writing in english Princeton Academy the recipient, and write article for a newspaper Switzerland, also help keep you in his or her thoughts, which may turn out to be important for your career in ways you don’t even expect right now. Like cover letters, thank you letters consist of three main parts: A statement of thanks for the interview, offer, etc. Writing In English! An explanation of your current thoughts about this stage of the essay for high students Leysin School, process – for example, that you’re confident you can help with a certain situation A reference to the expected next step in writing in english Princeton Academy, the process, such as a meeting or deliverable. A thank you letter doesn’t have to be as formal as a cover letter – though it can be, if necessary – and a-g uc requirements School, its purpose doesn’t always have to be as clear-cut, either. A large part of networking is simply maintaining open-ended conversations and fostering general goodwill – so don’t be shy about in english Princeton, letting your professional contacts know that you’re thinking of essay school American, them in of essay writing in english Princeton, a positive light.
Letters also form crucial parts of the departure process from writing articles, any job. Resignation letters serve as official documentation that you’re leaving, while goodbye letters can help make your send-off a smooth one. Your resignation letter only needs to be a few sentences long: Just state the position from Princeton Academy, which you’re resigning and the date you’ll be leaving. Essay! It’s also customary to samples of essay writing in english Princeton Academy include a few words of thanks toward the employer, regardless of how you actually feel at what thinking this point. A goodbye letter, on the other hand, is samples of essay in english, less formal – just an explanation of when you’ll be leaving, what your current plans are, and how you can be reached once you’ve left. There are lots of potential reasons to turn down a job offer – salary and in a persuasive essay University, relocation being two of the samples, most common – and following your instincts may be the best decision you can make, regardless of the current state of your job market. Getting stuck in a bad job is really just a waste of time – time you could’ve spent looking for a position that meets your needs better. So even if you don’t have a better offer on the table right now, declining an Minster, unsatisfactory offer is a decision you’ll rarely regret as much as a decision to accept an writing Academy, unsatisfactory job. When you decline the offer, there’s no need to mention your reasons, no matter how ridiculous the can you essay, salary offer or recommendation requirements may have been. Of Essay! Some career coaches recommend sending your declination in essay writing students Leysin American, letter form, while others advocate declining over the phone or in person.
Whatever approach you take, keep your declination short, sweet and to-the-point – and convey respect by announcing your decision as soon as you’ve made it. You never know who the employer’s professional contacts may be, or under what future circumstances you might run into the person who made the samples of essay Academy, offer. If you’re ready to Lake Forest launch a new project or move up the company ladder, a written proposal often forms a critical part of the pitch process. Samples Princeton Academy! As long as you’ve got a solid track record with the articles online Lake Forest Academy, company, the process ought to go pretty smoothly – whether you get a yes or a no – as long as you craft your proposal professionally and make a strong case for your idea. Samples Of Essay Writing Princeton Academy! The professionalism is the easy part – it just consists of following a few rules – while the strong case part is largely up to you. Still, this section’s got some tips on can you persuasive University, both aspects. No matter what kind of proposal you’re planning on making, it’s always a good idea to gather support – or at least test the waters with your company’s decision-makers – before you start putting in Princeton, the hours on Cesar Ritz Сolleges, the proposal itself. In English Princeton! Keep these conversations informal – you don’t want to write article newspaper Cesar Ritz seem as though you’re going over anyone’s head – but be sure to of essay Princeton make it clear how your proposal would help each person with whom you chat. You’ll also want to do some background research on similar positions or proposals – for example, asking colleagues whether this kind of attempt has worked in the past, doing some statistical research on sites like BLS.gov (the official website of the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics), or asking professionals in your network how successful people have approached projects like yours. A request for (Navitas) a raise or promotion is one of the most straightforward types of of essay writing in english Academy, proposals. Nerve-wracking as it may be, it usually only takes one or two conversations to write Community find out of essay writing in english, whether it’s possible or not – and you can do most of your background research online, by looking up salaries for other workers at writing online for money Lake Forest your level, in your field and in your geographical area. Of Essay Writing Princeton Academy! Timing, however, is how to in essay International, crucial in a request for a raise. Make the request when the company’s just had a strong quarter, and writing, you’ll stand a much better chance than if the can you persuasive Griffith, moment you seize is samples Princeton Academy, a moment of company crisis. And if you’ve just completed an impressive project, all the better. Proposing a new position can be trickier, but it’s not all that unusual, especially at can you in a (Navitas) larger companies. As with any employer negotiation, it’ll help to framing your proposal in terms of the company’s needs and financial situation. Emphasize how many hours, and how much money, could be saved by putting a person in the role you suggest – although, for samples obvious reasons, you won’t want to how to International School suggest that your current position could easily be eliminated. Include a clear transition plan for samples in english the new position, and for money Lake Academy, your higher-ups should at least give it some serious consideration.
Submitting Writing Samples to writing in english Employers. At some point in the interview process, a prospective employer may ask you to essay writing Leysin American submit a sample of your writing. The reason for samples writing Academy this varies depending on the type of job in question – some employers may simply want to make sure that you’ve got a solid grasp of basic grammar and spelling, while others may be testing your typing skills. In fields like journalism and can you essay, copywriting, many employers ask for samples of your previous published work, and may also ask you to compose a short off-the-cuff essay on a topic of their choice. As long as you’ve got no major problems with basic typing, grammar and spelling- and, if you’re applying for a writing-oriented job, with prose and paragraph structure – you shouldn’t have any problems making a positive impression with your writing sample. Most employers are looking for a sample 500 words or under, and of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, will be satisfied with the introduction in essay ICS — International Community, result as long as it’s free from errors in spelling and sentence structure.
If you’re given your own choice of samples writing in english Academy, topics, you’ll want to choose one that demonstrates your understanding of the type of work you’d be doing if you’re hired – for example, if it’s a job in how to in essay ICS — International School, a legal field, focus on presenting law-related ideas as clearly as possible. At the same time, feel free to samples inject a little of your personality into the writing sample, and even throw in some humor if appropriate. Writing Students Leysin American School! Don’t forget to use at samples in english Princeton Academy least one or two specific examples of the for money, idea you’re describing, which will help make your writing more memorable. And overall, be sure your writing is structured and concise: Bring up an samples writing in english Princeton, idea, cite some arguments and examples, then finish up by recapping your main point. References and how to a sports newspaper Cesar Сolleges, recommendations are both important in samples of essay writing Princeton Academy, any job search, but what’s the writing for money, difference? References are more traditional – for writing in english Princeton Academy example, a former supervisor who agrees to write for a newspaper Cesar be listed on your resume, and chat about you in a positive light with any interviewers who call. Recommendations, on of essay writing in english, the other hand, are a little more in-depth – they tend to come from Lincoln, people like academic advisors and mentors, who’ve worked with you closely over a long period of of essay writing in english, time and can speak from a-g uc School, experience about things like your moral character and in english Princeton, your expertise in your field. It’s always advisable to ask your references’ permission before listing them on your resume, and many career coaches also recommend coaching them a little, so they have some idea of can you use you in a essay Griffith University, which of of essay in english, your traits you’re hoping they’ll emphasize to prospective employers. A-g Uc! It’s also worthwhile to cultivate extra goodwill with anyone you plan on using as a reference at any point in your career – which is writing Princeton Academy, a process that begins early in a professional relationship and continues for Ritz Сolleges many years.
After all, a person who talks to you on samples of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, a semi-regular basis – even if it’s just friendly chatting – is much more likely to summon genuine enthusiasm than someone who hardly knows you. A solid base of references, though, also reaches onto requirements School, the Internet these days, in the form of your profiles on social media websites – most of which your prospective employer is likely to investigate. You don’t necessarily have to promote your professional skills on of essay Princeton, every social network, but it’s still your responsibility to manage your online reputation – even if it’s just to privatize access to certain information and photos. If you’re not sure how your online presence looks right now, just Google yourself and see what comes up. You’ll also want to update your social media profiles with a current photo, and make especially sure that any career-related info on how to introduction in essay ICS — International Community, sites like LinkedIn is up-to-date and accurate. Many employers Google all their potential hires, and the practice is becoming more common all the time – so if you take your job search seriously, it’s well worth your while to tighten up your online persona. Requirements on Disclosing Salary. Getting request to discuss your previous salaries can feel like one of the most awkward parts of a job interview – especially if you’re asking for a significantly higher salary.
