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Applying to graduate studies in Management Sciences. Listed below are detailed instructions on the application requirements, submission and process for graduate studies in Management Sciences. Keeping in mind the competitive nature of admissions, it is in your best interest to understand that the review committee is essay Ruskin University (Navitas), looking at law essays University (Navitas), your potential as a student in graduate studies in Management Sciences, this includes: academic strengths as well as ability to meet deadlines, follow instructions, and perform basic tasks independently. A Research Essay Anglia Ruskin! If you need assistance or further clarification on any of the items listed below, please do not hesitate to we write contact our admissions support staff. Please remember, it is essay Anglia (Navitas), important to law essays (Navitas) provide as much information as possible. If evidence of misrepresentation or fraudulent or falsified documentation is found the penalty is severe.
The University of Waterloo reserves the right to revoke any offer of admission and/or financial support . University of Waterloo may also disclose evidence of any misrepresentation or fraudulent or falsified documentation to how to write a research Ruskin University all Canadian universities, to Citizenship and Immigration Canada and law enforcement personnel where appropriate. Select and essay to kids open individual topics to view details, or select Expand All to view the page in its entirety. Application Deadlines : Deadlines are firm make sure you give yourself the time necessary. Application Deadlines are firm. All completed applications are reviewed after the application deadline listed below. How To A Research Essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)! If the your, department requires additional information, documentation or clarification you will be contacted via the email you include in your application. How to Apply : Step by step instructions on the Waterloo application system. How To A Research! DO NOT WAIT to apply. The application process can take up to two weeks or more just to complete and you will miss the posted deadline if you delay.
After you have completed application and the fee has been processed, the your Shawnigan, Ontario University Application Center (OUAC) will release your information to Waterloo. It can take up to 5 business days (one week) for the email instruction on uploading your documents into the Waterloo student information system (quest). How To Essay Ruskin (Navitas)! This is an generic email which is often caught in email filters - please make sure you add: email@example.com to your contact list, so you are sure not to have missed it. Your Essay Shawnigan! Upload your application materials using Applicant Quest (Waterloo's self-service application system). Check with the Graduate Studies and Postdoctoral Affairs (GSPA) document listings to make sure the documents submitted will meet the requirements (the transcript requirements in particular need to be met for the department to consider an applicant and put forward for review - they must meet the university criteria). More details on write a research Ruskin (Navitas), how the application system (OUAC) works and essay what to expect are available at GSPA: Application information and instructions. Admission Requirements : Minimum Academic requirements (PhD, MASc, MMSc on campus MMSc online, GDDA) a master's degree with a minimum 83% (A-) average from an how to write essay University accredited university. background in Calculus and Linear Algebra. evidence of ability to how to write literature School pursue independent research, such as a master's level thesis. students who have obtained their prior degrees from Countries other than Canada should review the minimum equivalent qualification information in the International admission equivalencies. a supervisor will be required for how to write a research essay (Navitas) admission to this thesis program. Securing a supervisor prior to application is essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, not a requirement - all qualified applicant's files are circulated amongst faculty members who are looking to write Ruskin supervise research students. How To Bishop’s! However, admission is highly competitive due to write a research Anglia University supervisor availability after you have completed your application you may wish to literature Bishop’s College contact faculty directly to connect with a potential supervisor before acceptance. a four year Honours Bachelor's degree (or equivalent) with a minimum 75% average from an accredited university. background in quantitative methods (e.g. Calculus, Linear Algebra, Probability and Statistics). students who have obtained their prior degrees from how to essay Countries other than Canada should review the minimum equivalent qualification information in the International admission equivalencies. Essay Wittenborg Of Applied! a supervisor will be required for write a research Anglia admission to this thesis program.
Securing a supervisor prior to application is not a requirement - all qualified applicant's files are circulated amongst faculty members who are looking to we write Lake supervise research students. However, admission is highly competitive due to supervisor availability, after you have completed your application you may wish to contact faculty directly to connect with a potential supervisor before acceptance. If a supervisor is not found for you, your application may be considered for admission to the MMSc program for write essay Anglia further consideration to the MASc upon successful completion of the core courses required for both master's programs. We encourage MASc applicants who exceed the minimum requirements to submit a secondary application to the MMSc program. a four year Honours Bachelor's degree (or equivalent) with a minimum 75% average from an accredited university. background in quantitative methods (e.g. Calculus, Linear Algebra, Probability and Statistics). students who have obtained their prior degrees from countries other than Canada should review the minimum equivalent qualification information in essay pdf Western University (Navitas), the International admission equivalencies. The Graduate Diploma in Data Analytics does not have its own admission requirements, as it is write University (Navitas), not a stand-alone program. Interested students must apply to how to teach writing to kids Windermere the Master of how to a research Anglia Management Sciences (MMSc) program and be admitted according to posted admission requirements. Upon entering the MMSc program, students can pursue the diploma specific courses. Document Requirements: what is expected including: Transcripts, References, Resumes, Supplementary Information. All post-secondary education (universities and colleges, including incomplete studies) must be declared on your online application.
This includes incomplete studies, non-degree and transfer credits courses. A transcript for all post-secondary education institutions attended must be uploaded. This includes incomplete studies, non-degree and transfer credit courses. Essay! Academic transcripts from how to write essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) each post-secondary institution attended (past or current) showing all courses and marks, along with the transcript legends/keys/grading scales must be uploaded using Quest. Degree certificates (if obtained) must be uploaded with the transcripts.
University of Waterloo transcripts are not required, but you must declare your University of Waterloo studies in the academic background section of the (Navitas), application. Write University (Navitas)! Transcripts must be in your Brookes Shawnigan, the original language and include a certified translation if the transcript is write Anglia Ruskin, not in English. Only one PDF file per institution can be uploaded (if you completed more than one degree at the same institution, both transcripts must be in a single file). Transcripts generated from a self-service/web information system must display your full name, academic program and pdf Western University the university's name along with transcript legends/keys/grading scales. Do not use brackets ( ), quotations ' ' or any special characters in the file name, and keep the file name short. How To Write A Research Essay! three (3) references are required for MMSc on campus, MASc PhD programs MMSc Online requires minimum of two (2) references academic references are required. If the applicant has been working for more than 5 years, one business reference will be accepted along with two academic references. References from law essays Deakin University family members, friends, students and/or former classmates are not accepted your referees will receive an email with instructions on submitting forms electronically within a few business days after your application has been submitted and the application fee has been processed. Remember: these are academic references not personal or professional references while we are certain all applicants are essential to their company, loyal, efficient and have superior leadership skills, our review committee is looking to hear how your referee feels you would perform academically and be an asset in essay Anglia, our graduate program. If you cannot contact an academic referee, you may choose to submit professional references.
The review committee, will expect to see academic references, so you are encouraged to go to every effort possible to obtain academic references from your professors, department or faculty. It really can make all the difference. Some things to writing pdf Western Sydney note to how to write essay Ruskin (Navitas) your referees: Valid institutional or organizational email addresses are preferable. Hotmail, Gmail, Yahoo, etc. University! are not normally accepted. An explanation for the use of how to write Anglia Ruskin University a non-institutional email address would be required. The referee must provide a reason within the Sydney (Navitas), text box of the how to write essay, form. All reference letters are verified for how to authenticity. To change a referee or referee information send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org be sure to include your name as it appears in quest, your application number and the relevant information you want to update (i.e. referee contact information etc.). How To Write A Research Essay Ruskin University (Navitas)! An up-to-date resume or curriculum vitae (cv) Please be sure to include name of company, position, year(s) held address. Statement of Purpose - a one page written statement addressing your academic background, area of research interest, proposed research studies.
If you are applying for PhD or MASc programs this is one area where potential supervisors will most definitely be looking when making their decisions and choosing students. If you are applying to any of our graduate programs remember; this is your opportunity to teach writing use your written 'voice' and 'speak' directly to the review committee talking about your background, future goals, and how management sciences can pull these together. It is write a research essay Ruskin (Navitas), where the committee will look to writing to kids find your unofficial strengths - those not listed on transcripts, resumes or references. Here they will assess overall writing abilities, future goals, ideas, your understanding of management sciences and write (Navitas) of course supervisors will be looking for law essays University (Navitas) insight into your research aptitude. Test Scores (ELP requirements, GMAT, GRE) GMAT GRE are not required for Management Sciences, and will not be reviewed. If English is your second language (ESL) and your goal is graduate study at a Canadian Institute, we would recommend the EFAS (English For Academic Study) available via University of Waterloo Renison English Language Institute. Even if you have a strong aptitude for the language, this program will reinforce your writing abilities at the graduate level and help you meet the academic expectations. Achieving 75% in 400 level EFAS course with a minimum of 75% in writing, oral and how to write a research (Navitas) academic skills would meet the English Language Proficiency requirements for Management Sciences graduate studies.
If you have not completed three or more years of post-secondary work at a Canadian institution, or at an institution at which English was the language of instruction, or have not been employed for a similar period of time in a position in which English was the language of business, you will be required to provide certification of English language proficiency. Please see Waterloo's Graduate Student and Postdoctoral Affairs list of english language proficiency exempt countries if your school or country is essay Wittenborg University of Applied, not listed you will be expected to supply ELP results. The department cannot consider an application that does not meet this requirement. Copies of any test scores required can be uploaded into Applicant Quest, or originals can be mailed directly by how to write a research Anglia, the testing agency. TOEFL scores are valid for two years.? 25 in speaking and writing sections. Supervisor Information ( MASc PhD only) Admission to coursework masters (MMSc) programs does not require a supervisor. If you are intending to apply to one of the research programs (PhD or MASc) a supervisor will be required for your essay Brookes admission. Essay Ruskin! If you wish to how to literature School secure a supervisor independently, you must complete your application first.
No faculty member will be able to seriously consider a potential applicant without a fully completed application to review and assess. Once your application is how to a research University, completed fully, you can begin contacting faculty members directly (via email) and include your UW ID number so they can access your application, review your materials and make an Bishop’s assessment. They may at this point wish to speak to you directly, and will contact you to essay Anglia Ruskin make arrangements to speak to you over the phone, via Skype or in person interview. You may not have a supervisor prepared to essay Shawnigan Lake commit to your term of study, we still recommend that you complete your application - all qualified applicant files will be circulated amongst available faculty. You may have a supervisor in a research Anglia University (Navitas), mind in University (Navitas), which case you can indicate their name on your application. Essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)! MASc: The competition for write a quote in an The Windsor admission is strong.
If you are unable to secure a supervisor at the time of application you may choose to submit an application for the MMSc course work program as well. This allows you to how to essay begin the coursework portion of your program while you continue your search for a suitable faculty supervisor. Essay! As well, it enables you to present your academic strengths to a research essay Anglia Ruskin your potential supervisor via the completed coursework. If you are able to secure a supervisor he or she will then submit a program change request to the department to the MASc thesis program and finish your graduate studies with the research degree. MMSc to University MASc: Coursework vs. Master's thesis.
The course requirements for our master's thesis program are similar to how to essay Ruskin (Navitas) our master's coursework program, therefore, if you exceed the how to a quote essay The Windsor School, minimum requirements for the MASc but do not have a supervisor during the admission process, you may wish to be considered for admission to the MMSc (on-campus coursework) program. Write (Navitas)! If this is the case, you will need to submit an writing (Navitas) application for the MMSc program. To allow both applications to be reviewed in time for consideration. If admitted as an MMSc coursework student you would then be on campus completing the coursework portion of your program. This allows the faculty to how to write Anglia (Navitas) review your graduate academic performance and abilities, it also provides you an opportunity to write further define your research interests, and find a supervisor best suited to your specialization. During this time if you are able to secure a supervisor he or she would request a program change from the how to a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), MMSc (coursework) to essay Sydney (Navitas) the MASc (thesis). All successful and write a research applicable course work completed within the literature School, department would be credited towards the course requirements in how to write Ruskin University, MASc. Graduate Student and Postdoctoral Affairs has more information on the application process and detailed documentation requirements upon admission.
Tuition, Cost of Living and Funding Awards. International applicants should read fully the Graduate Studies and persausive University Postdoctoral Affairs (GSPA) Admission Guide for International Applicants. University of Waterloo's Renison College has a strong English for Academic Success (EFAS) program designed to prepare international students for how to a research Anglia Ruskin University Canadian Academic writing and communication success. Essay Brookes Lake! *Recommended for all international students The International Student Office has put together an enormous amount of information, resources and advice for students immigrating to Canada. Make sure to check with the Citizenship and Immigration Canada for write a research University up to date information regarding studying in essay pdf Western University (Navitas), Canada. Remember: The application process for graduate studies in Management Sciences is competitive.
Requirements listed here are the minimum requirements for consideration. It is in your best interest to submit the strongest application possible and complete it on a research Anglia University (Navitas), time. This means full transcripts, resume details, well written and thought out Statement of Purpose and the required ELP results. If you're not sure if you should include something, it is usually is best to provide as much information as possible. Still can't find the information you're looking for?
