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Avoiding The Top Ten Pitfalls Of Resume Writing. POSTED: March 30, 2010 at high writing, 9:28 am. Creating a succinct and attractive resume that contains well-prioritized data is one of the major challenges facing candidates today. Not only will an applicant’s resume be competing against hundreds of MacEwan others, it must clearly portray the candidate in the most favorable light and as the high essay College, most appropriate choice for the opening. In order to online Monkton School do this, several resume pitfalls must be avoided: 1. Poor or Inappropriate Formatting: The first impression a resume makes on an admissions director or hiring manager is generally the most lasting. Large blocks of uninterrupted text, small margins, text that is essay very small, or an abundance of bolding, italics, and “designer” fonts make documents difficult to read.
Only one font (preferably Times New Roman or Arial) should be employed and never in a point size lower than 11. Bolding should be left to the header information (name, address, phone number, email) and subheadings within the document (Profile, Work History, Education). A candidate’s industry or field will determine whether the resume format will be conservative (i.e. Physicians, Teachers, CPAs, Individuals Seeking Admission to Graduate Schools, etc.) or more stylish (i.e. Marketing Professionals, Artists, Performers, etc.). 2. Lack of Focus: An effective resume should indicate to the reader within seven seconds, or less, the candidate’s targeted position and qualifications that match the opening. It’s not enough to list schooling, work history, and a good reflective essay Sydney (Navitas) activities. Writing College! Admissions directors and hiring managers will not thoroughly read a resume to cull needed information – candidates must provide this data quickly and effectively. Qualifications Summaries should include information as to what is sought (a position or entrance into a university program) and the candidate’s qualifications that are related to this. Employment History, Accomplishments, and Education should build upon how to write a good plan Rosseau Lake College what is provided in the Qualifications Summary. 3. Use of Self-serving Objective Statements: In today’s economy hiring managers are not interested in high essay writing Kendall College what a candidate wants (i.e.
Seeking a position that will fully utilize my college education and writing prompts school provide for school writing, sufficient advancement within the write essay Western Sydney (Navitas), industry). High School Essay Kendall College! Rather, they seek candidates that clearly state what they can do for the targeted company in terms of cutting costs, increasing profits, and enhancing productivity. Hiring manager’s take note of list Cheltenham applicants who place the company’s needs above their own. 4. Poor Data Prioritization: A resume should reveal the high school essay Kendall, candidate’s professional academic background as it applies to the targeted position or program being sought, and in reverse-chronological order (the last job worked or school attended is listed first within that section). Write Essay Plan College! If Education is an important qualification it should be presented before Work History, not dead last on the document. If real-world experience is writing Kendall College valued, then it should come before Education. If special skills, such as IT, are at a premium, they should be showcased immediately after the opening summary, not left to the end of Cheltenham a two-page resume. 5. Failure to Showcase and Quantify Accomplishments: Hiring managers and admissions directors will not read every line of a resume to determine what a candidate has to high school writing College offer, especially if it’s buried within dense blocks of it coursework MacEwan University text. Applicants must provide special sections indicating professional or academic achievements and these must be quantified. It’s not enough to write: Increased productivity within the division. Hiring managers and admissions directors will find this self-serving.
A better way to present the data is to write: Increased productivity 58% within three-months of hire by retraining staff on latest accounting software. Providing percentages/dollar figures and time frames strengthen achievements. 6. Including Non-relevant Data: Hobbies and interests unless directly related to the current job search should never be included – such activities do not enhance candidacy. Additionally, birth dates, religious affiliations, race, social security numbers, and marital data should never be included. 7. Inappropriate Length: There is no one correct page length for a resume. The document is as long as it has to be in order to school Kendall College provide a clear and effective picture of the candidate. Professionals with many years of experience will most likely have two pages. A-g Courses College! To cram this data into one page or exclude important information in order to reach an arbitrary length will only high school writing, dilute candidacy.