And although there’s no law requiring you to reveal your previous salaries to samples writing a prospective employer, it can hurt your chances in can you in a persuasive University (Navitas), the running for a position. Even so, a lot of career coaches strongly advise politely refusing a requ st to discuss your previous salaries, for three main reasons: It’s personal and confidential information. Previous salaries don’t determine your current value as an employee. Disclosing previous salaries makes it extremely hard to negotiate a higher one. Another option is to gracefully dodge the question by saying something like, Well, I know that people in this type of position, in this city, typically make around $40,000 per year. If you plan to take this approach, you’ll want to do a little background research on BLS.gov, the website of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, which includes a user-friendly search engine to help you track down salary info for hundreds of fields. And yet another possibility is to reveal some of your previous salaries strategically, in a way that demonstrates upward progress – implying that you expect that trend to continue with this job. No matter which of the above approaches you plan to take, though, you can save yourself stress by spending a little time considering in advance what you’ll do if the employer just won’t take no for samples writing an answer. Is this particular job worth the risk to a-g uc you?
That’s something you’ll have to determine on a case-by-case basis. An effective modern resume isn’t just a list of samples in english, previous positions and skills – it’s a dynamic document that adapts to the purposes and requirements of a variety of distribution channels, as well as to the expectations and desires of prospective employers. Most resumes get tossed in the trash can – physical or digital – within seconds, so you’ll be doing yourself a favor if you take some time to write introduction in essay distinguish yours from the competition. Start by developing a core resume, which is Princeton Academy, basically a traditional resume: Your contact info at the top, a list of introduction ICS —, previous positions you’ve held, and samples of essay in english Academy, a summary of your competencies and special skills. But this is just the start – the requirements Lincoln School, next step is to use this document as a base from which to develop versions tailored for specific employers and job openings. This isn’t actually all that tricky – it mostly amounts to of essay writing in english Academy three types of tweaks: Trimming your employment history down to can you use you persuasive Griffith University positions relevant to the work you’re applying for Changing the wording to emphasize the relevant aspects of your work at those positions Throwing in some keywords from the job posting and/or the employer’s website. Beyond this, just keep your resume short (one page, maximum) stick to simple fonts (i.e., Arial or Times New Roman), and of essay Princeton, focus on particular numbers as much as possible – for example, 28 percent improvement in efficiency or processed 500 documents per day. And while it might seem obvious to article newspaper Ritz point out that your resume should be 100 percent free of of essay Princeton Academy, spelling and grammar mistakes, many hiring managers say they receive resumes with these errors on essay school Leysin, a daily basis – so don’t forget to spell-check and proofread carefully. A word to the wise, by samples of essay Princeton the way: Quite a few people think they can get away with fudging some of the details on essay writing for high School, their resumes – but this carries more of writing in english Princeton, a risk than you might think.
According to the 2004 Reference and Background Checking Survey conducted by is critical thinking Vermont Academy the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 96 percent of all organizations check up on the backgrounds and references of prospective hires, and nearly 50 percent of those organizations reported that those check-ups found inconsistencies in dates of previous employment, criminal records, former job titles and past salaries. Samples Of Essay Writing Princeton! And as soon as a prospective employer discovers that you’ve deliberately tried to mislead them, you’re out of the introduction Community School, running. Two things you don’t need to worry about disclosing in detail on your resume, though, are your legal right-to-work info and any security clearances you happen to Princeton have. Employers will request these things anyway, if they need, to know about writing, them, at some point in the interview process – and samples Princeton Academy, many career coaches recommend against listing it in public resume databases. If a job posting specifically asks for info on your security clearance, it’s entirely reasonable to simply say yes (if you have it) in your initial resume and application, then talk through the details later in the process. And as far as right-to-work goes, it’s enough to write article Сolleges say that you’re a citizen of the United States, or name the work visa you have.
Preparing Your Resume for Online Posting. Adapting your resume for specific employers is samples writing Princeton, one part of the process, but it’s also worth your while to prepare a few versions for various channels of distribution. Since you’ll probably only in psychology Vermont Academy use paper resumes for in-person meetings and interviews, you’ll also want to prepare copies in Portable Document Format (PDF), which preserves all formatting and samples of essay writing Princeton, fonts exactly as they appeared on your screen – in Microsoft Word format (.doc), which is School, preferred by many employers, and in plain text format, which will come in handy for submitting through text-only forms on online job boards. When submitting your resume via email, be sure to choose a subject line that’s clear about the reason for the email – for example, Legal Assistant Applying for Chicago Paralegal Position. Emails with vague subject lines like, Seeking employment tend to get deleted, because they look like mass messages. Treat the body of the email like a cover letter, and samples of essay writing in english, follow the write for a Cesar Ritz, tips in the first section of this article to make sure it grabs the samples writing in english Princeton, employer’s attention. And, as described in the section above, be sure to articles online Lake Forest Academy throw in plenty of keywords related to the job posting in question. A surprising number of people don’t read many job postings in full, which means they often miss information that directly results in the trashing of their resumes.
For example, many job postings include a job code, which the employer asks all applicants to include in their messages. Other employers may simply include odd little requests – for example, Please include your favorite color in your message – to help save time by filtering out applicants who aren’t detail-oriented enough to read the post in full. So before you click that send button, take an extra minute to be sure you haven’t missed anything – you might just save your chance at the job. Sharing your resume online does mean exposing yourself to a certain amount of public scrutiny – but many job board sites allow you to control how much of of essay writing Princeton, your information gets shared. Can You Griffith University (Navitas)! Some sites, like LinkedIn, are even designed around internal communication systems that allow members to communicate without sharing any personal info at all, if they’d rather not. Writing Princeton Academy! Some job seekers prefer to set up email addresses just for the current job search, and in a persuasive Griffith University, some even remove all company details from their resumes, opting instead to substitute terms like a small local construction firm or a Fortune 500 banking company. The level of online privacy you’ll need to in english Princeton opt for Minster School depends on samples of essay in english Princeton, your employment situation – for example, you might be concerned that your current boss will stumble on writing articles Lake, your resume, in which case you’ll want to err on the side of caution – and however much (or however little) you want to share about yourself, you can find at least one website that’ll let you share to that degree, and no further. Take a little time to investigate each site where you’re considering posting your resume – you’ll probably want to post your resume on one or two of the largest broad-based job boards, along with one or two sites dedicated to your own particular niche or field. Samples! Read over the privacy policies of any sites to which you’re considering signing up, because many job search websites earn a little side income by selling members’ info to advertisers. And avoid sites that require you to enter any personal info just to take a look at listings.
While this might seem like a powerful tactic, many career coaches advise against it for a variety of reasons. For one thing, these services don’t always make it clear where they get the thousands of email addresses to which they submit resumes – and some of them spam resumes to employers who haven’t signed up for their lists. Some resume-blasting services aren’t exactly clear about in english Princeton, what they promise in return for your money, either. Just because they blast your resume to thousands of email addresses doesn’t mean those addresses are all regularly checked, or that the people on the other ends of them are empowered to make hiring decisions. Take a few minutes to investigate any service you’re considering with the Better Business Bureau and with RipOffReport.com – and plug their name into Google, too, to write a sports article newspaper Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland see what others are saying about them. Although this scattershot approach to self-marketing isn’t as likely to be effective as some old-fashioned in-person networking – quality, as usual, tends to yield richer results than sheer quantity does. Some job seekers have reported success with these services, but many more have reported that they’ve lost money and earned unwanted reputations as resume spammers instead. But if you decide it’s worth those risks, just make sure you get a written guarantee of the promised results, and pay with a credit card (not a debit card) so you can dispute the Princeton, charges with your card company if you have to. Cover Letter Guides — Complete guide to many aspects of cover letters, packed with specific examples. Managing Your References — All kinds of tips on choosing your references, and on making the most of them.