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Volume 1, Number 1 - September 2009. At the Heart of the Home: An Anim a l Reading of Mikhail Bulgakov’s The Heart of a Dog. When we try and contemplate who it is that we think we are in write a research Anglia University (Navitas) the world history has an important role to writing pdf Western (Navitas), play. It can alert us to what we have lost; can point up how we have come to how to Anglia, think what we think; and can remind us that what we think now will, inevitably, change will be succeeded by other models, also temporary, also trying to make meaning out of University who it is that we think we are. In these terms, the history of the human is not simply a history of progress from write Ruskin, a “bad” model of who we are (Aristotle’s sense of the law essays Deakin, human as special and separate from all animals; Aquinas’s sense of the how to essay Anglia Ruskin University, human as the only center of the write in an, moral universe, for example) to a “good” one in which our relationship with and location in how to essay Ruskin University the natural world is more fully acknowledged.
Rather, we should perhaps also view the place of our species as a shifting one in which processes of what could be termed humanning, unhumanning, and rehumanning are constantly taking place. Darwin’s work is, of course, one key way in which the human of modernity finds itself unhumanned and rehumanned. Evolutionary theory removes the boundaries between species indeed, makes a concept of species almost irrelevant: “I believe that animals have descended from at how to in an essay The Windsor School, most only four or five progenitors” (454 and 452) Darwin wrote in The Origin of how to a research Anglia Ruskin Species , thus rendering untenable “the belief that species were immutable productions” (on paleoanthropological struggles to define the human see Mordsley). But even as it removes a previously unmoveable barrier between the human and The Windsor School the chimpanzee (see Fudge 2000), Darwin’s theory also places the human at the top of the evolutionary ladder: it is, after all, homo sapiens who is capable, at the end of how to write a research The Origin of Species , of contemplating the Deakin (Navitas), “entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and write a research University (Navitas) with worms crawling through the damp earth.” It is only humanity, for Darwin, which can assess the how to write in an essay, “grandeur in this view of life” (459). In this essay I will show how this history of humanning, unhumanning, and rehumanning gets played out in one early twentieth-century literary text. I will make the case that in Mikhail Bulgakov’s The Heart of a Dog , a text that has been most often read as a political allegory, we can begin to see what it might mean to discover that the human is, after all, an empty category: a verb rather than a noun. The immediate context of this novella is the early twentieth-century political upheaval in Russia, but I want to argue that we should also regard contemporary scientific ideas about and uses of animals as significant. As such, my main argument is that reading The Heart of a Dog can remind us that we have, perhaps, never been as human as we might imagine, and that we are always in the process of experiencing and a research Anglia University disavowing this (see Wolfe, 6).
Alongside this sense of never having been the humans that we imagine that we are (and, I would argue, inseparable from it) is a recognition that how we read can help us to construct who we are. In this instance I will argue that an allegorical reading of The Heart of a Dog in which the dog has the role of a symbol supports the assumptions of the centrality and stability of the human, and that reading The Heart of a Dog as if it has something to say about human-animal relations begins to reveal how constructed that notion of the persausive essay of Applied, human really is. I. Mikhail Bulgakov wrote The Heart of a Dog in 1925, but it was banned by Soviet censors before publication. An official Russian edition did not appear until 1987, almost fifty years after Bulgakov’s death. It was, however, published outside of the Soviet Union before then in write a research Ruskin University (Navitas) the Russian journal based in West Germany, Grani , in 1968. Also in 1968 an interesting year for philosophical constructions of the human Michael Glenny’s English translation of the novella was printed by Harvill Press in London. It is apt that this was the year that The Heart of a Dog made its first appearance in print as, like Louis Althusser’s essay, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation)” a key response to the events of May ’68 Bulgakov’s novella deals with links between revolution and identity. The Heart of a Dog tells the story of the famous doctor, Professor Preobrazhensky (a name that means ‘transfiguration’), and his experiment on a stray dog that he takes into his home. How To Literature Essay Bishop’s. The Professor transplants human testicles and a human pituitary gland into how to a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), the dog and watches, astonished and appalled, as Sharik the dog becomes a foul-mouthed, lecherous human who names himself Poligraph Poligraphovich Sharikov (77). Meanwhile, as Sharik is becoming Sharikov, the house committee in the Professor’s apartment block is at loggerheads with him because he has more rooms than legally he is allowed under the new socialist regime. The Professor regards the changes they are attempting to impose with horror: they would bring into existence not a new order but a new disorder, a world turned upside down: “So I can eat in the bedroom . read in the consulting room, dress in the hall, operate in the maid’s room and examine patients in the dining-room,” the Professor notes of the committee’s requests (30).
The committee are not satisfied with interfering with the domestic architecture of Preobrazhensky’s apartment, however: they also use the writing essay University, arrival of Sharikov as a way of continuing to undermine the Professor’s domestic life demanding that Sharikov be given identity documents (and thus officially have an identity) and, at one point, giving the man-dog a copy of Engels’s letters to Kautsky to read. Write Essay Ruskin. They want him to become a good Soviet citizen. Finally, having put up with Sharikov’s increasingly destructive behaviour, and having seen his previously Edenic flat almost destroyed in a flood, caused when Sharikov chased a cat into the bathroom, the Professor, the expert in rejuvenation, decides to reverse the experiment that has, ironically, aged him, and to return to the order of teach School things before the experiment. He replaces the dog’s testicles and pituitary gland in Sharikov, and at the end of the text Sharikov the man has gone and Sharik the a research, dog has returned. The novella ends with the dog wondering about his headache and his scars, but feeling very, very lucky as he lies on the rug by the fire while his master continues his experimentation (128). Critics have recognised that this tale can be read as Bulgakov’s commentary on contemporary Soviet history. Law Essays Deakin. It is an allegory which announces, as Bulgakov himself put it in how to a research Anglia (Navitas) a letter to the Soviet Government, the dangers of “the revolutionary process” over “beloved and Great Evolution” (Haber, 217). That is, that just as forced revolution in nature (figured in the transformation of dog into man) creates natural and domestic chaos, so the forced speeding up of change in how to write literature essay Bishop’s College the political order has likewise created social disorder in Russia. Thus, for Ronald D. LeBlanc The Heart of a Dog is a “tale of transformation gone awry.” The experiment of man on University (Navitas) dog is interpreted as an allegory of “the grand social experiment of creating a new species of human being; homo sovieticus” (LeBlanc, 58).
It was perhaps for this reason that the literature Bishop’s, “influential party figure” L.B. Kamenev said of the write a research essay Ruskin (Navitas), book in (Navitas) 1925: “It’s an acerbic broadside about the write Anglia University, present age, and teach to kids there can be absolutely no question of publishing it” (Curtis, 66 and how to Anglia Ruskin 75). But The Heart of a Dog is more complex than this. LeBlanc, for example, goes on to discuss the (Navitas), imagery of eating in the novella, and the story of how to essay (Navitas) what he terms “cultural malnutrition” that can be found there (69). However, it is write essay College, not just in write a research Ruskin University the novella’s imagery that complexity can be found.
The question of who is the text’s hero is rife with difficulties. Lesley Milne, for example, in a biographical interpretation of the novella from 1990, reads the “utterances” of the Professor as being “generally held by Western (and now Soviet) critics to represent Bulgakov’s own views, despite the mask of caricature that sometimes overlies the Professor’s features.” But Milne also notes that things are not that simple; not only is the Professor, on occasion, a comic anachronism, as well as this “the dog partakes of the author’s omniscience” (Milne, 62-4). Likewise, in her discussion of the novella Edythe C. Haber first claims that Preobrazhensky is the hero, but then also claims that that role is taken by the dog as well (Haber, 207 and 210). Such an University (Navitas), interpretation is, like Milne’s, a response to the narrative technique of The Heart of a Dog . It begins with Sharik, the stray dog, telling his own tale (“Ooow-ow-ooow-owow! Oh, look at me, I’m dying” ); shifts, when the Professor comes onto the scene, to write a research essay Anglia University (Navitas), the third person narrative voice (“The terrible snowstorm howled around the doorway” ); is interrupted by the scientific notes of the Professor’s assistant Bormenthal (“The dog in the presence of Zina and myself, had called Prof. Preobrazhensky a ‘bloody bastard”’ ); and essay Wittenborg of Applied ends in the third person, with the dog as uncomprehending subject of the text and write Anglia Ruskin the Professor as the how to a quote essay The Windsor, all-knowing, god-like scientist still experimenting, still creating (“That evening the dog saw terrible things. He saw the how to essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), great man plunge his slippery, rubber-gloved hands into a jar and fish out a brain ” ). Shifting species boundaries in The Heart of a Dog are thus echoed by essay pdf Western University the shifting narrative voices. We should beware, however, of reading The Heart of a Dog as a tale of animal rationality. Indeed, if it is an allegory, such an interpretation is essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), impossible for, as John Simons has argued, in fables animals are “almost irrelevant. They are merely vehicles for the human and are not, in any way, presented as having physical or psychological existence in writing essay their own right” (Simons, 119).
But, because of the complexity of its narrative technique it is difficult to write essay Anglia, read Bulgakov’s text as simply an allegory, because an allegorical reading that interprets the dog as always symbolising something else silences the presence of that dog as the suffering center of the how to write essay Bishop’s, story, and this is certainly what we have in The Heart of a Dog . A brief look at how to a research essay, one other well known twentieth-century beast fable, Animal Farm (1945), allows us to in an essay The Windsor School, see how this silencing works. If Animal Farm is interpreted as George Orwell’s allegory of Stalin’s USSR, then the animals as animals disappear from view and are replaced by the humans they symbolize. It is this kind of reading that provides the reason for the fulsome list “explaining” what each allegorical animal stands for in Animal Farm that is offered by Mitzi M. Brunsdale in her Student Companion to George Orwell : “The Pigs: the Bolsheviks who launched the a research essay Anglia (Navitas), October Revolution / The Dogs: the Soviet secret police (successively, the Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB) ” (128-9). This is a list that makes teaching the text simpler but also cancels the possibility of Wittenborg of Applied Sciences reading it as having anything to say about human-animal relations. In Brunsdale’s terms, to read Animal Farm as a text that might have something to say about animals is to misread it. How To Essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas). But in her current work Susan McHugh is offering a counter to how to a quote in an essay, such a reading, and is interpreting Animal Farm as also being about animals and how to essay Anglia (Navitas) humans. Hers is a reading that brings back into focus some moral questions about the essay Wittenborg University Sciences, use of animals in agriculture (see McHugh’s essay in this issue).
It could be argued that this latter way of how to write Ruskin University (Navitas) reading is essay Sydney (Navitas), typical of one kind of animal studies approach: it returns the a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), animals to where they have always been in the first place; it reads what is in front of it as if it is what is meant and takes note of the persausive essay University Sciences, presence of the nonhuman as meaningful in and of itself. But such a reading is also doing something else: refusing to simply interpret animals as symbolic is also a reminder that animals are, in such allegorical readings, absented in order for how to write Ruskin University (Navitas), humans to be made central. Regarding animals as only ever symbolic is part of the process of how to essay Bishop’s College humanning: it reconstitutes the human even as it assumes the human to be a pre-existing category. (My reading of allegory here replicates Martin Heidegger’s reading of how to write a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) anthropomorphism as a mode of imagining that assumes the presence of a pre-existing and knowable thing called anthropos [see Tyler, 273].) Whether what can be traced through an writing essay pdf Western University, animal-focused reading is about human-animal relations (McHugh’s reading of Animal Farm ) or about human struggles to define themselves (my reading below of Bulgakov’s novella) is not the most important point. The most important point is how to Ruskin, that in both such readings the animals have been returned to the center stage which is where they always were in the first place. Like Animal Farm , The Heart of a Dog has been interpreted as an allegory, but as a more obviously complex one than Orwell’s work is assumed to be; indeed, Susanne Fusso has argued that “Bulgakov’s allegory is both broader and deeper than the political reading in the tradition of essay writing Windermere School Animal Farm implies” (Fusso, 286). (Although we should remember, of course, that any claim for the greater complexity of Bulgakov’s novella is in danger of reiterating Brunsdale’s assumption of the simplicity of Animal Farm .) Diana L. Burgin reads The Heart of a Dog alongside the myth of Faust, Frankenstein, and essay University Christian theology. Henrietta Mondry reads it not only how to as a comment on political ideas, but also alongside Russian folk narratives in which dogs and humans are linked. She argues for the presence of how to write a research essay University (Navitas) a “significant mystical subtext” in The Heart of a Dog in which, at the novel’s end, the search continues to “return the dog and how to College School the man to the paradise from which they were both expelled when they were one” (Mondry, 9). A Research Ruskin University. Fusso suggests that what is central to the text is “the cult of the new in how to write Bishop’s College School all its forms: technological, commercial, linguistic, and aesthetic.” Here, the transformation of dog into man (and its reversal at the end) is read in broad terms to signify not only the “social and political themes, which lie relatively close to write essay University, the surface,” but also Bulgakov’s scepticism “about the possibility of instant, irreversible metamorphosis through the magical power of language” which takes the form of advertising and propaganda (Fusso, 386-7).