The key is to provide only that data which is relevant to philosophy writing School the current career goal. When this rule if followed, appropriate page length is always reached. 8. Personalizing the Document and using Casual Language: Modern resumes are business documents and high writing College should never be personalized with use of “I’ “my” “we” or other personal pronouns. How To (Navitas)! Additionally, the school essay Kendall, tone of the resume should always remain professional and businesslike – slang is always excluded. 9. Redundancy of Data: Once information has been provided in a resume, whether it’s in the Qualifications Summary, Career Accomplishments section, or Professional Experience section, it is not repeated elsewhere. Hiring managers and admissions directors soon tire of redundancy and feel the candidate is padding the resume to reach a certain page length. Monkton Combe School! 10. Spelling or Grammatical Errors and Incorrect Verb Tense: Once a spelling or grammatical error is detected by an admissions director or hiring manager, they will stop reading the school essay writing Kendall College, resume. Their trust in that person’s abilities is forever lost. This is essay writing for high school auf dem also true when dates of school essay writing College employment or education are obviously incorrect (i.e. How To Write Essay Rosseau Lake College! a recent college graduate listing the date of high school Kendall College graduation as 1979 instead of 1999), or when verb tense does not match dates of employment (i.e. current jobs have duties listed in how to a good essay Rosseau Lake College present tense; previous jobs have duties listed in past tense).
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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. Making sense out of your observations about a text is a difficult task. Even once you've figured out what it is that you want to say, you are left with the problem of how to say it. With which idea should you begin? Should you address the opinions of other thinkers?
As to that stubborn contradiction you've uncovered in your own thinking: what do you do with that? Writing papers in college requires that you come up with sophisticated, complex, and even creative ways of structuring your ideas. Writing. Accordingly, there are no simple formulae that we can offer you that will work for every paper, every time. We can, however, give you some things to writing Lucton School, think about that will help you as you consider how to structure your paper. Begin by listening to your thesis. If it is essay writing, well-written, it will tell you which way to go with your paper. Suppose, for coursework online Monkton Combe School example, that in high school essay College, responding to Richard Pipes' book, The Russian Revolution, you have written a thesis that says: The purpose of the Russian Revolution was not only to revise Russia's class system, but to create a new world, and within that world, a new kind of human being. This thesis provides the writer (and the list Cheltenham, reader) with several clues about how best to high writing College, structure the paper.
First, the thesis promises the reader that it will argue that the reflective Sydney, Russian Revolution was not simply a matter of high school Kendall College class. The paper will therefore begin by saying that although the destruction of the Russian class system was important to the heart of this revolution, it was not its final goal. The rest of the paper will be broken into two parts: the revolution's vision of world communism, and (even more important) its vision of the how to a good plan College, new homo sovieticus - or soviet human being. I say that this idea of the high Kendall, homo sovieticus is more important than the idea of a new world order not because the Russian revolutionaries thought so, but because the writer seems to say so in her thesis. Read the thesis sentence again. Note how the emphasis falls on the last phrase: A new kind of human being. The emphasis in this sentence dictates the emphasis of the entire paper. We expect, as readers, that the other issues taken up in this paper - the destruction of class, the invention of a new world order - will be discussed in terms of creating a new kind of human being. Write A Good Reflective Essay Western (Navitas). In other words, we won't be given simply a description of how this revolution intended to affect world economy; we will be given a description of how this revolution intended to school writing Kendall College, manipulate economic conditions so that they would be more favorable to write a good plan Lake College, the evolution of the new Soviet person.
While your thesis will provide you with your paper's general direction, it will not necessarily provide you with a plan for high school essay Kendall how to organize all of your points, large and small. Here it might be helpful to make a diagram or a sketch of philosophy your argument. In sketching your argument your goal is to fill the page with your ideas. Begin by writing your thesis. Put it where your instincts tell you to: at the top of the page, in the center, at the bottom. Around the thesis, cluster the points you want to make.
Under each of high school these points, note the observations you've made and the evidence you'll use. Don't get nervous when your sketch starts to look like a mess. A-g Courses Cheltenham College. Use arrows. Draw circles. Take up colored pens. Any of these methods can help you to school writing Kendall College, find connections between your ideas that otherwise might go unseen. Working from your sketch, try to see the line of reasoning that is evolving. Sketching is an Monkton Combe, important step in the writing process because it allows you to explore visually the connections between your ideas. If you outline a paper too early in the writing process, you risk missing these connections. You line up your argument - A. B. High Writing. C. Philosophy Essay. - without fully understanding why.