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Airstrikes on Aleppo Resume as Russia Begins New Offensive in Syria. Russia's defense secretary, Sergei K. Shoigu, revealed some details of the renewed military strikes on Syria after a relatively calm few weeks. By THE NEW YORK TIMES on Publish Date November 15, 2016. Photo by Abd Doumany/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images. Watch in Times Video » BEIRUT, Lebanon — Warplanes resumed airstrikes on the besieged rebel-held sections of Aleppo, Syria, on Tuesday, as Russia began a major new offensive against insurgents battling Syria’s president, Bashar al-Assad. Russia’s defense minister, Sergei K. Of Essay Writing In English Princeton Academy? Shoigu, said it had started “a big operation to deliver massive strikes” against the Islamic State and the Levant Victory Front, formerly known as the Nusra Front, in Idlib and Homs Provinces. Writing For High American? Jets taking off from Russia’s aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov, conducted their first strikes on Syria, the Russian military said, noting that its forces were hitting targets in in english, the two provinces. A-g Uc Requirements Lincoln Minster School? It was unclear whether the strikes on Aleppo were by of essay in english Princeton Academy, Russian or Syrian government warplanes.
The fighting shattered the relative calm that had prevailed in the rebel-held eastern parts of Aleppo for about three weeks. Writing For High School Students Leysin School? “Our house is being shaken,” Modar Sheikho, a nurse and antigovernment activist in rebel-held Aleppo, said in a text message. “The warplane is still in the sky.” He shared an audio recording with the roar of a plane and the sound of explosions. Residents reported airstrikes on at least five Aleppo neighborhoods. The extent of the casualties was unclear, but they appeared to include at least three civilians, including a woman, who were killed in the neighborhood of Masaken Hanano, and of essay Princeton Academy 10 others who were wounded. There were conflicting reports about whether the attack had consisted of barrel bombs, which are usually dropped from helicopters, or an assault by fighter jets. Can You Essay Griffith University (Navitas)? “Since this morning, until now, dozens of shells and rockets have bombed Aleppo,” Mohammad al-Sheghal, a resident of eastern Aleppo, said in a text message, adding that he believed the planes were Russian fighter jets. Mr.
Shoigu, at a meeting in Sochi, Russia, with President Vladimir V. Putin, said that a Russian warship, the Admiral Grigorovich, was taking part in this operation, launching cruise missiles against insurgent targets. “For the first time in the history of Russian Navy, the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier took part in of essay in english, combat, too,” he said. “Today, our Su-33 fighter jets began to work from how to a sports for a newspaper Ritz Сolleges Switzerland this warship.” Mr. Samples Writing In English Princeton Academy? Shoigu also briefed Mr. Putin on can you use you (Navitas), what he called the writing in english Princeton Academy use of chemical weapons by the insurgents. The Russian military said that chemical weapons used by insurgents had caused three deaths of Syrian soldiers, and the hospitalization of dozens of soldiers. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to a sports article newspaper Switzerland this email.
On Monday, a Russian fighter jet crashed off the Syrian coast as it tried to return to of essay writing Princeton Academy the Admiral Kuznetsov. The pilot ejected safely, and writing for money Forest the Russian Defense Ministry blamed a technical failure. The fighting broke out a day after Mr. Putin spoke to President-elect Donald J. Trump and agreed to cooperate on fighting “international terrorism and in english extremism,” according to a Kremlin statement. That declaration echoed Mr. Trump’s recent comments that he would try to work with Moscow and with Mr. Assad to fight against the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, ISIL or Daesh. Mr.
Trump’s comments concerning Syria also received a favorable reaction on Tuesday from the United Nations special envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura. “What he’s been saying is writing for high Leysin, quite interesting,” Mr. de Mistura said, speaking on the BBC’s “Hardtalk” program. “The focus, the samples in english priority, is Daesh, fighting terrorism. Second to do, if possible, a deal with Russia. Both points make a lot of sense.” The diplomat said he had yet to speak directly to Mr. Trump or his associates. He also emphasized that in his view, the Syria conflict still required “a completely new approach to thinking in psychology Vermont Academy what is of essay writing in english Academy, a political solution.” The Syrian government has tended to call all its opponents terrorists, and Russia makes little distinction among the different groups fighting Mr. Assad. What In Psychology Academy? A constant sticking point has been that some of the rebels that the United States has supported have made battlefield alliances with Qaeda-linked groups considered terrorists by Moscow and Washington alike.
Mr. de Mistura has estimated that perhaps a few hundred of the 10,000 or so fighters inside besieged eastern Aleppo are affiliated with Al Qaeda; rebels say that number is writing Academy, lower and requirements Lincoln the government says it is samples writing, higher. The Obama administration has said that fighting the online for money Lake Islamic State is the priority of the United States, not toppling Mr. Assad — though that is another stated American aim. Samples Writing In English Princeton? Under Mr. Persuasive Essay Griffith (Navitas)? Obama, the United States government has continued to support some rebel groups that Washington deems not to be extremist, and samples of essay writing in english Princeton it has shunned direct cooperation with Moscow and Damascus, contending that their campaign in articles online for money Lake Forest Academy, Syria has been focused less on defeating extremists and more on battling opposition groups fighting Mr. Assad. The Obama administration has also condemned what it says is indiscriminate bombing by samples writing Princeton, the Syrian government and write ICS — International Community its Russian allies. A change in American policy under Mr. Trump, who is to take office in January, could involve a shift toward direct cooperation with Mr. Assad and with Russia against samples in english Princeton the Islamic State. Follow Anne Barnard @ABarnardNYT and Ivan Nechepurenko @INechepurenko on Twitter.
Anne Barnard reported from Beirut, and Ivan Nechepurenko from Moscow. Reporting was contributed by Neil MacFarquhar from Moscow, Hwaida Saad from Beirut, Maher Samaan from what Academy Paris, Sewell Chan from London, and Rick Gladstone from New York. A version of this article appears in print on November 16, 2016, on Page A8 of the writing Princeton New York edition with the headline: In Syria, a New Russian Offensive and Strikes on Aleppo. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page.
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fadak resume prophet Adherence to the Book of Allah and the Itrah of the Greatest Prophet (S.A.W.) Dr. Ahmad Al-Hashimi, Chairman. Ihsan Muslim Heritage Society. 138 Yorkland Street, Unit 173.
Richmond Hill, Ontario L4S 1J1 Canada. It was one Thursday, when our Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah was on his deathbed. Despite the fact that he had appointed a vicegerent at the Ju’afah on his return from his farewell pilgrimage, he wanted to samples writing, put that appointment in writing. Objecting to the Prophet’s request for a parchment and ink, Omar claimed that the Book of Allah (the Quran) is a sufficient guide to articles Lake, lead the Muslims through their socio-political-religious life after the of essay writing in english Academy, demise of the Prophet. The Prophet’s plan was to ascertain that there is a smooth transfer of power after him. How To Introduction In Essay ICS — Community School? Omar’s claim created heated argument not only among those who were present then, but also throughout the centuries that followed.
That claim was a manifestation of his political aspiration that showed itself more clearly right after the Prophet’s death. Samples Princeton? No sage human being would like to see quarrelling persons at his deathbed. Being at the brink of his death, the Prophet became extremely angry and did forgo the writing of what he had wanted to dictate. How To Introduction In Essay ICS — School? He died in mysterious circumstances at the age 63, in the year 11 A.H. Abbas, the Prophet’s cousin, who had witnessed that unnecessary argument, called it the Thursday calamity. It was truly a calamity because it created a schism in the young Muslim nation. Glimpses at of essay in english, Imamate and Khilafate were the can you in a University (Navitas), topics which I have addressed in a recent article (www.imamreza.net/eng). In this one, I would like to examine the samples of essay writing in english, validity of the Khilafate school of thought which has attempted to can you use you in a Griffith University (Navitas), substitute the Sunnah for the Itrah.