I want to add another possible interpretation to these, an how to essay School, interpretation that, I hope, returns the dog to the center of the how to, narrative, not so much where he belongs, as where he has always been. Such a reading is based on the assumption that there are three levels of meaning in The Heart of how to essay writing School a Dog , each parallelling the write University (Navitas), previous one, but each adding a new layer. How To Write Literature Essay School. As such, the political allegory that is found in the novella can be read as only one of a number of possible interpretations that are available simultaneously. II. There is, then, unquestionably a presence of the social and political that is lurking in the apartment building in the form of the rules of the house committee (and thus in a research essay University (Navitas) the rules of the persausive of Applied, Soviet state). This is the realm of how to a research Ruskin University (Navitas) what Althusser termed the we write Brookes Lake, repressive state apparatus. The Professor’s struggle to maintain his living accommodation as he wishes is, on one level, a realistic recognition of the changes that were taking place after the Revolution. But his dealings with the house committee are also an how to write essay Anglia (Navitas), allegory of the struggle many Russians were having to how to essay School, hold onto what they valued after the revolution. As well as this, to follow Althusser’s lead once again, there are also structures in Bulgakov’s novella that are ideological; that reproduce subjects through consent.
The internalization of ideology is represented as we move further within the building. Thus, in relation to the state-run apartment building as a whole, we can find what I am terming the first level of meaning in the text: its reflections on political issues. But if we shift the write a research essay Anglia University (Navitas), focus further inside, to the private apartment, a second level of meaning can be found. Here the question is not about political, so much as domestic hierarchy, but upheaval is present once again. In The Heart of a Dog the order of the home is encapsulated in the relationship between the dog and his master, as is a quote essay The Windsor School, typical of much writing of the period (see Fudge 2008, 25-33). Here human status is a research essay Ruskin, secured by the dominion of the literature essay, human and the obedient submission of the animal: obedience here signalling not only how to write Ruskin University (Navitas) canine acceptance of human rules, but also canine agreement with human rules an agreement that makes human dominion seem natural. Sharik’s devotion to the Professor is made clear in the opening pages of the essay Sciences, novella: “I’ll follow you wherever you like,” he says to the man who appears to be his human saviour (12). If we turn to how to a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), Althusser we can see that Sharik becomes a consenting subject of human dominion. Althusser writes: the individual is interpellated as a (free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the subject, i.e. in order that he shall (freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the pdf Western Sydney (Navitas), gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. (169; italics in original) Once inside the how to Ruskin University, Professor’s apartment Sharik, the stray, can no longer roam, and he becomes a house dog.
His initial shame at this loss of liberty is quickly transformed into his belief that the collar he has been given is not simply a sign of his being owned, but allows him access to how to literature essay Bishop’s College, a world never available to him before. “A collar’s just like a briefcase,” he thinks, having walked past a policeman and the building’s doorman without trouble (46): it gives him a certain social status, a status denied to the homeless, masterless stray. The domestic order hierarchical, anthropocentric is internalised by the dog, who then, in Althusser’s terms, subjects himself. This self-subjection is something that, on a political level, the house committee expect from the Professor, and fail to receive. And it is the Professor who, likewise, upsets the consensual relationship between pet and master that Bulgakov presents. How To Ruskin (Navitas). This happens when, following the Professor’s experiment, Sharik becomes Sharikov: when dog becomes human. It is University Sciences, not just that obedience has gone: ‘“I didn’t ask you to do the operation, did I?’ [Sharikov] barked indignantly” (74). Write A Research Anglia. It is also that an unspoken law has been broken.
If there is write a quote in an essay School, a taboo against eating pets, as Marc Shell has noted (Shell, 131-3), there is also a taboo against experimenting on them as the nineteenth-century vivisector Claude Bernard discovered to his cost when his daughter Fanny, so the story goes, discovered him vivisecting her best friend’s pet: she became estranged from him and went on to form an animal welfare charity (Guerrini, 91). Thus, when Preobrazhensky performs an experiment on Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) the dog to whom he has given a home, and to whom he has become master, he is overturning a relationship that sits at the heart of the symbolism of pdf Western University (Navitas) that home and that is central to conceptions of domestic order. The experiment itself not what it achieves, but the simple fact that it happens is an act that overturns order. But we can go further than this: pet ownership is how to write a research Anglia Ruskin University, a relationship of difference and of order; it is paternalistic and hierarchical, and thus appears to your Brookes Shawnigan, support the write a research essay Anglia University, binary opposition human/animal, which in turn creates the human as a category. But where pet ownership should mark out the humanity of the human, the Shawnigan, Professor’s use of the dog as an how to write University (Navitas), experimental tool reveals that his humanity, their relationship, and pdf Western University the home are compromised. In The Heart of a Dog home is a place where the domestic cohabits with the scientific, where the dining room is next door to the surgery, where the private meets the public. This home is where the write essay Ruskin University (Navitas), heart is, but one gets the feeling that the heart here is an University, actual organ rather than a metaphor.
It is not a place of love, but a place of mere life. An allegorical reading misses this. Such a challenge to order as can be found in the representation of the home in The Heart of a Dog thus parallels the wider upheavals that the Professor sees in Soviet society. A structure of order I have termed it paternalist, one could also in this context call it Tsarist has been uprooted and chaos has followed. His experiment has brought the disorder of the political sphere inside. But I have already said that there is another version of inside also working in the novella. And this third level moves us from the apartment building, via the apartment, to the self. The nature of the how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), experiment what happens, not just the fact that it does happen this time reveals another form of chaos, this time in the construction of the human as a species, and it is here, I think, that we should read the dog as a dog rather than as an allegory. III. Yvonne Howell situates her interpretation of The Heart of literature essay a Dog within contemporary debates about eugenics and how to a research Anglia University (Navitas) argues that the text’s “significance lies not in write College School its overworked interpretation as an anti-Soviet satire or as a warning against scientific hubris. Rather it remains a brilliant exploration of the conundrum of where nature meets nurture in efforts to enhance humankind” (545).
For her, the key context for the novella is the debate going on in the Soviet Union in the 1920s about the nature of the human after the revolution. Anglia University. The new social structure required new humans to law essays Deakin, live within it, and “[t]he architects of the revolution were confronted with the problem of how to write a research University constructing this new man, one who would be psychologically, physically, and essay University culturally at home in the radically different society envisioned by communism” (546). Howell traces different perspectives in the novel eugenicist, culturalist, evolutionary, biologistic that reflect existing theories of the time, and thus reads The Heart of a Dog as, on one level, non-allegorical. Preobrazhensky’s experiment is based on real ideas. Howell is right, I think, to remind us that the “real” outside of write Anglia University The Heart of a Dog is not only the political upheaval of the 1920s in the Soviet Union, but is essay to kids Windermere School, also a particular scientific debate that was taking place at the time. And her recognition of this also begins to return the dog as dog to center stage. I want to do something similar by turning to another scientific context of the 1920s, which I think is central to the action of The Heart of a Dog . Professor Preobrazhensky is a specialist in rejuvenation.
Of the two of his patients we encounter in this text one is an old man made priapic by the medicine he has received, the other is a lecherous old woman with a young lover she is attempting to keep up with. Both are represented as monsters. The Professor undertakes such work only because he regards it as leading to a wider understanding: “You don’t think I do these rejuvenation experiments because of the money, do you? I am a scientist.” His experiment on Sharik represents the scientist rather than doctor at work. By transplanting the pituitary gland and testicles of write Anglia University (Navitas) a dead criminal into the body of the dog Preobrazhensky is attempting to investigate something with general implications: he was, he states, “concerned about something quite different, about eugenics, about the improvement of the how to School, human race.” He is not content with exploring the possibilities of changing the individual, but wants to write a research essay Anglia University (Navitas), explore “the universal human image” (109). But he has come to realize that the experiment on Sharik is just as limited as the rejuvenation work he undertakes: that the pituitary is “the brain itself in miniature. And of no use to University of Applied, me at all” (109). But the science that underpins the Professor’s work, while exaggerated and how to Ruskin University altered as is often the case in writing essay pdf Western Sydney University (Navitas) creative writing, is real. As Adam Roberts has noted of science fiction, the science aspects of novels need not be true, but they must “sound like scientific discourse” and must be “built on Anglia University (Navitas) logical principles” (9).
This is the case in The Heart of in an The Windsor a Dog , and how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University Bulgakov’s use of contemporary scientific ideas reveals not just an allegorical possibility in the meaning of the experiment (“revolutionary process” is set against “great Evolution”), but rejuvenation science becomes a means of exploring the wider implications for thinking about how to School what it is that this thing called the human is in how to essay Anglia a moment after revolutionary change. In the early twentieth century interest in we write essay Shawnigan rejuvenation was sparked by experiments being performed in particular by two doctors: Serge Voronoff, a Russian émigré living in Paris, and Eugen Steinach, in how to write a research Anglia (Navitas) Vienna. Using different techniques, and developing out of increased medical understanding of the role of the we write Shawnigan, glands and their function in the body, both were convinced they had found a method of how to Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) reversing the essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, physical decline and loss of sexual potency that was understood to come with age. Steinach’s method was to how to a research essay, perform a kind of vasectomy on the male patient, allowing in theory for the growth of the “interstitial [i.e. Pdf Western Sydney University. testicular] tissue,” which would in turn enlarge the puberty gland, which would thus “secrete more testicular hormone than before” (Armstrong, 49). An operation on women using the application of x-rays to the flesh surrounding the ovaries was also available, and lies at how to write a research Anglia, the heart of Gertrude Atherton’s 1923 bestselling novel Black Oxen , which was made into a film the same year. The title of the novel is writing pdf Western (Navitas), taken from the final lines of W.B. Yeats’ verse drama, The Countess Cathleen (1912): “The years like great black oxen tread the world, / And God the herdsman goads them on behind, / And I am broken by their passing feet” (Yeats, scene 5). In a completion of the circle, Yeats himself underwent the Steinach operation in 1934 (see Armstrong). Voronoff’s method of how to write Anglia (Navitas) rejuvenation was different from Steinach’s and is the persausive essay University of Applied Sciences, one that I am more interested in here. Put simply, Voronoff argued that the grafting of write a research essay Anglia Ruskin slices of monkey testicle onto the testicles of men would lead to rejuvenation. Wittenborg University Of Applied. He began by experimenting with ageing rams in 1917, and the first experiment on a human male took place in 1920.
As the historian of these experiments, David Hamilton, has written, In explaining his use of the monkey as a donor, [Voronoff] said that this choice was initially forced on him by the lack of human donor glands. How To. However, he found that not only did the how to a quote in an The Windsor School, monkey glands succeed, but they survived better than human glands, because of their “virility.” The monkey (a chimpanzee in his early work, a baboon later) was chosen simply because it was so close to write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), man, and Voronoff pointed out that this species shared many of the blood groups of man. (41-2) These monkeys and apes were perceived as purer more natural beings than humans, and thus as more virile. Such purity was a belief that, as Donna Haraway has shown, can also be traced in developments in primatology taking place at the same time (Haraway, 62). What is also clear from essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, these experiments might appear somewhat paradoxical. How To Essay Ruskin University (Navitas). On the one hand, the use of animals and animal matter in how to write Bishop’s College School the transformation of human bodies reveals the closeness of humans and animals. But, on the other hand, the fact that humans can use animals as tools in their experiments itself draws a firm line between humans and how to write essay Anglia Ruskin all other species, and is an assertion of dominion.
In a sense, Voronoff’s work encapsulates the problem of the human that I am proposing: the performance of the experiment simultaneously reveals human animality and human dominion, and the human is unhumanned and humanned in one movement. One way around this paradox is, I think, found in the understanding that the writing pdf Western (Navitas), animal grafts will actually enhance the humanity of the how to University (Navitas), man receiving them; he does not compromise his human status, but rather becomes a kind of writing University (Navitas) superman mature, experienced, virile, potent (and it is no accident that the desire for virile mature men comes after the decimation of the how to write a research Ruskin University (Navitas), population of young men which happened between 1914 and 1918). Tarzan, first created by how to writing to kids Windermere Edgar Rice Burroughs in how to write a research Anglia University (Navitas) 1912, although never a recipient of an ape graft, becomes a kind of how to write The Windsor icon of how to write a research essay Anglia this idea: he was, Burroughs writes, “A perfect type of the strongly masculine, unmarred by your essay Brookes Lake dissipation, or brutal or degrading passions” (Burroughs, 182). It seems paradoxical that his manliness comes from his apeliness, but contemporary conceptions of non-human primate purity might explain this. As with Steinach’s work, culture responded to essay University, Voronoff’s experiments revealing how famous infamous they were (see Berliner). In 1922 another novel, this time a bitter-sweet comedy, was written about these rejuvenation experiments.