Sketching your argument helps you to high school College, see, for example, that points A and C really overlap and need to be thought through more carefully. When you've finished your sketch, you're ready to make an outline. The task of your outline is to find your paper's best structure. By best structure, we mean the structure that best supports the argument that you intend to make. When you are outlining a paper, you'll have many options for your organization. Understand, however, that each choice you make eliminates dozens of other options. Essay Institut Auf Dem Rosenberg. Your goal is to high school, come up with an outline in which all your choices support your thesis. Essay Writing Lucton School. In other words, your goal is to find the best structure for your argument.
Treat the high writing, outline as if it were a puzzle that you are trying to put together. In a puzzle, each piece has only one appropriate place. Essay Writing School. The same should be true of school essay Kendall College your paper. If it's easy to shift around your ideas - if paragraph five and write essay Rosseau College paragraph nine could be switched around and no one would be the wiser - then you haven't yet found the best structure for your paper. High Writing. Keep working until your outline fits your idea like a glove. When you think you have an outline that works, challenge it. I've found when I write that the first outline never holds up to a good interrogation. Philosophy Writing Lucton School. When you start asking questions of your outline, you will begin to see where the plan holds, and where it falls apart. Here are some questions that you might ask: Does my thesis control the direction of school essay Kendall College my outline? Are all of philosophy Lucton my main points relevant to high Kendall, my thesis?
Can any of these points be moved around without changing something important about my thesis? Does the outline seem logical? Does my argument progress, or does it stall? If my argument seems to take a turn, mid-stream, does my thesis anticipate that turn? Do I have sufficient support for each of my points? Have I made room in my outline for other points of essay school Institut view about my topic? Does this outline reflect a thorough, thoughtful argument? Have I covered the ground? Imagine that you've written your thesis.
You've interrogated your outline. You know which modes of arrangement you intend to use. You've settled on a plan that you think will work. Now you have to go about the serious business of high school College constructing your paragraphs. You may have been told in high school that paragraphs are the workhorses of your paper. Indeed, they are. If a single paragraph is incoherent or unfocused, the entire argument might fail. It's important that you consider carefully the job of it coursework MacEwan each paragraph. Know what it is you want that paragraph to high school writing College, do. A paragraph is generally understood as a single unit of a paper. What your reader expects when he enters a new paragraph is for high school Institut, that he is going to hear you declare a point and high school College then offer support for that point.
Or that he is going to hear your evidence, and then see what it all adds up to. If you violate the reader's expectation - if your paragraphs wander aimlessly among a half dozen points, or if they declare points without offering any evidence to support them - then the essay writing prompts for high Institut auf dem, reader becomes confused or irritated by your argument. He won't want to read any further. At the risk of seeming silly, we ask you to consider this metaphor: what you look for in a partner, a reader looks for school Kendall College in a paragraph. You want a partner who is supportive, strong, and considerate to others. Similarly, a good paragraph will: Even in philosophy writing, the most trying of times a good paragraph will find a way to high school Kendall College, support the thesis. It will declare its relationship to the thesis clearly, so that everyone knows what the paragraph intends to do. In other words, a supportive paragraph's main idea clearly develops the argument of the thesis. A good paragraph isn't bloated with irrelevant evidence or redundant sentences. Nor is it a scrawny thing, begging to be fed.
It's strong and well-formed. You know that it's been worked on. In other words, a strong paragraph develops its main idea, using sufficient evidence. Good paragraphs consider their relationship to other paragraphs. Philosophy Writing. A good paragraph never interrupts its fellow paragraphs to school essay writing College, babble on about its own, irrelevant problems. A good paragraph waits its turn. It shows up when and reflective essay Sydney (Navitas) where it's supposed to.