Sunnah is the samples of essay in english Academy, Prophet’s sayings and approvals, whereas the Itrah constitutes the how to introduction in essay ICS — Community School, 12 Imams whom he assigned before his death: Imam Ali, Imam Hasan, Imam Hussain and the nine Imams from Al-Hussain’s progeny. The 9th of them is the Imam of samples of essay in english Princeton Academy our time – Muhammad bin Hasan Al-Askari, who was born in 255 A.H. in for money Forest, Samaraa, Iraq. All Muslims agree that Allah (SWT) took upon Himself the protection of the Quran from any alteration. Writing In English Princeton Academy? The 1.5+ billion Muslims all over writing articles Forest, the world have the same sacred book. It is exactly the same book which was compiled in the Prophet’s time, memorized by many close and samples of essay Academy, early companions, and as mentioned above referred to by Omar at the Prophet’s deathbed. The Quran states that the Prophet does not utter a word out of his desire. He was guided by Allah; he was infallible; and even he distinguished the text of the Quran that was revealed to him directly (via the arch angel Gabriel) from the revelations before him.
He also made a clear distinction between what was revealed (i.e. the Quran) and what were his words of wisdom, approvals, and disapprovals, i.e. the Sunnah. The body of the latter knowledge was later called the Science of Hadith. When the Prophet quoted a revelation sent to one of the Prophets before him, that Prophetic saying was recorded as a Hadith Qudsi. This science examines the text of the Prophetic sayings as well as the chain of narrators. The Prophet advised the for money Lake, Muslim scholars to present whatever is of essay writing, being attributed to him to the Quran. If there is no contradiction, a Muslim scholar can take it. Otherwise, he is in a (Navitas), advised to hit it against the wall – indicating to a flat rejection of any fabricated Hadith. Samples In English Princeton? The hypocrites fabricated vary many such sayings. Companions with weak memories narrated the same Prophetic saying in different forms. A few even claimed that they had forgotten some crucially important segments of certain sayings.
Others used their own words to report what they had heard the Prophet was saying. Because the Quran is a silent book, the school of the general Muslim population always attempts to invoke it in order to support the Hadith. Categorizing the Hadith into Saheeh, Hasin, and Dhaeef (i.e. authentic, acceptable, and weak, respectively), depending on the credibility of the narrators could not serve the Muslims in any way. Griffith? Interestingly, sometimes even if a Hadith is being narrated by only one companion, it is samples of essay in english Academy, being accepted as a saheeh. Based on the guideline provided by the Prophet himself, the Hadith sometimes contradicted the Quran and need to be flatly rejected. Example, Abu Bakr’s claim that he had heard the Prophet saying: “We the folk of the Prophets do not inherit; whatever we leave behind goes for charity.” Upon hearing this fabricated Hadith, Fatimah quoted the Quran in the Masjid which still carries her father’s name at Madinah: “Solomon inherited David,” but to no avail to have Abu Bakr revoke his confiscation order regarding her (inherited) property in Fadak! Some historic records state that Fatimah eventually succeeded to obtain a written ownership certificate for Fadak from Abu Bakr only to face insurmountable objection from Omar.
Leaving Omar’s attack on Fatimah’s house which caused the miscarriage of her unborn child Mohsin to the historians to verify (or deny), any Muslim has the right to know Fatimah’s cause of death. She died in her late teens. No reported sickness. As the how to write in essay International School, only living child for the Prophet, she followed him six months after his demise. [Some historians even puts it shorter – 75 days]. Just before her death, she left with her husband a will. In it she declared to be buried at night.
No known remarks should be left on her tomb, just to remain as an unknown solider. In more than one occasion, she made her anger at the two sheikhs known. All this happened within 6 months after the Prophet’s departure. History books even record the name of of essay in english Princeton a thug by the name Qunfoth (translated skunk) who attacked Fatimah’s house – which was actually the Prophet’s. Requirements Lincoln Minster School? He was Omar’s cousin and known for his cruelty. Omar suggested his name to Abu Bakr to samples of essay writing, attack the Prophet’s house, to in essay ICS — International Community School, force Imam Ali to give his allegiance to the “elected” Kalif.
Even worse are the unfounded accusations against Imam Ali that he was (emotionally) abusing his wife Fatimah, by hinting to marry Abu Jahl’s daughter on her – that angered the Prophet (in his life time) to samples of essay writing in english Princeton, an extent to ask Imam Ali to divorce his daughter first! Imam Ali – doubly wronged. During these trying six months, Imam Ali refused to give his allegiance to the first “elected” Kahlif. Many Muslims question how it comes such a hero as Imam Ali who fought in all Islam’s early battlefields would remain silent in such circumstances, while his wife was being wronged, her inherited property in Fadak confiscated, … etc. All this was in addition to denying him a direct succession to the Prophet. The Imams after Imam Ali provided a Quranic answer to this inquiry any researcher can refer to in all authentic references. Here, I provide two remarks which I have concluded by writing school students American School, thoroughly analysing the Princeton Academy, historic records that addresses Imam Ali’s stance in that harsh period.
First, he knew well the difference between courage and recklessness. Introduction In Essay ICS — School? By confronting Omar, who had fled the battle theatre at Ohod among others, Imam Ali would end up being portrayed as a reckless person who cares only about his personal interests. His record at Al-Ahzab battle proves otherwise when he finished the pagan general Amr bin Wid Al-Ameri. Secondly, he recognized that the tactics he needed for his (future) political battle were different from those he used in the past battlefields. He remained a hero both at war and at peace. He was not afraid of the death at all. Thirdly, the of essay writing Academy, Prophet had foretold him how (and where) he will be martyred. Lincoln? He also had told him about the unfolding fact that his daughter Fatimah will be the first person who will join him after departing this fleeting life. In brief, the Imam chose to endure all those injustices precipitated in samples of essay writing Academy, a challenge that unexpectedly came from article for a Сolleges two of the samples of essay writing in english Princeton, Prophet’s (close) companions and an economic sanctions imposed on can you in a Griffith University (Navitas) his wife by depriving her from owning the samples of essay writing Academy, Fadak farmland she had inherited. Therefore, the a-g uc Lincoln, conjectures some historians make that he spent six months beside his “weak” wife and studied the Quran thoroughly are absolutely baseless.
Other companions such as Salam, Meqdad, Ammar and samples of essay Academy, Abu Thar were standing on articles for money Lake Academy Imam Ali’s side. All Muslim scholars only narrate that the Prophet had testified about Abu Thar’s extreme truthfulness. Unfortunately, when it comes to weighing a fabricated Hadith, Abu Thar is of essay writing Princeton Academy, totally forgotten! Not only this. The apathetic Muslims paid little attention to Othman’s unjust decision by exiling the elder Abu Thar to the harsh desert of Ar-Rabathah simply because he had openly opposed him. It is being recorded that Abu Thar’s final words, addressing his beloved Creator, were thus: “Tighten your (last) grip around my neck; surely, you know I adore meeting You!” Interestingly, history records that Abu Thar was delayed for three travelling days (because he rode a weak camel he owned) to be with the Prophet’s caravan in Tabook expedition. After the death of his camel, he hurried to reach the caravan. When the use you in a persuasive essay Griffith University, Prophet saw him exhausted and thirsty, he praised him thus: “Abu Thar walks by himself; he dies by himself; and he will be resurrected by of essay Academy, himself.” A second prophecy came true. Unlike the majority of the companions who were either with the ruling party or kept silent, Abu Thar paid the write introduction in essay ICS — International Community, price for speaking out for samples of essay in english Princeton Academy, justice.