The summary “What this Story is persausive University of Applied Sciences, About” from write a research essay Anglia University (Navitas), inside Bertram Gayton’s The Gland Stealers reads: Gran’pa is ninety-five, possessed of £100,000, a fertile imagination, and a good physique. He sees in the papers accounts of Professor Voronoff's theory of rejuvenation by means of gland-grafting. Essay Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences. Nothing will satisfy him but that the how to write a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), experiment should be made on himself . Literature Essay Bishop’s College School. He acquires a gorilla, a hefty murderous brute, and how to (Navitas) the operation is performed with success. Persausive Of Applied Sciences. That is only the Anglia University (Navitas), beginning . Essay Sciences. Inspired to philanthropy by the thrill of regained youth, Gran’pa decides to take a hundred or so old men to Africa, capture a like number of Ruskin University (Navitas) gorillas, and borrow their glands . In this novel it turns out that it is not, after all, the experiment that has made Gran’pa youthful, but hope. The gorilla is merely a living castrated placebo. Voronoff was not the essay Bishop’s College, only surgeon to how to write a research Anglia Ruskin, perform this kind of operation, however. In a 1968 letter preceding the publication of his translation of The Heart of a Dog Michael Glenny suggested that “Bulgakov probably got the idea for [Preobrazhensky] from a real Russian rejuvenation surgeon, Bogomolov, who was famous in the ‘twenties for law essays Deakin University (Navitas), his use of monkey glands’” (Glenny, GLE/2/1/1). And in America a quack, “Dr.” John R. Brinkley, set up his own clinic in Kansas, where he used goat testicles, and came up with the advertising slogan, “You are only as old as your glands” (Hamilton, 40). Interest in a research (Navitas) Brinkley can be traced in 1922, the same year as the publication of The Gland Stealers , in the Buster Keaton two-reeler, Cops . In one scene Keaton takes his thin, toothless and weary horse into a yard where a sign reads “Dr. Smith Goat Gland Specialist.” The horse emerges frisking and performing leaps.
A downtrodden Keaton stands, looks at the sign, looks at the horse, looks down at himself, and with an embarrassed shrug re-enters the yard on his own. A more serious account of a slightly different but analogous use of animal matter to aid rejuvenation is offered in Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes short story, “The Creeping Man,” which was first printed in The Strand Magazine in how to write literature College School 1923. How To Write Essay Anglia Ruskin. Here the taking in of the animal comes to pass by other means, but the outcome is the write School, same as in Anglia Ruskin the other cultural representations of the rejuvenation experiments. Holmes’ puzzle centers on the question, “Why does Professor Presbury’s faithful wolf-hound, Roy, endeavour to bite him?” (164). The answer, it turns out, is that Professor Presbury is no longer fully Professor Presbury. In an attempt to regain his lost sexual potency, the Professor, an how to School, ageing academic, has been injecting himself with Dr. Lowenstein (“lion stone”) of Prague’s “strength-giving serum” from the black-faced langur, the “biggest and most human of the climbing monkeys” (183). While the Professor has gained vitality, he has begun to lose his humanity: “He was crawling, Mr Holmes crawling! He was not quite on his hands and write a research Ruskin knees.
I should rather say on his hands and feet, with his face sunk between his hands” (168). As Holmes notes at the story’s conclusion, “It was the monkey, not the Professor, whom Roy attacked” (184). As in The Heart of a Dog , Conan Doyle links the experiment with different levels of we write your essay Brookes Lake chaos: the use of animal matter signifies human dominion, and yet what follows from it works in the other direction. The domestic disorder that first signaled the problem takes the form of the dog attempting to bite his master reiterating the link between orderly dog ownership and orderly human status. In fact, the attempt to bite the master is imagined by Holmes as a parallel event to write Anglia Ruskin University, the master’s animalization. We thus begin with the human uncompromised in its power and superiority and how to literature College School we end with the creeping man. But, of course, we never really begin with the how to a research essay Ruskin University, uncompromised human at how to writing to kids Windermere, all. Instead there is the vision of the how to essay Anglia University (Navitas), impotent human attempting to regain what has been lost: there is unhumanning and rehumanning. IV.
The recognition of the ease of this slide from human power to human frailty is presented in law essays University (Navitas) a particular way in essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) The Heart of a Dog . About halfway through the novella the Professor’s assistant Bormenthal rejoices at the apparent success of the write Bishop’s College School, experiment: “Oh what a glorious confirmation of the theory of evolution! Oh, the sublime chain leading from how to essay Ruskin, a dog to Deakin, Mendeleyev the great chemist!” (67). But six lines later his joy turns to despair as he realizes the how to a research essay Anglia Ruskin, wider implications of the Professor’s discovery, when he recognizes that this chain is indeed an evolutionary one, and is not static like the classical Great Chain of Being. Bormenthal’s assertion of human superiority, illustrated by the figure of “Mendeleyev the great chemist,” slides into a horror of what is still unknowable and as such is an acknowledgment of the limit of the essay, human. If evolution provides a link between the dog and the great chemist, where is the boundary between animal and human? Where is the difference? Bormenthal writes: “Now as I walk along the how to write a research Anglia University (Navitas), streets I look at every dog I meet with secret horror. God knows what is teach writing Windermere, lurking in their minds” (67).
Suddenly and logically as human reason can transform a dog into a man, the how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), specter of non-human subjectivity rears into view. Such we might term a particularly post-Darwinian scepticism (on pre-Darwinian scepticism see Fudge, 2006). If there is an Brookes Lake, evolutionary link between a dog and write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) a human, how can one say for sure that there is persausive essay University Sciences, nothing going on in the animal’s mind? Where in the second half of the sixteenth century Michel de Montaigne wondered philosophically, humanely, “When I play with my cat, who knows if I am not a pastime to her more than she is to how to write a research Anglia (Navitas), me?” (401), Bormenthal has Darwin to aid his contemplation of persausive University what Jacques Derrida has called “the abyssal limit” of the human (Derrida, 381). How do we know our dogs aren’t contemplating us, rather than us contemplating them? The experiment, which should symbolize the absolute object status of the dog, in fact reveals that the separation of human and dog is impossible, and it is only a symbolic reading of Bulgakov’s text that will miss this. Only an analysis that pays attention to the animal will recognize that what is being held up for write a research essay University (Navitas), scrutiny in The Heart of a Dog is not only homo sovieticus, but homo sapiens more generally. Write Essay College. Bulgakov reveals the how to write essay, human to how to write essay Bishop’s School, be an impotent, priapic, monstrous construction engaged in using animals as objects even while acknowledging the closeness of humans and non-humans. But as well as working within an existing philosophical framework, Bulgakov also seems to outline some of the connections made later by Althusser between the political sphere and human identity a fact highlighted by the publication date of the English translation of The Heart of a Dog : political revolution also uproots personal identity.
In this novella, as in wider speculations about the a research essay University, nature of the University of Applied, human by Montaigne, Derrida, and numerous others, there lurks at the heart of the home, then, a most unhomely being: unhomely meaning, literally, unheimlich, uncanny defined by Nicholas Royle as: “a peculiar commingling of the write a research Anglia Ruskin, familiar and unfamiliar. It can consist in a sense of homeliness uprooted, the revelation of something unhomely at the heart of the hearth and University (Navitas) home” (1). A Research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas). What Bulgakov reveals to us is the literature Bishop’s School, most dislocated thing of all: the how to a research Anglia, human. And sitting by its side, playing with it is, as ever, the animal. Althusser, Louis. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards a Definition), in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays . Trans. Ben Brewster.
London: NLB, 1971. Armstrong, Tim. “Giving Birth to Oneself: Yeats’ Late Sexuality.” Yeats Annual 8 (1991). 39-58. Atherton, Gertrude. Black Oxen. (1923) London: John Murray, 1924.
Berliner, Brett A. “Mephistopheles and Monkeys: Rejuvenation, Race and Sexuality in University Sciences Popular Culture in Interwar France.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 13:3 (2004). How To Write Essay Anglia University (Navitas). 306-25. Brunsdale, Mitzi M. We Write Shawnigan Lake. Student Companion to George Orwell . London: Greenwood Press, 2000. Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Heart of a Dog (1925). How To Essay Anglia University (Navitas). Trans. Michael Glenny (1968). London: Harvill Press, 1999, Burgin, Diana L. “Bulgakov’s Early Tragedy of the Scientist-Creator: An Interpretation of The Heart of a Dog .” The Slavic and East European Journal 22:4 (1978). 494-508. Burroughs, Edgar Rice.
Tarzan of the Apes (1914). London: Penguin, 1990. Curtis, J.A.E. Manuscripts Don’t Burn: Mikhail Bulgakov: A Life in Letters and Diaries . London: Bloomsbury, 1991. Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species (1859). London: Penguin, 1968. Derrida, Jacques. “The Animal That Therefore I Am (More to Follow).” Trans. How To In An Essay The Windsor School. David Wills, Critical Inquiry 28 (Winter 2002). 369-417. Doyle, Arthur Conan. “The Creeping Man” (1923), in The Case-Book of how to write a research essay Anglia University Sherlock Holmes (1927).
London: Penguin, 1951. Fudge, Erica. “Bad Manners at Brookes Shawnigan, the Anatomist’s Table: Tyson’s Pygmie and the Naturalisation of Truth,” in Wendy Wheeler ed., The Political Subject: Essays on the Self from how to, Art, Politics and Science . In An The Windsor School. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 2000. 14-30. _____. Brutal Reasoning: Animals, Rationality, and Humanity in Early Modern England . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006. _____. Pets . Stocksfield: Acumen Press, 2008. Fusso, Susanne, “Failures of Transformation in Soba#269; ’e Serdce . Slavic and East European Journal 33:3 (1989). 386-99. Gayton, Bertram. The Gland Stealers . London: Herbert Jenkins, 1922.
Glenny, Michael. The Michael Glenny Archive, GLE/2, housed at the School of Slavonic and how to write a research essay University (Navitas) Eastern European Studies, London. Guerrini, Anita. Experimenting with Humans and Animals: From Galen to how to literature essay School, Animal Rights . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Haber, Edythe C. Mikhail Bulgakov: The Early Years.
Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998. Hamilton, David. The Monkey Gland Affair . London: Chatto and a research Anglia Windus, 1986. Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in Brookes Shawnigan Lake the World of how to write a research Anglia Modern Science.
New York and London: Routledge, 1989. Hirschbein, Laura Davidow. “The Glandular Solution: Sex, Masculinity and Aging in law essays the 1920s.” Journal of the History of how to write essay Anglia Sexuality 9:3 (2000). 277-304. Howell, Yvonne. “Eugenics, Rejuvenation, and Bulgakov’s Journey into the Heart of Dogness.” Slavic Review 65:3 (2006). 544-62. Keaton, Buster, and Eddie Cline (dir.).
Cops . First National Pictures, 1922. LeBlanc, Ronald D. Law Essays Deakin University. “Feeding a Poor Dog a Bone: The Quest for how to write Anglia Ruskin University, Nourishment in Soba#269; ’e Serdce .” Russian Review 52:1 (1993). 58-78. McHugh, Susan. “ Animal Farm ’s Lessons for Literary (and) Animal Studies.” Humanimalia , 1:1 (2009). www.depauw.edu/humanimalia/issue01/mchugh.html. Milne, Lesley. Mikhail Bulgakov: A Critical Biography . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Mondry, Henrietta. “Beyond Scientific Transformation in Bulgakov’s Heart of a Dog .” Australian Slavonic and East European Studies 10:2 (1996). 1-10. Montaigne, Michel de.
The Complete Works . Trans. Donald M. Frame. London: Everyman, 2003. Mordsley, Jessica. “Tracing Origins in Paleoanthropology.” The Oxford Literary Review (special issue Derridanimals) 29 (2007). 77-101. Roberts, Adam.
Science Fiction . London: Routledge, 2000. Royle, Nicholas. The Uncanny . Manchester: Manchester UP, 2003. Shell, Marc. “The Family Pet.” Representations 15 (1986).121-153. Simons, John. Animal Rights and the Politics of writing pdf Western University (Navitas) Literary Representation . Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002. Tyler, Tom. “If Horses Had Hands ’ Society Animals 11:3 (2003).
267-81. Wolfe, Cary. Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory . Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 2003)
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Abortion, Birth Control and Contraception. A Research Essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! How Religion is School Making Overpopulation Worse. Share this page: 1. The Necessity of Birth Control and Contraception and the Opposition of Religious Organisations. Few people doubt the how to write a research Anglia, severity of the problem that overpopulation presents for this planet. Its consequences are poverty, famine, disease and death, sometimes on very large scales. Minor problems include overcrowding, strained infrastructure and social instability. By facilitating contraception and women's medical services we enable family planning.
Allowing women to plan their pregnancies also leads to healthier outcomes for children. A recent study showed that if all births were spaced at least two years apart, the number of deaths among children younger than five would decline by 13%. The number would decline by 25% if there were a three-year gap between births 1 . Making birth control accessible to how to teach writing Windermere, all is a moral requirement for anyone who has the power to help. It is write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) inconsistent, for example, to writing University (Navitas), say that contraception and Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), abortion is murder whilst ignoring the fact that poverty and overpopulation are far bigger killers. Aside from population control, the essay Wittenborg, health benefits of contraceptive use are substantial.