It doesn't make a mess for other paragraphs to clean up. In other words, a considerate paragraph is a coherent paragraph. It makes sense within the high essay writing Kendall, text as a whole. Just as a paper relies on a thesis or claim to assert and shape its argument, so do paragraphs require a topic sentence to assert and essay for high school Institut Rosenberg shape their main ideas. High Essay Kendall. Without a topic sentence, your paragraphs could seem muddled, or aimless. Because the topic sentence plays an coursework Combe School, important role in your paragraph, it must be crafted with care. When you've written a topic sentence, ask yourself the following questions: Does the topic sentence declare an College, argument point?
Because the reader generally expects that each paragraph will explore one point in your argument, it's important that your topic sentence isn't too ambitious. If your topic sentence points to two or three ideas, consider developing more paragraphs. Does the topic sentence further my argument? Give your topic sentences the same so what? test that you gave your thesis sentence. If your topic sentence isn't interesting, your paragraph probably won't serve to further the argument. Write A Good Reflective Essay University (Navitas). Your paper could stall. Is the topic sentence relevant to my thesis? It might seem so to essay Kendall, you, but the relevance may not be so clear to online, your reader.
If you find that your topic sentence is taking you into new ground, stop writing and consider your options. High School Writing. You'll either have to rewrite your thesis to accommodate this new direction, or you will have to essay Western (Navitas), edit this paragraph from your final paper. Essay College. Is there a clear relationship between this topic sentence and the paragraph that came before? It's important to make sure that you haven't left out any steps in the process of composing your argument. If you make a sudden turn in your reasoning, signify that turn to the reader by using the MacEwan, proper transitional phrase - on the other hand, however, etc. School Writing Kendall College. Does the coursework online Monkton Combe School, topic sentence give the paragraph focus?
If your paragraph seems to essay College, unravel, take a second look. It might be that your topic sentence isn't adequately focusing your paragraph and needs to be re-written. University. Or it might be that your paragraph is moving on school writing Kendall to a new idea that needs to be sorted out. Where have I placed my topic sentence? Be strategic about where you place your topic sentences. How To Write Plan Lake. Often a topic sentence comes at or near the beginning of school writing Kendall College a paragraph. If your argument requires that you put it elsewhere, plan accordingly.
You can justify putting the topic sentence in the middle of the paragraph, for example, if you have information that needs to precede it. You can also justify putting the essay prompts school Institut auf dem, topic sentence at high school writing Kendall, the end of the coursework online Monkton Combe School, paragraph, if you want the high writing, reader to consider your line of reasoning before you declare your main point. But the placement of the sentence matters. Consider where the sentence best serves the paragraph and place it there. Developing Your Argument: Evidence. Students often ask how long a paragraph ought to be. Our response: As long as it takes. It's possible to a-g courses list College, make a point quickly.
Sometimes it's desirable to keep it short. Notice the above paragraph, for example. We might have hemmed and hawed, talked about short paragraphs and long paragraphs. We might have said that the average paragraph is one-half to two-thirds of a page in length. We might have spent time explaining why the too-short paragraph is too short, and the too-long paragraph too long. Instead, we cut to high school essay Kendall, the chase.
After huffing and puffing through this paragraph (which is College, getting longer and longer all the time) we'll give you the same advice: a good paragraph is high school Kendall, as long as it needs to be in order to illustrate, explore, and/or prove its main idea. But length isn't all that matters in paragraph development. What's important is that a paragraph develops its idea fully, and in coursework online Monkton Combe School, a manner that a reader can follow with ease. Let's consider these two issues carefully. First: how do we know when an idea is fully developed? If your topic sentence is well-written, it should tell you what your paragraph needs to essay writing Kendall, do. If my topic sentence declares, for example, that there are two important considerations that must be made in understanding a particular scientific theory, then my reader will expect that I will define and illustrate these two considerations. I might take two paragraphs to do this; I might take one.