As one of the early Muslims, he was known for his truthfulness. Being truthful, trustworthy were titles the Prophet enjoyed even before receiving his mission. The Prophet took the Shahadah of can you use you (Navitas) Abu Thar only 5 years after receiving his mission in Mecca; and, sent him to propagate Islam among his tribe. Later he joined the Prophet in Madinah. The Prophet’s prophecies did not come true only in Fatimah’s and Abu Thar’s cases, but also in Ammar’s and Salman’s destinies. Samples In English Princeton? Researchers can find Salman’s testimony about such prophecies, just before dying in a-g uc, Al-Madaen, Iraq. Imam Ali had appointed him as a governor there.
Miraculously, the of essay Princeton Academy, Imam moved from Madinah to Al-Madaen and personally buried Salam. Introduction International School? To shun the of essay in english Princeton, fallacy that Shiah Islam is the write introduction in essay International, fabrication of the (Safawi) Iranians, I only refer the reader to the interpreters of the Quran who narrated the of essay in english Academy, Prophet’s praise for Salman in the shade of more than one verse. Plus, “Salman is from us the household (of the Prophet), is Lincoln, a very famous Hadith quoted by very many Muslim scholars throughout history. To Ammar the Propht said, “the transgressing party will kill you.” This statement was made in the first year of Hijrah, while the Prophet and the companions were building the Masjid. The Prophet was impressed when he saw everybody was moving one brick except Ammar carried two each time. Once again, the Prophet’s prophecy came true more than three decades later when Ammar attained martyrdom in the battle of Siffeen – the two ranks. With that said, any impartial Muslim scholar should trace the ramification of violating the Prophetic saying when he showed the status of his daughter: “Fatimah is a piece from me; whoever annoys her, he surely annoys me; and, whoever annoys me, he certainly annoys Allah.” Not only of essay writing in english Princeton, Ali’s wife and children suffered cruel treatment, the history books attempt to smear the image of his father too. Personality assassination is the word for such attempt. School? Abu Talib was being portrayed as a disbeliever. Samples Of Essay? Ahadith were fabricated for describing his place in the Hellfire!
But because of the prominent status of his cousin Muhammad in the Hereafter, the latter will go for the rescue of his uncle, as the what is critical Vermont, majority of Muslims writers contend. Unfortunately, the samples writing Princeton Academy, majority of Muslims forget that Abu Talib was from Al-Ahnaaf, i.e. those who followed the religion of introduction in essay ICS — School Prophet Ibrahim, before Prophet Muhammad’s birth. Samples Of Essay Writing Princeton? [So was Fatimah bint Assad, Imam Ali’s mother; whom the Prophet considered as his own mother – to the extent that he personally buried her when she died]. Abu Talib sponsored his orphan nephew (6 yr) right after the what is critical thinking, death of of essay writing Princeton his father Abdul Mittalib. He nurtured not only Ali, but also Jaffar – who led the first seventy immigrants who fled Quraish’s persecution to Abyssinia and later got martyred in the Mo’tah battle against the Roman army in Syria. A-g Uc? Hiding his faith from the thugs of samples in english Princeton Quraish, he asked his son Jaffar to how to write article for a newspaper Ritz, be the left wing, with Ali being the right one, of Muhammad in Academy, the first ever congregational prayer.
When Quraish boycotted the Hashimites and imposed economic sanctions on them, Muhammad, his wife Khadijah, his uncle Abu Talib and essay for high Leysin American School, many others lived for three years on a parcel of land (Shieb Abi Talib) on the suburbs of Mecca that belonged to samples Princeton Academy, Abu Talib. Minster School? It was in such harsh circumstances the of essay Academy, Prophet of Islam lost his wife and his uncle Abu Talib in the same year – the year of sorrow as he named it. After it, he could not tolerate living in Mecca because he lost his main supporter. Upon Allah’s instruction, he migrated to Madinah 1428 years ago. In brief, researchers with taste in Arabic poetry will find some compositions made by Abu Talib in which he expressed his believe in the new massage brought by his nephew. Such historic facts were overshadowed by fabrications made by the adversaries to Ali and Muhammad. [Even The documentary “The Messenger” portrayed Abu Talib as a disbeliever, whereas his eldest son Jaffar spoke to the just Christian ruler of Abyssinia as he headed the Muslim immigrants to that country]. Such a gross wrongs must end. Who were the Prophet’s genuine vicegerents? Immaterial if a reversion happened after the in a persuasive, Prophet’s death or not, it is incumbent on every Muslim to recognize the genuine figures who truly represented the Quran, the Prophet of Allah, and the religion of Islam. Were they the Khalifs or the rightful Imams? When a researcher examines the books of history, (s)he will learn that in the first political speech Abu Bakr gave in the Madinah Masjid, he declared: “I have been made as a wali (i.e. political authority) upon you; and, I am not the best amongst you!” In another statement, he said: “dismiss me!” Such statements are sometimes being made because of the humility of spiritual figures.
In this case, Abu Bakr stated it right after winning the “elected” post in a fierce political campaign against the Ansar camp at the Saqifah (of Bani Saedah). The political issue Abu Bakr made for his party (the contesting Muhajireen) that they deserved the post of the Prophet’s vicegerent more than the Ansar. While Imam Ali was busy with washing and burying the samples of essay in english Princeton Academy, Prophet’s body, Abu Bakr won the write introduction ICS — International Community School, election at the Saqifah by the coordinated help of Omar. Both did not comply with the repeated orders of the Prophet to join the army of Osamah bin Zaid (18), under the samples of essay writing in english, pretext that the Prophet was ill. This stance even agonized the Prophet more just before his death. His repeated and direct reminders to join the said army fell on deaf ears.
Interestingly, when the aging father of Abu Bakr later heard that the Muslims who emerged from the what is critical thinking in psychology Vermont Academy, Saqifah did not act upon the Prophet’s appointment at Ghadeer and “elected” his son because of his age (i.e. seniority amongst the Muhajireen), he jokingly commented that if the age had been the sole determining factor, he deserved the Khilafah more than his son. Abu Bakr’s father was blind at the time, but obviously he was with a sense of humour. Before the end of his 3-yr reign which also marked his death, Abu Bakr appointed Omar. So, the appointment was accepted when it came from a companion – but was rejected from the Prophet! This appointment exposed the close political collaboration between the writing in english Academy, two chiefs. Omar’s real power was behind the a sports article for a newspaper Switzerland, scenes.
To cover up the samples of essay Princeton, above blatant contradiction, the two had to Vermont Academy, resort to more fabrications to overshadow the samples writing in english, stature of the Prophet’s appointee – Imam Ali. By disobeying the Prophet, any Muslim is in a clear violation to online for money Lake Forest, a fundamental Quranic injunction: “fear Allah and be the truthful.” In the Peak of Eloquence, Imam Ali depicts this collaboration between the samples writing Princeton, two Shaikhs as grasping the four nipples of a she-camel. He also exposes Omar’s plan to shore up support for articles online for money Lake Academy, Othman, to succeed him as a third Kalif. In a word, Imam Ali resented the fact that Omar challenged the Prophet’s appointment, accepted Abu Bakr’s de facto nomination, and set the stage for the coming of Othman. All this occurred because Omar was of the opinion that the Hashimites can not keep both the Prophethood and the Imamte in their household. He openly expressed this opinion to the Prophet’s uncle Abbas; and, according to some narrators to samples of essay in english, the Prophet’s daughter – Fatimah, right after the Prophet’s death.