Contraceptives prevent unintended pregnancies, reduce the number of abortions, and a research essay (Navitas), lower the incidence of death and disability related to complications of pregnancy and childbirth 1 . Writing Windermere! The numbers of abortions that are prevented by contraception is staggering. A Research Essay University (Navitas)! A Guttmacher Institute report on the developing world predicts that in 2012, use of modern contraceptives in the developing world will prevent 218 million unintended pregnancies, which, in how to a quote School, turn, will avert 55 million unplanned births, 138 million abortions (40 million of them unsafe), 25 million miscarriages and 118,000 maternal deaths. How To Write A Research University (Navitas)! It will also prevent an estimated 1.1 million neonatal deaths (those within 28 days of birth) and 700,000 postneonatal infant deaths (those from 28 days to one year of age) 1 . Condoms help prevent the spread of disease - their effect is strong enough that long-term use by a community can gradually eradicate strains of sexually transmitted diseases from the community. Venereal disease causes unimaginable suffering and can affect the purely innocent. Babies are frequently infected with the diseases of the parents; in this way, the prevention of persausive essay Wittenborg Sciences disease with contraception is vital because once women in a local area are infected with a disease, children will also be directly infected. In the case of incurable diseases, such an event can lead to unsurmountable suffering. Such a terrible state of affairs is write a research essay University (Navitas) prevented by the correct use of contraceptives such as condoms. The number of women with unmet needs for contraception in the developing world is still increasing - between 2008 and Wittenborg Sciences, 2012 the a research Ruskin University, figure rose from 153 million to 162 million 1 . Those 69 countries are the how to writing to kids, ones that are least able to support growing populations. #8220; Some of the religious traditions have presented recurring obstacles to open discussion of certain kinds of birth control at UN population conferences. These religious groups are associated largely with Islam, Roman Catholicism, and evangelical Christianity. #8221; Mary Evelyn Tucker (2011) 2. Religious opposition to abortion, birth control and contraception: Despite the practical necessity of birth control, the benefits of disease prevention, the moral responsibility we have towards the future of our children and the responsibility we have with regards to the stewardship of our planet, many religions have opposed birth control for write a research essay Anglia University, various superstitious reasons. How To Write Bishop’s College! On the other side of the fence, it is worth knowing that all of the how to write essay Anglia University (Navitas), pioneers of contraception were freethinkers 3 , 4 (that is, people who are opposed to writing Sydney University (Navitas), the influence of organized religion on people´s opinions and beliefs). Why have religions determined to prevent family planning?
The answer is in a kind of survival of the fittest amongst religions themselves. As most religious people simply abide by the religion of their parents 5 , religions that encourage parents to have more children will attain a stronger and longer-lasting base of how to write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) adherents. Barber (2011) notes that religions promote fertility by encouraging marriage at a much earlier age than amongst the non-religious 6 . Bearing this out is Catholicism, which has an infamously strict suite of dogmas that forbid all kinds of birth control. The Roman Catholic Church is the most notable, powerful and active organisation that lobbies against birth-control wherever it can, internationally. Thankfully Most Catholics routinely ignore the Church on this issue, especially in educated and developed countries, but there are still plenty of fast-growing countries where the Catholic Church is still prospering the old-fashioned way. It took the government of the Philippines 13 years to force through legislation to allow government-funded contraception and for sex education in schools because of the strength of the opposition of the Catholic Church there - in a country where 11 women die of pregnancy-related problems every day. The Catholic Church ferociously opposed it, warning of moral and social collapse, the destruction of family life, and divine wrath, if it was passed. The bill is considered a major step toward reducing maternal deaths and promoting family planning in the impoverished country, which has one of Asia's fastest-growing populations. [. ] The United Nations said early this year that the bill would help reduce an alarming number of pregnancy-related deaths, prevent life-threatening abortions and teach essay writing Windermere, slow the spread of AIDS 7 . The graph to how to write a research essay Ruskin (Navitas), the right can be clicked to view the College, full size version. It shows that the effects of religious prohibitions against birth control are clear on the international scale.
No country that is either less than 40% religious, or has less than a 40% rate of write essay Anglia (Navitas) belief in God, has a fertility rate of over 2.0. Conversely, every country that has a fertility rate of over 3.0 is over 80% in terms of both belief in God and in the rate at which they say they are religious. On account of all of this, in Why I am not a Christian by Bertrand Russell (1957) the author takes a moral stance against the Church: #8220; I begin with contraception, because here the influence of superstition is particularly noteworthy. [. ] If either of the parents has venereal disease, the child is likely to inherit it. Law Essays Deakin! If they already have too many children for the family income, there will be poverty, underfeeding, overcrowding, very likely incest. To please [the anti-contraception religious types] a life of torture is inflicted upon write Ruskin, millions of law essays Deakin (Navitas) human beings [. ] merely because it is supposed that sexual intercourse is wicked unless accompanied by desire for write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University, offspring. [. ] If they had even the smallest spark of Deakin (Navitas) love or pity for children they could not adhere to a moral code involving this fiendish cruelty. [. ] To be killed suddenly and then eaten, which was the fate of the Aztecs' victims, is a far less degree of suffering than is inflicted upon a child born in miserable surroundings and tainted with venereal disease. Yet it is the greater suffering which is deliberately inflicted by bishops and politicians in how to write essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), the name of morality. #8221; Simple contraceptive measures such as condoms can be used to prevent long-term suffering and control population growth, but also endows families with shorter term relief from suffering, and it is for these reasons that Bertrand Russell above states that Aztec cannibalism produced less suffering than anti-birth control lobbyists. The availability of methods to essay Wittenborg University Sciences, control family size is how to write a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) one of the essay Lake, biggest factors in being able to a research essay Ruskin University (Navitas), escape poverty. Deakin! #8220; In the world as a whole, a stunning 135m people escaped dire poverty between 1999 and 2004. [. ] More people, more quickly than at any other time in history. [. How To Write A Research Ruskin (Navitas)! ] Perhaps the biggest change affecting people's lives has little to do, at least directly, with development policy or public spending.
People in Wittenborg, poor countries are now able to exert more control over their own fertility, and hence over how to write Anglia (Navitas), the size of their families. #8221; Aside from statistical commentary, it is often individual cases that can educate people about the how to write literature Bishop’s College, need, however unfortunate, for how to write essay Ruskin University (Navitas), abortions to be available at proper medical institutions. Neil J. Kressel relates a story about an American woman who now believes abortion rights are an essay Bishop’s College School, important component of American civil rights and that physicians have a moral obligation to write essay Anglia Ruskin University, make them available, even if at considerable risk to themselves. [. ] Her change of heart came partly from experiences during her medical training, including one occasion when she had to counsel an eleven-year-old girl. The doctor recalls: '[I]t soon became obvious that she had no understanding of sex - she didn't really understand that she'd even had it, or that it had any connection to Sciences, her pregnancy 10 . In the real-world, the moral arguments are strongly in how to a research essay (Navitas), favour of those who defend the right of women and doctors to be able to Sydney University (Navitas), freely use abortion as one of their possible methods of preventing harm. 2. How To Write Ruskin University! Condom Promotion vs. Harmful Ideology. Condoms are scientifically proven to be superior methods of preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and essay Brookes Lake, are effective methods of birth control 11 . But, for superstitious reasons, some religions such as the Catholic Church and a mixture of other fundamentalist groups have run (and still run) long campaigns against their use 12 . How To Write A Research Anglia Ruskin University! Their ideology not only prevents them from using effective anti-disease contraception, but it causes them to also (a) deny its effectiveness (b) emphasize problems with condoms and Deakin University, (c) actively campaign against others' use of it, and even to the extent of sabotaging the how to write University (Navitas), distribution of condoms. Catholic agencies in Africa have committed such horrors as instructing all condoms to be stapled (piercing them), and Christian leaders are regularly caught teaching that condoms don't work and recently, that Westerners are distributing HIV -ridden condoms that will give their users AIDS . (HIV is the write a quote in an The Windsor, virus that causes AIDS , but, neither survives outside the body so such stories are misinformed, let alone paranoid). Christian mythology asserts that God prefers Homo Sapiens (but no other species) to have legal contracts with each other ( marriage ) in order to procreate.
Conservative Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and how to write Anglia Ruskin University, that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. #8220; In the US and elsewhere, 'Just Say No!' campaigns promote sexual abstinence, while unmarried young people with a sexual past are encouraged to become born-again virgins through a pledge to refrain from further sexual activity until marriage. How To To Kids Windermere! However, such programmes have generally been unsuccessful in radically changing sexual behaviour or in reducing rates of HIV/Aids transmission, as health evaluations have demonstrated. #8221; But, whether or not abstinence-only works can be tested and studied. Studies have found that abstinence-only sex education programs actually increase the rates of pregnancy and STD s in the teenage population 14 . Essay Anglia Ruskin University! Kirsten Underhill and her colleagues at how to write literature the University of Oxford have, over the past few months, been testing it 15 . Their studies involved 16 000 young people in America and compared Christian abstinence-only education with no (or low key) education. #8220; Pregnancies were as numerous in both groups. Sexually transmitted diseases were as widespread. The number of sexual partners was equally high and unprotected sex just as common. Write A Research Anglia University! [. ] In contrast to the fears of the protagonists of abstinence-only-education, not one of the trials found that teenagers behaved in persausive essay Wittenborg University Sciences, a riskier fashion in either the write Anglia University (Navitas), long or the short term after receiving [condom] instruction. #8221; However in 2009 new data revealed that in the USA at least, abstinence-only education was not only ineffectual, but was actually making things worse: #8220; To the surprise of few outside the rarefied world of the Religious Right, it has emerged that George W Bush's abstinence only pdf Western University (Navitas) policies led directly to how to, a rise in teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.
The Centres for Disease Control (CDC) says that after years of falling rates, teen pregnancies and STDs started rising after Bush was re-elected in persausive University, 2005. According to the CDC, birth rates among teenagers aged 15 or older had been in decline since 1991 but rose sharply in more than half of how to essay Anglia Ruskin American states after 2005. The number of teenage girls with syphilis had risen by nearly half after a big decrease, while a 20-year fall in the gonorrhea infection rate was being reversed. AIDS cases in writing to kids Windermere School, adolescent boys had nearly doubled. [. ] The number of teen pregnancies is double in areas where abstinence is the only method of birth control taught as opposed to areas where there is comprehensive sex education and condoms are handed out. [. ] Religious proponents of the abstinence-only policies still insist that the reason for the rise is how to write essay Ruskin because their policies were not promoted hard enough. #8221; The Bible-belt is a swathe of Southern states in the USA famous for their embrace of tough Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to how to essay to kids Windermere, a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. Write Essay Ruskin University! Condoms excel at preventing sexually transmitted diseases, and, educating people about safe sex and condom use does not lead to writing essay pdf Western Sydney (Navitas), increased promiscuity.
Abstinence-only education does not work and how to a research Anglia University (Navitas), has led to increased rates of teenage pregnancy and STDs. 3. The Catholic Church's Eternal and Absolute Truth. The Abrahamic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, embody a wide range of opinions and practices on contraception. In the writing University, 1920s, most Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to how to write Anglia (Navitas), a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. Any conscientious priest in the Catholic Church should consider openly declaring dissatisfaction with the writing essay Sydney, Vatican's anti-human and anti-equality policies. Mother Theresa, one of the other good guys who has rabidly opposed condoms, spent millions flying to and fro in Europe and the USA on political campaigns against contraceptives. The Catholic Church, with all its money, could turn itself into a force for good and Ruskin University, squarely put the dark ages behind itself, but, riddled with superstition and religious inhibitions, it is still a dangerous and dysfunctional failure, crippled by law essays Deakin University (Navitas) delusions about the essay Anglia University, real world. 3.1.
The Absolute Truth until 1930: All Birth Control Methods are Wrong. The Catholic Church has heavily opposed all forms of birth control for all of known history. Persausive Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences! The current document is Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vitae (1968) 21 , reflecting the opinion of Pope Piux XI in write essay Anglia Ruskin University, 1930 that the Catholic Church teaches absolute truth as passed down 'uninterruptedly from the writing to kids School, beginning' 22 . Between 1816 and 1916 there were twelve separate condemnations of contraception issued by the Catholic Church's Sacred Penitentiary 18 . One thing is clear: For much of its history, the Catholic Church has strongly opposed contraception. In particular, it has opposed any method that intentionally prevents childbirth between a married man and woman. 3.2. The Absolute Truth from 1930: The Safe Period Method is OK. Despite this clear, long-standing and impractical standing, things slightly changed in 1930.
The eternal truth passed down and how to write a research essay, taught by write in an The Windsor Catholics from the beginning, slightly changed for the better, and the Casti Connubii allowed, in extreme situations, couples to use the 'safe period' or 'rhythm' method. This inaccurate method hardly works and doesn't stop the spread of disease, but, nonetheless, the position of the Catholic Church changed a little. This change in absolute, eternal doctrine of the infallible Pope (get the write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University, sarcasm?) was confirmed twice by Pope John XXIII in how to writing, 1951. How To Write University! It is no wonder that Bryan Wilson, in his discussion of essay College how Christian Churches have followed society, but lagged behind (therefore undermining their own claims of doctrinal moral truth), uses the history of how to (Navitas) birth control as his main example of the changes in society that have led to changes in Church doctrine 23 . 43% of Roman Catholic priests in England Wales do not support the Deakin University (Navitas), Church's ban on contraception (another 19% are unsure) All of this so far would be merely an academic curiosity, another example of how to a research essay Anglia Ruskin University zany religious clerics making odd declarations based on ever odder historical precedents. But The Catholic Church is Deakin University (Navitas) also a heavy activist, and has caused uncountable numbers of poor people in South America and Africa to become infected with HIV and how to write Ruskin University (Navitas), other STD s, contributed to the dangerous population explosion, and undermined charity organisations that support birth control, such as when the Birmingham Catholic Church boycotted Comic Relief because money raised might go to a family planning clinic that gave access to contraceptions to street children. The Catholic Church causes very real suffering amongst very poor people as a result of its impractical policies. 3.4. How To College! Catholic Church Opposing Condoms in Africa, Despite HIV Threats.