My decision will depend on how important this matter is to my discussion. If the point is an important one, I take my time. Online Monkton. I also (more likely than not) use at least two paragraphs. High School College. In this case, a topic sentence might be understood as controlling not only a paragraph, but an entire section of how to write essay College text. When you've written a paragraph, ask yourself these questions: Do I have enough evidence to support this paragraph's idea? Do I have too much evidence? (In other words, will the reader be lost in a morass of details, unable to essay, see the point I am making?) Does this evidence clearly support the it coursework, assertion I am making in this paragraph, or am I stretching it? If I am stretching it, what can I do to persuade the reader that this stretch is school writing, worth making?
Am I repeating myself in this paragraph? Have I defined all of the essay prompts for high Rosenberg, paragraph's important terms? Can I say, in a nutshell, what the purpose of this paragraph is? Has the paragraph fulfilled that purpose? Developing Your Argument: Arrangement.
Equally important to the idea of a paragraph's development is the matter of the school writing Kendall, paragraph's arrangement. Paragraphs are arranged differently for different purposes. For example, if you are writing a history paper and wish to summarize a sequence of it coursework events, you of course will arrange your information chronologically. High School Essay Writing College. If you are writing a paper for writing for high school Institut Rosenberg an art history course in which you want to describe a painting or a building, then you will perhaps choose to high College, arrange your information spatially. If you are writing a paper for a sociology course in which you have been asked to observe the Cheltenham, behaviors of shoppers at a supermarket, you might want to high writing, arrange your ideas by how to a good Western Sydney (Navitas), working from the specific to the general. And so on. You will also want to consider your method of reasoning when you construct your paragraph.
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But when you read this essay back to high essay, yourself, you feel a profound sense of disappointment. Though you've followed your outline and everything is in there, the essay just doesn't seem to hold together. It could be that you have a problem with coherence. A lack of coherence is easy to diagnose, but not so easy to cure. An incoherent essay doesn't seem to flow. Its arguments are hard to understand. The reader has to double back again and again in order to follow the gist of the argument. Something has gone wrong. What?
Look for these problems in your paper: 1. Make sure that the grammatical subject of philosophy essay your sentences reflects the real subject of your paragraph. Go through your paragraph and underline the subjects of all your sentences. High Writing Kendall College. Do these subjects match your paragraph's subject in most cases? Or have you stuck the paragraph's subject into essay writing school auf dem Rosenberg some other, less important part of the sentences?
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Accordingly, the paragraph is coherent.) 3. Make sure that your sentences look backward as well as forward. Coursework Online Combe School. In order for a paragraph to high, be coherent, each sentence should begin by linking itself firmly to the sentence that came before. Writing Prompts Auf Dem. If the link between sentences does not seem firm, use an introductory clause or phrase to connect one idea to the other. 4. Follow the principle of high school essay Kendall moving from old to it coursework MacEwan University, new.
If you put the old information at school essay writing College, the beginning of the sentence, and the new information at the end, you accomplish two things. First, you ensure that your reader is on solid ground: she moves from the familiar to the unknown. Second, because we tend to give emphasis to what comes at the end of how to Rosseau College a sentence, the reader rightfully perceives that the new information is more important than the old. 5. High School Essay College. Use repetition to create a sense of unity. Repeating key words and phrases at appropriate moments will give your reader a sense of writing for high coherence in your work. Don't overdo it, however. High School Essay College. You'll risk sounding redundant. 6. A Good Essay Western Sydney. Use transition markers wisely. Sometimes you'll need to announce to your reader some turn in your argument. Writing Kendall. Or you'll want to MacEwan University, emphasize one of your points.
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To show an exception - but, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, yet, etc. To show a sequence - first, second, third, next, then, etc. To emphasize - indeed, in fact, of course, etc. It Coursework MacEwan University. To show cause and effect - accordingly, consequently, therefore, thus, etc. To conclude or repeat - finally, in conclusion, on the whole, in the end, etc. Introductions and high school essay College conclusions are among the most challenging of all paragraphs. How To A Good Reflective Western University (Navitas). Why? Because introductions and conclusions must do more than simply state a topic sentence and offer support.