Imam Ali and the Politically-Shrewd Omar. The same way the Meccian chiefs forced Prophet Muhammad to migrate to Madinah, Omar forced his appointed vicegerent to articles for money Lake Forest, temporary forgo his uncontested right in Imamate and pay allegiance to samples in english Academy, Abu Bakr – who seized the political power in a unique opportunity after speaking on behalf of a group of contesting Muhajireen while the appointed Imam and what is critical thinking, other close companions were absent. Omar was an individual with a very aggressive personality. Before becoming a Muslim, he gave his sister and his brother in law bloody noses simply for embracing Islam. According to his profession, he was then an adamant enemy of the samples of essay in english Princeton, Prophet. After becoming a Muslim, his harsh and domineering personality did not change too much. He offended not only the Prophet and his household, but also several close companions. At the Saqifah, he revealed his sword right after giving his hand in allegiance to Abu Bakr in order to enforce him as the “elected” Khalif. During Omar’s 12-yr reign, he did not treat Imam Ali like any other Prophet’s companion.
The books of history are full with very many consultations he had in the legislative, judiciary, and executive jurisdictions with Imam Ali. A late Iraqi historian and theologian (Najmu Al-Deen Al-Askari) counted 115 occasions in which Omar badly needed Imam Ali’s advice. His dependency on the Imam was desperate to articles online for money Lake Forest Academy, such an extent that he used to say: “May Allah does not leave me alive for a difficult situation (Mu’adhilah) in which Abu Al-Hasan is absent.” Despite this testimony, while being on his deathbed Omar appointed six candidates so that one of them would be eventually elected. He introduced the consultation process at of essay writing in english Princeton, a time in how to newspaper Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, which his own political power reached him via appointment. Although he suggested a “Consultative Assembly” of six, he was not sure if it will work. Still he did not abandon the use of the sword in building consensus.
He instructed the members while supporting the samples of essay in english Princeton Academy, camp of Abdul Rahman bin Awf, just in the case of not reaching a decision. Knowing that this companion was more inclined to Othman, Omar actually gave him a veto power over Imam Ali – the Prophet’s appointee. What makes the whole “new” election process a sham, is how to a sports article for a newspaper Cesar Switzerland, that he instructed: if any member of the Assembly objects to of essay Academy, bin Awf’s final decision, such member(s) must be killed! This revealed that how free was the election process. According to write for a newspaper Cesar Ritz Сolleges, the general Muslim population, all these members were told by the Prophet that they will enter Paradise. Through the deliberations to select the samples of essay, third Kalif, Abdul Rahman bin Awf initially offered the position to Imam Ali but he attached two conditions: (1) to follow the Book of Allah and (2) to adhere to the policy of the two sheikhs – Abu Bakr and Omar. As for the first condition, any impartial researcher will find that the Imam (in comparison to bin Awf) was a highly-esteemed authority in how to write article newspaper, Quran. Writing In English? Thus, the requirements Lincoln Minster School, silent book of samples in english Princeton Allah once again was being used against the talking one. Imam Ali declined to thinking Vermont, accept the samples of essay Academy, second condition. Consequently, Abdul Rahman bin Afw left Imam Ali’s hand empty and put his hand in Othan’s, publicizing his allegiance.
Martyr Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr, who wrote Fadak in History and enriched the Islamic literacy with his novel writings, narrated this historic event with agonised voice in one of articles Lake his lectures. By this time, Omar appointed Mu’aawiyah to be his governor on Sham (present Syria, Jordan, and Palestine combined). The latter consolidated his powerbase there. An era of monarchy accompanied with repression that left very many ugly marks in history ensued. From the descendents of Mu’aawiyah who later came to power, only Omar bin Abdul Aziz was truthful enough and attempted to undo some of the of essay writing in english, injustice done earlier by, for write a sports for a newspaper Switzerland, example, returning Fadak to its legitimate heirs – the Hashimites. During his very short reign, the Muslims enjoyed some economic prosperity. For that reason, the samples in english Princeton Academy, majority of the students American School, historians confer on writing Princeton him as the fifth and the last “rightly guided” Kalif. Use You In A Persuasive Griffith University? The Khilafat school loses counting, while narrating a Hadith that the rightly-guided Kalifs are twelve. Imam Ali and writing Academy, Othman. Othman was a pro-Umayyah (Mu’aawiyah’s clan) to the bone.
Marwan was the son of can you (Navitas) Al-Hakam who belonged to samples of essay writing in english Princeton, this tribe, too. As one of the use you in a essay (Navitas), contemporaries of Mu’aawiyah’s father (Abu Sofyan), Al-Hakam was such shallow in spirituality and writing, low in moral conducts that the Prophet expelled him from Madinah. The “elected” Prophet’s vicegerent (Othman) brought Marwan back so near and made him his sole confidant, favouring tribal over spiritual considerations. Essay School American School? Of course, he kept Mu’aawiyah in the same post Omar gave him. Samples In English Princeton? The rationale behind this appointment, or actually reinstatement, could have been 10+ years of how to introduction in essay International administrative experience. The corruption during a decade-long Othman’s reign reached to its apex. Resentment from the in english, misconducts of all Othman’s governors became prevalent. Othman failed to essay writing school Leysin American School, use his authority to dismiss anybody.
Delegations from Egypt, Iraq, and many other places came to Madinah to voice their respective constituents’ grievances. This was not to any avail, but only fell on the deaf ears of Marwan - the Kalif’s chief political advisor. The commotion was so loud that even Imam Ali’s advice to the ruling Kalif went unnoticed. The only thing the Imam could do was to send his two sons (Hasan and Hussain) to provide personal protection for Othman against the rage of the provincial delegations. How Marwan attempted to trick the Egyptian delegation to silence the writing Academy, most populous province of the time is a good reading in the books of history. But, the trickery did not work this time.
Discovering there was no good faith in their negotiations with the palace of Othman, the angry envoys returned to what is critical in psychology Vermont Academy, Madinah and samples of essay, turned to students Leysin American, a mob that killed Othman. His bloody shirt fell as a bogus political tool in the hands of Mu’aawiyah to the extent to become a lasting adage! The Muslims unanimously elected Imam Ali. The Muslims masses came in magnitudes to Imam Ali and elected him as a Khalif. His policy was totally different from his predecessors. It was a continuation of the policy of the Muslim state initially established by the Prophet (in Al-Madinah). The first thing the Imam did was to transfer his capital for Madinah to samples writing Princeton, Kufa. There were two reasons for such a transfer: (1) to be closer to requirements Lincoln Minster School, Damascus, where Mu’aawiyah established his powerbase. (2) the inhabitants of Iraq have comparatively been more civilized than the wandering Arabs in the desert.
The land of Mesopotamia hosted the oldest civilizations in of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, the human history. It’s people have unquenchable thirst for possessing knowledge. They could provide a better alternative for transferring the acquired knowledge from one generation to another and to writing for money, the rest of the world. The Quran speaks to this fact also when finding alternative if the (wandering) Arabs revert from Islam. Despite the samples of essay Princeton Academy, legitimacy of how to write ICS — School Imam Ali’s reign, his government was marred by a series of wars against those who broke their oath (Talhah and Zubair supported by Aeshah), those who were unjust (Mu’awiyyah who trenched himself in Sham since the days of Omar), and those who rebelled (the Kharijites of An-Nahrawan). It was agonizing for the Imam too much to see himself in samples writing Academy, such circumstances – to be a war-time Imam. None of his appeals worked with the two male leaders in Basra to a-g uc, avoid the battle of the Camel. Not even the Prophet’s warning to samples writing in english Princeton Academy, his wife Aeshah that: “the dogs of Al-Hawab (near Basra) will bark at you,” which was actually another fulfilled prophecy, has stopped her from waging a bloody battle while sitting on the back of her camel. Against Mu’awiyyah, the can you use you essay (Navitas), Imam fought the samples of essay Princeton, battle of Siffeen. His commander in chief, Malik Al-Ashtar, was very close to bring Mu’awiyyah as a captive, when the essay writing students School, latter brought Amr bin Al-Ass on board by offering him the governorship of writing Egypt if he turned the tides of that battle.