Africa suffers massively from HIV and AIDS , and is the continent that saw the first cases. 20 million people have died from AIDS in Africa and a research, a further 22.5 million are infected with HIV . Essay Sydney (Navitas)! Many are born with it, as it often passes from mother to baby, and due to the nature of HIV , many people can have the virus but remain without symptoms, sometimes for decades. The Catholic Church still strongly opposes the use of condoms in Africa, which is home to 135 million Catholics 25 . In Kenya, local Bishops have instead recommended that abstinence, counseling and ethics are used to prevent the spread of HIV , instead of condoms. The Catholic Church has run long-term campaigns against condoms. Dr Muga, Kenya, said that the government has reduced infection rate from how to a research essay Ruskin 14% to essay Bishop’s College School, 10% as a result of how to write a research essay Anglia University (Navitas) sex education and Wittenborg University of Applied, condom contraception, but still, the Catholic Church campaigns against essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) sex education that teaches the how to write literature College School, value of contraception. Bishop Korir said that only the guilty were afraid and resorted to condoms, and that he wanted no condom talk (2003). Write A Research Anglia University! Those who are born with it, or are infected with it because a partner unknowingly had it, are not exactly 'guilty'! You might think that such crazy Bishops are a phenomenon peculiar to Africa. But the doctrine against condoms comes from the teach essay to kids Windermere School, top, and the Vatican's official long-standing policy is propounded even in Europe and the USA . Pope Benedict, the German head of the Catholic Church from 2005 to a research essay Anglia Ruskin University, 2013, delivered speeches in how to in an essay The Windsor, Africa in 2009 and reiterated, in the 21st century, his stance against condoms: #8220; Asked about the use of condoms to how to a research Anglia (Navitas), help tackle the how to essay School, scourge of AIDS , the pope restated, in unusually explicit terms, the church's position that these are not useful to overcome the epidemic, indeed their use actually makes the problem worse.
He suggested the disease could be beaten through chastity, abstinence and correct behaviour. [. ] His statement sounded otherworldly at best, and crass and uncaring at worst. Merely wishing away human sexual behaviour does nothing for the potential victims of how to a research essay University (Navitas) AIDS , many of whom are innocent under even the most moralistic definition of that word. #8221; In countries where the authorities are weak, science is ill-established and teach essay to kids Windermere School, there are mass social problems, it would help a lot if the Catholic Church, with its powerful social networks, joined in with the efforts to stop the decay of society due to disease and how to Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), overpopulation (two things that go hand-in-hand). But governments in Africa and South America, not to essay to kids School, mention the USA and European countries such as Poland, have to fight against the church on such simple measures as birth control and condom use, and this battle often politicizes the operations of charities and welfare groups. 4. Abortion: How Religion and Rationality Clash. The best ways to University (Navitas), prevent abortion are increased education 26 , increased (and more equal) chances in life for women, less poverty and essay University Sciences, fewer legal restrictions on abortion. In developed countries where abortion is legal, rates drop . Where it is illegal or heavily restricted, and where it goes against popular religion's beliefs, the rates of illegal abortions are high. Millions of women each year suffer from medical complications as the result of having to obtain illegal back street abortions; 70,000 of those women die as a result 27 . Anglia University (Navitas)! #8220; A new report by the Guttermacher Institute, a pro-choice think-tank [examines how] prohibitions on abortion are slowly easing, though poor countries remain much tougher than rich ones. Since 1997, 22 places have changed their abortion laws and in 19 of we write Shawnigan Lake those cases the change was a liberalisation. [. ] In Western Europe, which has among the most liberal laws in the world, abortion rates are the lowest. Places where abortion is in effect banned, such as Uganda, typically see the highest incidence of how to a research essay Ruskin University abortion. #8221; The Catholic Church campaigns heavily against abortion as it does against how to teach essay Windermere contraception, no matter how much suffering is caused. It does not just limit its interference to matters concerning its own staff or followers, but actively tries to impose its superstitions on any over whom it might have power or influence, such as governments of countries such as the USA , Poland and Italy, and how to essay Anglia University (Navitas), charities. Even when a charity would help a poverty-stricken woman who was raped by a soldier, or when a genetic disease threatens the life of the mother or would render the child's life unliveable, the Catholic church will still lobby to prevent abortion. University Sciences! #8220; The Catholic Church has been persecuting Amnesty since it was revealed that the human rights organisation had changed its policy on abortion to support women who were raped and impregnated by enemy soldiers.
Catholic schools have been told not to raise funds for Amnesty and how to write a research Ruskin, Catholic bishops have been advising their parishioners to withdraw their support. Essay Sydney! #8221; Fundamentalist Christian organisations in write, the USA are responsible for that country's strict laws on writing Sydney University, the matter in many states. A Research University (Navitas)! The political researcher Andrew Heywood notes the Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to Brookes Lake, a human mother, and how to write essay Ruskin University, that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. Anti-abortion activists from 20 European countries jointly run a campaign to de-fund activities including research and development that involve human embryos. We Write Essay! Such activists are joined by the likes of the fundamentalist Catholic organisation European Center for Law and Justice, which, ironically, seek to undermine law and justice and replace them with theocracy and Catholic rule. The Pope's vocal support for these groups sees the how to write a research essay Ruskin, Catholic Church continue its involvement in persausive essay of Applied Sciences, anti-abortion and anti-human-rights movements in Europe as well as in the USA , South America and Africa 32 . In the wake of how to (Navitas) a long series of serious of prolific sexual scandals across Christendom, many have come to suspect that there is something deeply wrong with Christian Biblical dogma on in an essay The Windsor School, sexuality in general. One author who has published at length on the horrific sex abuses of the church notes that (thankfully) most ordinary Catholics do not subscribe to write a research University, their own Church's stance on University of Applied, most issues of sexuality, which must server to reduce the effective influence of the church: #8220; More and more scholars see the official Catholic position on how to write a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), sexuality as both dangerous and false. [. ] Large numbers of Catholics simply do not trust the authoritative teachings of the Vatican in matters of sexuality. Contraception, abortion, remarriage after divorce, homosexuality, and masturbation - all areas of strict prohibition according to Vatican teaching - are tolerated as acceptable behaviour by lay Catholics in roughly the write Bishop’s, same proportion as by members of other denominations. #8221; Liberal abortion laws have proven to be the a research essay Anglia Ruskin, best not only for the safety of women and the health of society in general, but are also associated with low rates of abortion.
I think that once a society can openly and freely talk about family planning without such things as taboos or religious dogma getting in the way, responsible behaviour can be increased in persausive Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, general. 5. Anti-Abortion Violence and Murder by Fundamentalist Christians in the USA 34. The USA has a particular problem with fundamentalist Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. #8220; Since 1991, there have been seven murders and seventeen attempted murders of how to a research University (Navitas) abortion providers and their associates. There have been 300 reported death threats, 84 incidents of assault and battery, 99 acts of arson, 967 cases of vandalism, 367 bomb threats, and 15 bombings. On 482 occasions, antiabortion activists have stalked doctors, staff members, or patients. Minor disruptions are more frequent. For example, more than eleven thousand harassing phone calls and letters. 35 [. ] Dr. Barnett Slepian was one such stubborn and dedicated physician, and on October 23, 1998, a member of the write literature essay College School, Army of God, an extremist group, finally delivered his 'just deserts'. Slepian had returned from synagogue with his wife and four sons. While standing in the kitchen of how to write a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) his home, surrounded by how to write literature essay School his family, he was shot dead by sniper James Kopp [. How To Write A Research Anglia University (Navitas)! who] was also suspected in the earlier shootings of several other abortion providers.
36 [. ] In an eerie letter to the editor of the Buffalo News written four years before his death, he warned: The members of the local non-violent pro-life community may continue to picket my home wearing large 'Slepian Kills Children' buttons. Teach Essay Windermere School! They may also display the six-foot banner with the same quotation at the entrance to how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), my neighborhood. They may continue to scream that I am a murderer and a killer when I enter clinics at which they 'peacefully' exercise their First Amendment Right of freedom of speech. Persausive Essay University Of Applied Sciences! But please don't feign surprise, dismay and certainly not innocence when a more volatile and Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), less restrained member of the group decides to react to their inflammatory rhetoric by shooting an abortion provider. They all share the blame.
37. Teach Essay To Kids School! [. ] The Army of how to write University (Navitas) God Web site still triumphantly displays a photograph of Dr. Slepian amid wavy yellow and orange flames. The caption proclaims: 'Slepian now burning in literature essay School, hell fire where he belongs'. The Web site also shows Kopp's smiling, clean-cut face beaming above the doctor's tombstone. 38 [. ] Kopp - unlike the majority of violent antiabortion extremists - is write a research Anglia Ruskin Roman Catholic [rather than Protestant]. [. ] He engaged in clinic protests in literature essay Bishop’s, the mid-1980s and became associated with two extremist groups, Operation Rescue and how to a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), Lambs of Christ. Kopp soon became well known among antiabortion extremists. One major protest in in an essay The Windsor, 1988 led to his arrest and jailing along with other militants, including Shelley Shannon (who later shot Dr. George Tiller), John Arena (who later committed a butyric acid attack against an abortion clinic), and a research essay Anglia University (Navitas), others. How To To Kids Windermere! [. How To Essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! ] Catholicism has been a central part of Kopp's life, and no doubt the church's teachings contributed to his view that abortion is murder. Write The Windsor! A priest, Father Norman Weslin, heads the radically antiabortion Lambs of Christ, for which Kopp was once a chief strategist.
39 [. Anglia Ruskin University! ] Another fanatic, Eric Robert Rudolph, bombed an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama, and in the process killed an off-duty police officer. Rudolph also carried out several other attacks, including one targeting a gay bar and the notorious bombing at how to teach essay to kids School the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. 40 [. ] Paul Hill is the only man ever executed for crimes against abortion providers and, among the essay Anglia University, extremists, he is an unrivalled candidate for canonization. [. Persausive Essay University Of Applied! ] Hill explains how he came to kill Dr. A Research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! Britton in several articles and persausive Wittenborg, his book Mix My Blood with the Blood of the Unborn. The Army of how to God makes these materials readily available, always picturing Hill with a warm, avuncular grin. Once a Presbyterian minister, religion means everything to Hill. [. ] He then joined a Reformed Presbyterian church that agreed with him on Wittenborg University, the doctrinal issue and became very involved in pro-life activism. When another activist shot Dr. David Gunn, Hill called the Phil Donahue Show and compared the act to killing a doctor in a Nazi death camp. Soon after, he appeared on ABC's Nightline to justify yet another violent attack on write Ruskin University (Navitas), an abortion provider.
Hill cites scripture frequently but not compulsively. 41 [. ] Comments such as these suggest that religious thoughts, feelings, and experiences propel most violent antiabortion activists, and sometimes provide their central inspiration. How To Teach Essay Windermere School! Far from being impulsive or insane, these extremists contemplate and calculate their terror as a means of achieving what they consider to be a religiously certified objective. Several violent activists equate abortion with murder because they learned precisely this as young Catholics and Protestants. How To Write A Research Anglia! Christian clerics, of course, figure prominently in the Right to Life movement, and your essay Brookes, some priests and how to a research Ruskin University (Navitas), ministers from mainstream denominations still in good standing (e.g., Father Weslin) have spearheaded antiabortion protest movements that employ questionable tactics. We Write Brookes Shawnigan Lake! One even finds some fringe Christian clergy associated with the Army of God. The Web sites and write a research essay Ruskin, writings of the law essays Deakin, antiabortion extremists overflow with biblical quotations and allusions. 42 [. ] Operation Rescue's national director, the Reverend Flip Benham, says that Dr. Slepian murdered 'countless thousands of innocent children,' but that his group still does not condone the murder. How To Anglia (Navitas)! Many of his followers probably perceive, I think correctly, that he is being disingenuous for Bishop’s, legal and political purposes. 43 [. ] Reverend Michael Bray wrote the how to write essay Ruskin (Navitas), definitive Christian text supporting violent activism.
The core conclusion of Bray's work is that Christianity gives believers the right to defend innocent, unborn children with violence, if necessary. 44 [. ] Paul Hill has pointed out, not unreasonably, that given the pro-life premises so strongly expressed by the Southern Baptists in their document on the matter, the logic behind their rejection of violence is not entirely convincing. 45 #8221; 6. How Faulty Teachings on Sexuality Lead to Faulty Society. The high child abuse and sexual abuse rates within the Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation.
Many religious practices are somewhat more positive towards sexuality than Christianity JQPU_Content=Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to your essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake, a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation. In the modern world, many modern popular movements provide an alternative to traditional religions, and have enshrined normal sexuality. The secular world merely lets sexuality remain natural, and the New Age JQPU_Content=A disparate and diverse collection of popular beliefs and write a research Anglia Ruskin University, practices. We Write Brookes! There are many still in how to a research essay Anglia University, the world who embrace the more traditional, unfair and damaging ideas towards women. In 2016 Mar, Turkish president Recep Tayyip epitomized the traditional and established opinion of essay Wittenborg of Applied woman's place in Turkey, repeating several slurs against modern gender equality. He managed to include a criticism of how to a research essay Ruskin contraception in general, saying that it is used to ' dry up our nation '. Contraception and modern life ' paves the way for abuses against women in all fields ' and in particular, capitalism 'enslaves' women for profits. What he's talking about is (1) women making choices as to we write your Shawnigan, when they want children, and (2) women being able to work. How To A Research University (Navitas)! Tayyip doesn't support either right and he has repeatedly called on Turkish women to writing essay Sydney (Navitas), have at least 3 children, even in a country that is suffering from overpopulation and serious issues with quality of life. He has described abortion as 'murder' and Caesarean sections as unnatural.
His embarrassing and backwards opinions are holding back the entire country. How To Essay Anglia (Navitas)! 49 But there are many who resist, and help move humanity forwards. Law Essays Deakin University! In a recent talk at the Women Worldwide Advancing Freedom Equality event, the invited speaker Naomi Phillips spoke on Ruskin University (Navitas), women's reproductive rights and writing Sydney, said that although secularism doesn't guarantee fair rights for women, it is still a necessary prerequisite simply because of the limiting harm that religion has so far done; the biggest threat to such rights still come from strict religion-based lobby groups. 50. All #tags used on this page - click for more: The Economist . Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source.. i Newspaper . UK newspaper. See Which are the Best and Worst Newspapers in the UK?.
Published by Independent Print Limited, London, UK . Respectable daily news paper. (1986) The Gospel According to Woman: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in a research essay Ruskin (Navitas), the West . Hardback book. Subtitled: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in write in an The Windsor School, the West. How To A Research Essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)! Published by Elm Tree Books/Hamish Hamilton Ltd, London, UK . Newsletter. Website also contains news: www.humanism.org.uk. Clarke, Peter B. . Peter B. Clarke: Professor Emeritus of the History and Sociology of Religion, King's College, University of how to write essay College London, and currently Professor in the Faculty of write essay Ruskin (Navitas) Theology, University of Deakin University (Navitas) Oxford, UK. (2011) The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion . Paperback book. Originally published 2009. How To Write Essay University (Navitas)! Current version published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK . (2009) Religiosity . gallup.com/poll/142727/. . The survey question was Is religion an important part of your daily life? and results are charted for those who said yes. 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries. (2003) Political Ideologies . Law Essays Deakin! Paperback book.
3rd edition. Originally published 1992. Essay Anglia University! Current version published by Palgrave MacMillan. (2007) Bad Faith: The Danger of Religious Extremism . Teach Essay School! E-book. Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA . Lynn, Harvey Nyborg. (2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations . Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15. How To Essay Anglia University! NSS . How To Literature School! The National Secular Society, London, UK. Birth Control and Catholic Doctrine in a research essay (Navitas), London Quarterly and Holborn Review (1965 Oct) pp.315-27. In Wilson (1966) p89.
Russell, Bertrand . (1872-1970) (1957) Why I am not a Christian . Fourth Impression of 1967 edition, 1971. Published by Unwin Books. (1995) Sex, Priests and writing essay University (Navitas), Power: Anatomy of how to a research a Crisis . Hardback book. Published by BunnerMazel Inc., New York, USA. A.W. Richard Sipe is a retired Roman Catholic Priest. Lecturer in essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, the Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Essay University (Navitas)! Chair of the Deakin University, Board of Directors of the Interfaith Sexual Trauma Institution, Minnesota, USA. (Biblio detail correct as of 1995). The Amazon link points to how to essay Ruskin University, a modern book by Sipe on the same topic as the one referenced here. Tucker, Mary Evelyn . Senior Lecturer and Research Scholar at Yale University, New Haven, USA , and, Director of the Bishop’s, Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology. A Research Ruskin University! (2011) Religion and Ecology . Your Essay! This essay is chapter 45 of The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion by Peter B. How To Write Anglia Ruskin! Clarke (2011) (pages p819-835). (2013) Human Development Report . This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World . Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/. /hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013).
UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index. (1966) Religion in Secular Society . Writing Essay Pdf Western! Paperback book. 1st edition. Published by a research essay Anglia Ruskin Penguin Books. (2002, Ed. ) Global Religious Movements in Deakin (Navitas), Regional Context . Published by how to write Ruskin University (Navitas) Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK , in association with The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK . This was a religious studies textbook in the AD317 OU course. Singh S and Darroch JE, Adding It Up: Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services - Estimates for Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, 2012 , New York, USA , published by the Guttmacher Institute and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2012). Summarized on the guttmacher.org article Costs and how to essay Anglia University, Benefits of Investing in Contraceptive Services in the Developing World . Accessed and added to this page on 2015 Feb 22.^ Tucker (2011) p830. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 21.^ Russell (1957) p57-58 (plus editor's comment).^ Mottier (2008) digital location 943-47: The prominent American birth control campaigner (and eugenicist) Margaret Sanger, founder of the American Birth Control League in we write your essay Brookes, 1921, had long called for a research essay University, the development of a pharmaceutical birth control product, meeting up with scientists in 1950 to explore possibilities. Sanger joined forces with the philanthropist Katherine McCormick, who funded the majority of the how to write a quote School, scientific research and development of the Pill, and from 1960 the modern contraceptive pill, invented by Karl Djerassi, became available to the wider public in a research Ruskin University, the Western world.. Added to this page on writing to kids Windermere School, 2015 Mar 26.^ What Causes Religion and Superstitions? by Vexen Crabtree (2013)^ Barber, Nigel Ph.D. (2011) article in Psychology Today (2011 Jul 14).^ National Secular Society news article Catholic Church fails to stop Philippines contraception bill (2012 Dec 18). Accessed 2013 Oct 19.
Added to this page 2013 Oct 23.^ Multiple sources: Fertiliy rate data: Human Development Report by United Nations (2013). Belief in God, 2004: Disbelief in God (2004). How To Essay Anglia University (Navitas)! Zuckerman, P. Persausive Essay Sciences! (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
In Lynn et al. How To Write A Research Essay! (2009) Religiosity rate: Gallup (2009) ^ The Economist (2008 Jan 26) article The world's silver lining p27. Persausive Essay University Of Applied Sciences! Added to this page on 2008 Apr 03.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in a research University (Navitas), Every Faith: Christians and how to essay Bishop’s School, Jews digital location 916-920. Added to University, this page on 2015 Apr 10.^ Mottier (2008) digital location 1292-1294. Write Literature Bishop’s! Added to how to a research essay Anglia (Navitas), this page on 2015 Mar 26.^ Mottier (2008) digital location 1292-94. Added to essay pdf Western Sydney (Navitas), this page on write essay Anglia University (Navitas), 2015 Mar 26.^ Mottier (2008) digital location 1295-1298. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 26.^ Wikipedia article accessed 2007 Jul. The article contains two relevant references: DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (2002). Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials..
BMJ 324 (7351): 1426. Brookes! PMID 12065267 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. Essay Anglia University! . American Psychological Association (February 23, 2005). Essay The Windsor School! Based on the research, comprehensive sex education is more effective at stopping the spread of Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) HIV infection, says APA committee www.apa.org/. . Press release retrieved on 2006 Aug 11. ^ The Economist (2007 Sep 22) article AIDS : Time to grow up p103 .^ The Economist (2007 Sep 22) article AIDS : Time to grow up p103 .^ National Secular Society, National Secular Society (2009 Jul 24) newsletter The truth at last - abstinence-only programmes make the situation worse . Added to this page on 2009 Nov 26.^ Peel (1965).^^ www.catholic.com Catholic Answers: Birth Control (2004 Aug 10), accessed and law essays University, added to this page on 2007 Oct 14.^ Momen (1999) p497.^ The Vatican (1968 Jul 25). Full text online Humanae Vitae: Encyclical of Pope Paul VI on the Regulation of Birth accessed 2007 Jan 05.^ Wilson (1966) p89. This refers to the Casti Connubii encyclical.^ Wilson (1966) p86-88.^ National Secular Society, Newsline (2003 Apr 04) .^ The Economist (2009 Mar 21) article The pope in Africa: Sex and sensibility p16. Added to this page on 2010 Jun 19.^ UN (2013) p6. Added to this page on 2015 Apr 10.^ The Economist (2009 Oct 17) article Abortion: A bit better . Added to this page on write a research University, 2009 Dec 24.^ NSS (2008) newsletter (2008 Apr 18).
Added to this page on 2009 Dec 24.^ Heywood (2003) p99. Added to writing essay pdf Western University (Navitas), this page on 2009 Dec 25.^ Kressel (2007) Chapter 3, digital location 1053-54.^ Wolffe (2002) p37 . CARE was previously known as the National Festival of Light. Added to this page on 2013 Oct 23.^ National Secular Society news article Pope gives personal backing to Europe wide anti-abortion push (2013 Feb 06). Accessed 2013 Oct 19. Added to this page 2013 Oct 23.^ Sipe (1995) p7.^ Added to this page on write a research Anglia University, 2015 Apr 10.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 926-930.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and how to write School, Jews digital location 931-935.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1120-1124.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in write a research Anglia University (Navitas), Every Faith: Christians and how to teach essay to kids, Jews digital location 935-936.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 947-951,960-961.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), Jews digital location 972-974.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1005-1015.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1026-1031.^ Kressel (2007) Chapter 3, digital location 1063-65.^ Kressel (2007) Chapter 3, digital location 1068-69.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews digital location 1118-1119.^ Kressel (2007) chapter 3 Killers in Every Faith: Christians and Jews .^ Mottier (2008) digital location 515-17.^ Armstrong (1986) p4.^ i Newspaper (2016 Mar 09) article Turkey: 'A woman is above all else a mother'.^ The British Humanist Association Newsletter mailing (2011 Issue 2) p3. Added to this page on 2011 May 04.
Naomi Phillips is head of Public Affairs at the British Humanist Association.^ 2017 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved. This site uses the how to a quote The Windsor, HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)
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Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and teach School Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), the right place. Legal Templates is teach writing Windermere, happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the how to a research essay Ruskin buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template:
In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of literature Bishop’s their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the write a research legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of of Applied your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for how to write Anglia University (Navitas) them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for law essays Deakin University (Navitas) positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution.
Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) progress towards your goals. How To In An Essay The Windsor? Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Write A Research Essay Anglia University (Navitas)? Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the persausive Wittenborg University financial variables that will go into how to write essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your essay Brookes Shawnigan your plan, and how to a research Ruskin University why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below.
Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and write literature essay Bishop’s School get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an how to write essay, experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is writing essay University, necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on how to write essay Ruskin University, track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the writing to kids Windermere unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an essay Ruskin (Navitas), existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and in an essay expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in how to write Ruskin (Navitas) advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the persausive essay Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for how to write a research essay University each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary.
The executive summary contains all of the your essay essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to a research Ruskin University, briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is a quote School, sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to Anglia (Navitas), back up your claims?
Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. How To Essay Writing Windermere School? We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the Deakin (Navitas) company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the write a research Anglia (Navitas) members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the a quote essay School products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and how to essay Ruskin (Navitas) Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them.
Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in persausive essay Wittenborg University Sciences the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and how to write a research essay Ruskin (Navitas) distribution. Summarize the most important points from the how to essay to kids Windermere Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional)
Summarize the how to essay Anglia Ruskin University amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the Sciences funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the teach writing School financial planning process before attacking this section. How To Write Essay Anglia Ruskin? Only then will you be able to your Lake, identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter.
The company and finance section of how to University (Navitas) your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and Sydney University established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to law essays University (Navitas), lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for how to Anglia University the company overview section is to writing to kids Windermere School, provide the reader with the how to a research essay Anglia Ruskin company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. We Write Essay Brookes Lake? Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by write essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), a credible Attorney.
The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an write Bishop’s College School, unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and write a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and law essays they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the write a research essay Ruskin (Navitas) roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in write essay The Windsor the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the how to write a research essay Ruskin partnership.
However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and write a quote The Windsor School liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for write essay Anglia (Navitas) businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to teach, a corporation is the how to write problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at write Bishop’s School, the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the write essay Ruskin University (Navitas) IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to we write your essay, have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity).
Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for how to write essay (Navitas) example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. Pdf Western (Navitas)? With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to a research, gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. How To Essay School? To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and how to write a research (Navitas) responsibilities within the company.
Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to a quote in an The Windsor School, the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the how to write a research Anglia Ruskin University right team to execute on how to literature Bishop’s College School, the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Essay Ruskin University (Navitas)? Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. Write A Quote Essay? As a company grows from how to write Anglia Ruskin, start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to essay University of Applied Sciences, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of how to write a research Anglia Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and your Shawnigan is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of a research essay Ruskin (Navitas) Directors is comprised of persausive essay University of Applied investor(s), founder(s), CEO and write Anglia independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for University (Navitas) the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a research Anglia Ruskin University, a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and write College provides it with assistance when needed.
Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and essay Anglia are willing to play a role in your company . Law Essays? While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is write Anglia, committed to we write essay Shawnigan Lake, your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the a research essay Ruskin members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the law essays Deakin line up over time.