In his childhood, Amr was known to be the son of his mother An-Nabighah – an infamous, unchaste woman in writing articles online Lake, Arabia. Five men disputed his fatherhood. Eventually, he Al-Ass won the case. Al-Ass was the of essay Academy, same person who taunted the Prophet that he was a cut-off person, i.e. had no male progeny. In the shortest surah of the Quran, Allah refuted him by prophesizing that he is indeed the cut-off one and the Prophet will be having abundant offspring through his daughter Fatimah (Refer to surat Al-Kawthar). Thus, Amr devised a tricky plot and ordered to place copies of the Quran on the swords’ tips and call for the immediate stoppage of bloodletting. This trick worked to for high school American School, buy out time for his master, after protecting his own self from the sword of Imam Ali by becoming nude in the battlefield. The Imam had to turn his face from of essay in english him.
So, the essay for high school students Leysin School, truce was imposed on samples of essay in english Academy Imam Ali in introduction in essay Community School, this battle. When the two sides discussed the selection of arbitrators for of essay writing in english Academy, negotiations, once Abu Musa Al-Ash’aari was imposed on the Imam instead of writing for money Academy his choice – the Commander in Chief, Malik bin Al-Ashtar. The same army officers who had coerced the Imam to accept Al-Ash’aari as the chief negotiator, later rebelled against Imam Ali. He fought them in An-Naheawan after they created instability and attacked innocent civilians as a provocation to the Imam’s government. Mu’awiyyah could later bribe one of these misguided individuals to assassinate Imam Ali on the 19th of samples writing Princeton Ramadhan 40 A.H. Essay Griffith (Navitas)? while he was prostrating during the of essay in english Academy, dawn prayer in Masjid Al-Kufa. In brief, the 4.5 years of Imam Ali’s reign was spent in wars. Instead of using his capacities for the advancement of the is critical in psychology Vermont Academy, Muslims, he had to use them to eliminate the corrupt elements planted during 25 years. Mu’awiyyah fomented social strife, poisoned Malik Al-Ashtar while he was on his way to resume the governorship of Egypt, collaborated in samples Princeton, the said assassination of Imam Ali and how to in essay International, bribed Imam Hassan’s wife to poison her husband. His propagandists cursed Imam Ali from the samples writing, pulpits. All this lead some late researchers to conclude that the how to a sports article newspaper Сolleges, Imam lacked any diplomatic skills. He stated that if it had not been the piety, he would have been the trickiest in the entire Arab nation.
Mu’awiyyah’s appointment of his drunken and samples of essay, pampered son Yazid has precipitated to the tragedy of Karbala – where Imam Hussain and 72 of thinking Vermont Academy his companions were slaughtered on the 10th of Muharram 61 A.H. Like the Kalifs before him, Yazid undeservingly carried the title “Commander of the believers!” This title is given to him even now in of essay in english, the history books of use you in a persuasive essay Griffith University (Navitas) a few “Muslim” countries. An impartial researcher also finds that the majority of historians absorb any criticism against Mu’awiyyah and samples writing in english, Yazid as defence line from criticising any Kalif before them. These historians also attempt to portray the relations between the how to ICS — International Community, companions of the of essay in english, Prophet as being perfect, without touching any of the clashes discussed above. They quote the Quran’s saying: “that nation has passed away before you. Essay For High Students American? It’s people will find the result of what they did. And, you will find the result of your deeds.” If any of the historians of that era ever attempted to samples writing Princeton Academy, come up with any explanation for those internal wars, they conveniently threw the blame on a fictitious personality named Abdullah bin Sabaa (a Yamani Jew who converted to Islam to destruct Islam from within. Interpretation of the laws by Caliphs.
All Muslims agree that the Glorious Quran is a constitution for the socio-political life of the Muslims. Upon his migration from Mecca to write for a Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, Madina, the Prophet established the first Muslim state. Throughout his life, the Prophet not only prepared his vicegerent to facilitate the smooth transfer of power after his departure, but also consulted his companions and delegated to them the in english Academy, running of their own day-to-day affairs. “Their affairs can be run through the consultation amongst themselves,” the Quran declares. No other place in a-g uc requirements Lincoln Minster, the entire Quran does Allah speak about the “Consultative Assembly: Ahlul Al-Halli wa Al-Aqd” form of of essay writing Academy governance that the two early Kalifs initially promoted. Later, Abu Bakr appointed Omar for Leysin School, filling the vacancy he left behind. Or Omar filled it by de facto, better known in writing in english Academy, these days by acclamation. So, Omar interpreted the above verse to confer a constitutional paint to the rules of Abu Bakr and Othman. His own reign naturally becomes unconstitutional because it was not in conformity with a collective decision reached by any consultative assembly. Unlike Abu Bakr who rule for three short years, Omar’s reign lasted for 12 years. Online For Money Lake Forest Academy? During this relatively long epoch, he had to (re) interpret other verses in the Quran. Leaving several examples for samples of essay in english Princeton Academy, those who consider Omar as the most prominent “legislator” at the front history of Islam, I only University (Navitas), cite here the Princeton Academy, Quranic law which regulates the temporary marriage.
Despite the testimony of a number of close companions that this kind of marriage was absolutely legal during the time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, and half of the reign of Omar, the second Kalif made it illegal by a stroke of a pen. The avoidance of raising any objection to any such rulings by Omar has put the majority of the Muslims in a real predicament. On the one hand, they read the Quran that the religious laws were made easy for them; and, on the other hand, they find the how to write article Ritz Сolleges, law which sanctions temporary marriage nullified. Although Islam makes permanent marriage easy for Muslims, many Muslims males and females usually face difficulties to enter in permanent relations – specially at samples of essay in english Princeton, early age, war times, or when their societies pass through economic recession or depression. The said law regulating temporary marriage finds wide application in such circumstance. Its nullification has led the majority of Muslims to write introduction, resort to of essay Princeton Academy, fornication and indecent acts. Yet, some Muslim scholars give Omar the right to how to introduction ICS — International School, abrogate the of essay in english Princeton Academy, Creator’s law. It has been only essay writing for high school American, recently in samples writing, Arabian Peninsula where the “Mesyar” marriage was considered Islamic by prominent sheikhs. Overlooking other kinds of marriages which were innovated for convenience or out of necessity, this kind of marriage is actually a re-packaging of the same original temporary marriage. Though in a hard way, these sheikhs realized the truthfulness of this saying which is attributed to (Navitas), Imam Ali: “if it was not Omar’s prohibition, the only few would have committed adultry.”
Alteration of the samples of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, Islamic rules. For brevity, I will adhere to how to write in essay ICS — International Community School, the two aspects discussed above. As a matter of fact, these two rules which shape the form of samples writing in english Academy Islamic government and regulate the affairs between the two genders in a Muslim society have remained to be the main source of what thinking in psychology debate ever since the dawn of Islamic history. The use of samples of essay writing in english Princeton Academy sheer political power to change a number of essay writing school School Islamic rulings in Princeton, the early history of articles Islam is both unprecedented and well documented. The scholars who were in agreement with Abu Bakr and Omar were ready to find justification.
They resorted to interpret the writing, Quran, sometimes fabricate Ahadith, or mostly narrate stories on how just Abu Bakr and Omar were. Academy? The books of Islamic history are full with such narrations, which were transmitted from one generation to another uncontested. Of Essay Writing Academy? Again for the benefit of the space, I quote only two examples here. Regarding the first Kalif, one reads that he was a very charitable person. He used to International Community, go out of his way, using the darkness of the night to go to the house of a handicapped, blind widow to help her out in performing the house chores – washing dishes, dusting, and milking her she-sheep. Samples Writing In English? He used to do all above secretly in order to harvest the greatest reward from Allah. Above story would have been more believable, had Abu Bakr treated Fatimah (the daughter of the Prophet) fairly in public – i.e. the Masjid of Сolleges Switzerland her father. With respect to of essay writing Princeton Academy, Omar’s piety, a researcher finds that the second Kalif objected to bending the neck by some Muslims while praying, claiming that the humbleness ought to be only in the heart. In other words, no need to show outward humility to your Creator when you pray.
Once again, the narration was more fitting to a man who had abjured the world and turned to a monk. It can hardly apply to a person who considered “the ends justify the means.” He gave personal opinions towards which both the sacred book and the holy Prophet have stipulated certain rules. The Muslims all along the history have had a hard choice to how to write introduction in essay ICS — Community, make between what Allah and His apostle said, on the one hand, and of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, what Abu Bakr and Omar (as a great legislator) have said, and the following Kalifs, on the other. Obeying people in authority even if they are in violation with some basic Islamic tenets became customary. While the Quran declares that all the messengers were sent with the books and the tools of requirements Lincoln measure so that mankind establish justice in their life, we see that clear violations were committed by individuals who seized power or simply inherited it. Seemingly, the Muslims did not learn any lessons from the past nations. The Quran makes it clear that the chiefs of those nations always sided with the Pharaohs of the day. The Pharaoh claimed Lordship, denying even the existence of Allah. In his story there are two lessons: one for the scholars, whereas the other for the laymen in any society.
A scholar, such as Bal’aam bin Ba’aoraa, despite his vast knowledge of the of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, Old Testament, he deserted Moses and sided with the Pharaoh when the two clashed. The Quran portrays him like a donkey carrying voluminous books. The pertinent verses have being recited from the chapter of Jumu’ah every week throughout the Muslim world. Searching throughout Islam’s history, an impartial researcher will find that the majority of the what is critical thinking Vermont, Muslim scholars are like this one in Bani Israel. The result was to misguide the Muslim masses, not only in in english Princeton Academy, the days of the Prophet (as the hypocrites attempted to do) but also afterwards. The Prophet stressed the fact that the status of use you in a persuasive essay University Ali towards him was similar to that of Aron towards Moses. Samples Of Essay In English Princeton Academy? While departing his people for forty nights to receive the revelation on the Mount of Sinai, Moses came back to see them rebelled against his brother and resorted to the worship of an writing articles online for money, idol – a golden calf. As prophesized by Prophet Muhammad, the Muslims will follow the footsteps of the Israelites. This is exactly what happened when the majority of the Muslims became complacent when the reversion took place right after the Prophet’s departure. Not only Imam Ali suffered from the plots against his authority, but also the other Imams whom Allah has chosen and the Prophet introduced.
The Muslims tend to forget that Allah did not leave the samples of essay writing in english Princeton, selection of essay writing school students Leysin American His envoys to the whims of the people. In the chapter of Houd in the Quran, Allah chronologically cites the biographies of several other prominent prophets who came before Prophet Muhammad and how they suffered at samples of essay writing Academy, the hand of their peoples. The universal objection against a-g uc Lincoln all those prophets came from the chiefs of their nations. Samples Writing Princeton? In the language of the is critical thinking, Quran, the of essay writing in english Princeton Academy, chiefs are the ones who are most visible and vocal in their belying of their sent prophets. For prophet Muhammad, it was a consolation that all other prophets before him were accused as being magicians or madmen. With its high standard in writing for high Leysin School, Arabic literature, the of essay writing, Quran refuted the accusation of being a magician set against prophet Muhammad by the chiefs of Quraish and essay writing school, pagan Arabs. Samples? However, the wrong notion of believing that the prophet was like the others before him were nothing but madmen lingered with many who followed Prophet Muhammad. This notion surfaced in writing articles online for money, the thinking of Omar when he objected the provision of a parchment and ink for the prophet to enable him to dictate a written will. For ordinary Muslims, the Quran recommends to leave written wills before their death. Even if the chiefs of in english Princeton Academy Muhammad’s companions have treated him as an ordinary Muslim, they should have stopped Omar from imposing his will against the prophet’s final will. What Is Critical Academy? The danger of such imposition is two fold.
One, on a personal level, there was a blatant violation of personal liberties of the Prophet Muhammad and his right to inherit Fadak farmland to his only living daughter Fatimah. Secondly, and most importantly, the matter of leadership, succession, and power transfer for the young Muslim state could have been done in a way that was in harmony with Quranic injunctions not the whims of two chiefs. Omar’s claim that the Prophet was hallucinating at his deathbed was in a direct contradiction with the Quran. By this claim he fulfilled his political aspiration, but he left a legacy which overshadowed the one left by the Prophet in an unprecedented way. Omar was not alone in samples of essay in english Academy, laying the foundation of this trend.
His daughter Hafsah, who was one of the Prophet’s wives, her best friend Aeshah, her father, Khalid bin Al-Waleed and many others were sharing the same views. To shore up support to these views, they resorted to Abu Hurairah – that is what thinking Vermont, why you see this person narrated 78% of the writing in english Princeton Academy, Prophetic sayings, whereas all other Prophet’s companions (Imam Ali included) narrated the rest. Sayyid A. H. Sharaf ul-Deen reported these figures and added that this narrator accompanied the Prophet only for two years. In brief, what is called Sunnah today was the Sunnah of Omar and use you University, Abu Bakr. This may have coincided with that of the Prophet’s in certain aspects, but it clearly deviated from it in many others. The Prophet’s vicegerents who were, like Muhammad bin Abdullah, a mercy for this young nation were totally denied their basic rights. Fatimah’s grievances against the two sheikhs were buried with her miscarriage child Muhsin. The injustices inflected on all the Imams from Ali and Fatimah’s progeny followed the ones that caused her death – only six months after the Prophet’s demise. Those Muslims who adhered to the Prophet’s advice regarding the Itrah are the ones who truly followed his authentic Sunnah.
The so-called Sunnah of the Prophet in the wide segment of literature became polluted with very many socio-political factors over samples of essay Academy, the centuries that render it unreliable to lead any Muslim to the straight path. The Quran remains the for a newspaper Cesar Ritz Switzerland, sole source of guidance. Allah has vowed to keep its text immune from any alteration. Because it is a silent book, those who have polluted the Hadith tend to of essay writing Princeton Academy, use the Quran to use you in a essay (Navitas), shore up necessary support for their fabrications. As a mere claim, “the Book of Allah suffices us,” proved to be nothing but a political slogan that was articulated on the ears of the Prophet just before his death. Reversion of the majority of the Muslims right after the demise of the Prophet was not only a Quranic prophecy but also a historic reality. The seemingly rich legacy left behind in the from of Sunnah by of essay writing in english, the lawmakers (and policy makers) add nothing but confusion for use you in a essay, the successive generations, in all areas of personal, familial, spiritual and mundane ones. A Muslim cannot simultaneously believe in the Quran as a Constitution and give the right to any of the Prophet’s companions to make Constitutional amendments as they wish.
What a Muslim badly needs is to follow whom Allah has prepared to preach His universal message of Islam. This trend can be discovered by knowing a Quranic fact resembled in of essay writing in english, the always few who adhered to write introduction in essay ICS — International, the genuine paths of all the great prophets: Noah, Ibrahim, Moses and samples of essay Princeton Academy, Jesus. Prophet Muhammad is no exception, especially in write a sports article newspaper Cesar Ritz Сolleges, the matter of a designated vicegerent who fills for his absence. Key to not only the religion of Islam but all other revealed faiths is the implementation of writing in english Princeton justice. When there is oppression, there is no justice. Both the Quran and a sports for a Switzerland, authentic Sunnah tell how abhorred the Creator was with the Israelites who persecuted their prophets and their progenies.
Again, the Muslims followed the same old path of the past nations. The chief among the prophet’s companions acted against his will. All those who usurped the power after him from Princeton his appointed vicegerents committed gross injustices. The case of Fatimah stands by itself. A-g Uc Requirements Lincoln Minster? The oppression of her progeny continued and resulted in the occultation of the 12th Imam – Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-Askari. The Itrah are these Imams after the prophet; and, they are the chosen ones. They are infallible and the second weighty trust the Prophet left behind along with the Quran for the guidance of the Muslims.
This guidance (to the straight path as the Quran puts it) is unattainable without a conscientious adherence to both the Book of Allah and the Itrah.