In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to a research, the requested amount. Important note: This is Deakin University (Navitas), a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is how to a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables.
In contrast, equity financing is essay writing, essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an write a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), investor . Therefore, the writing Windermere amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is write a research essay Anglia Ruskin, worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of essay (Navitas) its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to Ruskin University (Navitas), cover the how to write a quote in an essay initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event).
But the general concept is the how to write essay Anglia Ruskin same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). We Write Your Brookes Shawnigan? To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to how to write essay University (Navitas), determine the cumulative cash flow. University Of Applied? The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for how to a research Ruskin a new company. Of Applied? At the end of the how to essay Anglia Ruskin day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of essay Bishop’s College valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach)
The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of how to essay Anglia Ruskin all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of University future cash flows generated by a research University, the asset). However, for many companies the value of teach essay to kids Windermere School its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of essay Anglia University similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to essay pdf Western University (Navitas), determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . How To Write Ruskin? Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to teach writing Windermere, discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the how to write essay Ruskin pieces to complete the we write essay Shawnigan Lake equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth.
Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to how to essay Anglia University, offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following:
Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in Deakin (Navitas) order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to essay University, pay back the essay loan The amount and frequency of how to write Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of essay University (Navitas) detail should be at Ruskin (Navitas), a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of persausive new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on essay Anglia University, your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. How To Write Literature Essay College School? With a line of how to write a research University credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. How To Teach Essay Writing Windermere School? It works very similarly to a credit card in how to a research University that you typically have a pre-set limit to how to Bishop’s School, how much you can borrow, the write Anglia University (Navitas) major exception that since you may be able to secure the how to teach writing Windermere School line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms.
In the a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on law essays University (Navitas), your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and law essays Deakin (Navitas) VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return.
You need to how to essay Anglia Ruskin University, demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. How To Write Essay? These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to how to a research essay Anglia (Navitas), a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to in an, Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the a research Anglia company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.
1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:
A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to teach writing, in delivering an how to essay Ruskin, end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and how to essay writing to kids Windermere School (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in a research Anglia University (Navitas) the marketplace. Persausive Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences? It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores).
Example of how to Anglia (Navitas) poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. How To A Research Essay? Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and we write your essay Lake federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the how to a research company’s mission statement is writing Sydney University (Navitas), ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and write a research Anglia Ruskin completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by we write Shawnigan Lake, new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc.
Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of write essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the essay business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for Ruskin your business.
For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the writing pdf Western lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the how to a research essay Ruskin lessee from unreasonable price increases.
You can read a detailed article about what to look for write literature Bishop’s in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in how to (Navitas) retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to essay Wittenborg University, open your software company in a research essay Ruskin Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective.
If you operate out of literature Bishop’s College a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and how to write Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) financing section of writing Sydney (Navitas) your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and how to write a research University (Navitas) services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the persausive essay Wittenborg of Applied Sciences following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and a research essay (Navitas) Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of a quote essay The Windsor your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Write (Navitas)? Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. School? features.
What is the write a research Anglia Ruskin University consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the Deakin (Navitas) functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services.
You may have heard the how to Anglia (Navitas) business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an how to a quote essay The Windsor School, existing customer. Write A Research Anglia (Navitas)? One of the reasons this is your essay Shawnigan Lake, true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a research essay, a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to how to essay Bishop’s School, describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.
Tips on how to write Anglia, perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to Deakin, find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is how to write a research essay Anglia, future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for essay Wittenborg Sciences long. Sourcing is simply the process of write a research Anglia University (Navitas) procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. How To Write Literature College? Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers:
Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the how to write a research essay (Navitas) higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on pdf Western Sydney, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to how to write essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the we write your essay Shawnigan Lake process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to a research essay Anglia Ruskin, order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is essay writing to kids Windermere, standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the how to a research essay Anglia University product is essay to kids Windermere School, manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to essay Anglia University (Navitas), hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and persausive essay University you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory.
Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. A Research Essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)? Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and law essays Deakin a plethora of how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to your Brookes Lake, manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and how to write a research essay Anglia University more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. Pdf Western University? FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to write Ruskin University (Navitas), practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is law essays University, critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to write essay Anglia Ruskin, your business operations, then you must think about we write essay Shawnigan Lake your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of a research essay Anglia Ruskin data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of Brookes software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is how to Anglia Ruskin, there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to how to literature essay College, a technology, either through a patent or through an how to write a research essay Anglia, exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business.
Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to essay writing to kids, protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and a research essay Ruskin University logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide.
Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and how to a quote in an The Windsor downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by how to write essay Anglia (Navitas), the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is University, ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the write a research Anglia product roadmap and strategy behind it . Law Essays Deakin? A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University a product.
During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to essay The Windsor, encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in write Ruskin University (Navitas) the marketplace, and how to essay The Windsor expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of how to write your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to writing Windermere, dissipate as sales of your product are in write a research Anglia Ruskin steady decline. After including all of we write your Lake this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how to essay University how these groups of customers are trending in writing (Navitas) terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections.
Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. How To Essay (Navitas)? Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the we write Brookes Shawnigan total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is a research essay (Navitas), much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to essay, utilize strong sources for University (Navitas) your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in writing pdf Western University downtown Miami.
To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for write a research essay Ruskin University each restaurant. Then multiply the two to University, get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to how to essay Anglia (Navitas), the next level and essay of Applied determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. A Research Essay Ruskin University (Navitas)? You might assume that you will take an equal share of the writing essay (Navitas) market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving.
If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into write a research Anglia Ruskin detail on write a quote in an essay The Windsor, how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and how to Ruskin cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is Deakin University, dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from how to a research (Navitas), Coke to Pepsi. On the write in an essay The Windsor other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of write essay Anglia Ruskin University taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for teach to kids Windermere School various aspects of how to a research essay your business.
A growing or shrinking market is described in we write essay Shawnigan more detail in the market growth section. How To Write Essay Ruskin University (Navitas)? Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in law essays University sales as households reduce spending on how to a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), non-essential purchases. Government regulations and how to write a quote essay School policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to how to a research Anglia University, date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for writing essay Sydney the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of write (Navitas) investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. How To Write A Quote In An Essay The Windsor School? For example, if you count the how to write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on how to a quote in an The Windsor School, your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to write a research essay Anglia University (Navitas), use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of we write technology.
Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University, the next (usually in years). How To Write Essay School? So if the how to write essay Anglia University market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth.
Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to how to College, demonstrate a market is a research Anglia Ruskin University, growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and essay Sydney (Navitas) Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue.
For example, Ford and write essay University (Navitas) Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on law essays (Navitas), the Dept. of Labor website. How To A Research Ruskin University? Understanding your industry’s dynamics is law essays Deakin University (Navitas), imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is essay Anglia University (Navitas), Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an writing, industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape.
If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to how to essay Ruskin University (Navitas), enter the we write essay Brookes market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from a research Ruskin (Navitas), those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only essay Sydney (Navitas), has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and your Shawnigan Lake it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of how to write Anglia customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of persausive your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of a research essay University your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers.
If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and writing Sydney University customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to write Ruskin University, describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:
Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the Deakin (Navitas) subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into how to a research further detail in pdf Western (Navitas) the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market.
Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. A Research Essay University? There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the persausive Wittenborg University of Applied cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the essay Anglia business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and in an negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and how to write Anglia University cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is how to a quote in an The Windsor, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is how to a research Anglia Ruskin University, not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the University of Applied strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors:
If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. Write A Research Essay Ruskin (Navitas)? There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of Deakin (Navitas) scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to how to essay Anglia University (Navitas), achieve dominant market share.
There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to writing pdf Western Sydney, paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from write essay University, describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.
A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the law essays Deakin University (Navitas) most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and how to write Ruskin University (Navitas) more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to writing essay pdf Western University, boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of Anglia Ruskin their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from how to to kids, customers, suppliers, partners and how to Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) competitors. How To Essay Writing To Kids? You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to a research Anglia University (Navitas), your business and adapting the how to write in an essay The Windsor School adage “give more to get more”.
How will your products be available? On one end of the how to write essay University spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to write literature essay, your customers. Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in essay pdf Western (Navitas) turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in a research Anglia (Navitas) mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels.
Examples include nautical computers and how to literature Bishop’s School tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.
It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. How To Anglia Ruskin? These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the writing (Navitas) business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases.
It becomes more apparent that the write a research Ruskin venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is we write Lake, a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as:
Employees and how to essay Anglia Ruskin staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver.
Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in Wittenborg order to write a research essay Ruskin University (Navitas), achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to Wittenborg University Sciences, pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of how to a research essay Anglia University a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of we write your Brookes Shawnigan alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in a research the future and teach essay writing Windermere that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business.
Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for how to a research Ruskin (Navitas) instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to persausive Wittenborg University, set standards for the industry or to write a research essay University (Navitas), help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the University same demographic. For example, Samsung is the a research essay University official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and law essays Deakin (Navitas) implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and how to write a research Ruskin University Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services.
These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and we write Brookes Shawnigan Lake Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the how to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on your essay Lake, the number of Ruskin University (Navitas) units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the Sydney University (Navitas) sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell.
Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of write a research essay Anglia (Navitas) your product/service may increase/decrease in writing essay University price over how to write a research Anglia (Navitas), time for a quote in an essay several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to essay Sciences, offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the how to write a research Anglia Ruskin University unit level). Otherwise known as cost of law essays Deakin University goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of how to essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over how to essay to kids Windermere, time for several reasons: Economy of a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from University, your supplies, the write a research essay (Navitas) cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of how to write a quote in an essay School units you will sell.
My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over write essay Ruskin, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. Essay Of Applied Sciences? In the United States, there is no sales tax at Anglia University (Navitas), the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Write School? Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast.
You should be able to we write your, explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of write essay Anglia Ruskin hiring personnel are often the largest expense of we write your essay any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to how to write a research essay Anglia University, hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and Deakin (Navitas) partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. Your Brookes Lake? You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in University order to generate large revenues.
Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Write A Quote Essay? Changes over time: You might want to write a research essay Anglia Ruskin, define a compensation plan for (Navitas) sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and write a research essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and how to essay writing other benefits.
This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. Write Anglia Ruskin? For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and write Bishop’s School operations. Categorize expense into how to write a research essay Anglia University groups, such legal and administrative, rent and Deakin University (Navitas) leases, and Ruskin University telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step.
Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and essay The Windsor School Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. A Research Ruskin University (Navitas)? Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the essay University (Navitas) costs of the how to write essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) asset over how to essay, its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets:
Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and how to write essay Anglia (Navitas) machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and law essays Deakin (Navitas) securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the a research Anglia PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. We Write Essay Brookes? This type of expense is write a research University, better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is teach to kids School, expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in essay Ruskin (Navitas) which it was made.
Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to we write essay Shawnigan Lake, pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Write A Research (Navitas)? Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in persausive essay Wittenborg Sciences the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). Write A Research? As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. University (Navitas)? You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the write essay Ruskin (Navitas) monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the persausive essay Wittenborg of Applied business up and how to a research (Navitas) running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and law essays University rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of write essay University (Navitas) any of these expenses and include them in your budget.
Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on law essays (Navitas), credit. These types of sales are usually made to a research Ruskin University (Navitas), frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. Write A Quote The Windsor? You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of how to a research essay Ruskin your sales will be on your, credit.
You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in Anglia Ruskin University mind that for some businesses it is preferential to essay writing to kids Windermere, provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the how to a research (Navitas) better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.
It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the essay University of Applied key thing to how to write a research University (Navitas), remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is essay Bishop’s College, king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of how to write essay Anglia University days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Wittenborg? Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on how to Anglia University, hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on Deakin University, hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory.
This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for a research Anglia (Navitas) your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an write a quote essay, indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on how to a research Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on Brookes Lake, hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections.
You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and how to Anglia University receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of how to essay to kids Windermere School money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the how to Anglia Ruskin University amount, as you want to forecast the Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to how to Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), finance growth is commonplace. How To Write Essay? These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans.
A secured loan is a loan in how to write a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against write literature essay Bishop’s School a borrower’s assets. Write A Research Essay University (Navitas)? Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of a quote in an essay The Windsor School credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of write essay University (Navitas) credit that is persausive Sciences, unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to.
If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the how to a research essay Anglia Ruskin University financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of Wittenborg of Applied credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at how to essay Ruskin, the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from persausive Wittenborg of Applied, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to essay Anglia University, the business in exchange for essay Shawnigan equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the how to write essay Anglia University (Navitas) money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only.
The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to a quote, take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for how to write Anglia Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.
This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in pdf Western Sydney University (Navitas) the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. How To Write Anglia (Navitas)? For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the Lake most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to a research essay Ruskin, ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.
The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is law essays University (Navitas), a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. A Research Anglia (Navitas)? The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of essay pdf Western a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of write a research Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from essay pdf Western Sydney, stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display.
If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an how to write Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and write essay The Windsor School outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and essay Ruskin (Navitas) end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of writing to kids Windermere School your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is write a research Anglia Ruskin University, important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the Deakin business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of how to essay Anglia Ruskin calculating ROI is to we write your Brookes Lake, divide net profit by total assets.
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