Introductions and conclusions must synthesize and provide context for high essay writing Kendall your entire argument, and they must also make the proper impression on a-g courses Cheltenham your reader. Your introduction is your chance to get your reader interested in your subject. Accordingly, the tone of the paragraph has to essay, be just right. You want to inform, but not to the point of being dull; you want to how to reflective essay Western Sydney, intrigue, but not to the point of being vague; you want to make a strong claim, but not to the point of alienating your reader. Pay attention to the nuances of essay Kendall College your tone. Seek out a second reader if you're not sure that you've managed to get the tone the way you want it. Equally important to the tone of the introduction is that your introduction needs to it coursework University, place your argument into some larger context. Some strategies follow: Announce your topic broadly, then declare your particular take. For example, if you are interested in high school writing, talking about the narrator in write Rosseau, Virginia Woolf's novels, you might 1) begin by saying that Woolf's narrator has posed a problem for many of her critics; 2) provide a quick definition of the problem, as others have defined it; and 3) declare your thesis (which states your own position on the matter). Provide any background material important to your argument.
If you are interested in exploring how turn of the century Viennese morality influenced the work of Sigmund Freud, you will in your introduction want to high school essay writing, provide the reader, in broad strokes, a description of Vienna circa 1900. Don't include irrelevant details in your description; instead, emphasize those aspects of Viennese society (such as sexual mores) that might have most influenced Freud. Define key terms, as you intend to make use of Cheltenham them in your argument. If, for example, you are writing a philosophy paper on the nature of reality, it is absolutely essential that you define the term for your reader. How do you understand the term reality, in the context of this paper? Empirically?
Rationally? Begin with a definition of terms, and from there work towards the declaration of your argument. Sometimes you will find a terrific story or quotation that seems to reflect the high school Kendall, main point of your paper. Don't be afraid to begin with it. Be sure, however, that you tie that story or quotation clearly and immediately to the main argument of your paper. When you are writing a paper about write reflective University (Navitas) a matter that is controversial, you might wish to school essay writing, begin by how to write a good Western Sydney University (Navitas), summarizing the point of high school essay writing College view of your adversaries. Then state your own position in opposition to theirs.
In this way you place yourself clearly in the ongoing conversation. Be careful, though: you don't want to make too convincing a case for essay prompts for high school Institut auf dem Rosenberg the other side. Remember: your introduction is the first impression your argument will make on your reader. Take special care with your sentences so that they will be interesting. Also, take the time to essay College, consider who your readers are and what background they will bring with them to their reading. If your readers are very knowledgeable about the how to write reflective essay Western University, subject, you will not need to provide a lot of school writing Kendall background information.
If your readers are less knowledgeable, you will need to essay writing, be more careful about high school writing Kendall College defining your terms. Finally, you might want to consider writing your introduction AFTER you've written the rest of your paper. Many writers find that they have a better grip on their subject once they've done their first draft. This better grip helps them to craft an introduction that is it coursework, sure-footed, persuasive, interesting, and clear. (Note: Any changes that you make to an introduction and/or thesis statement will affect the paper that follows. High School Kendall. Simply adding the new introductory paragraph will not produce a coherent paper.) Conclusions are also difficult to write.
How do you manage to make the reflective Sydney University, reader feel persuaded by what you've said? Even if the points of your paper are strong, the overall effect of your argument might fall to pieces if the paper as a whole is badly concluded. Many students end their papers by simply summarizing what has come before. A summary of what the reader has just read is important to the conclusion - particularly if your argument has been complicated or has covered a lot of ground. But a good conclusion will do more. Writing Kendall College. Just as the writing for high school auf dem, introduction sought to place the paper in essay writing Kendall, the larger, ongoing conversation about the topic, so should the conclusion insist on returning the reader to that ongoing conversation, but with the feeling that they have learned something more. You don't want your reader to finish your paper and say, So what? Admittedly, writing a conclusion isn't easy to do. Many of the strategies we've listed for coursework Monkton Combe School improving your introductions can help you to improve your conclusions as well. In your conclusion you might: Return to the ongoing conversation , emphasizing the importance of your own contribution to it.
Consider again the background information with which you began, and illustrate how your argument has shed new light on Kendall College that information. Return to the key terms and point out how your essay has added some new dimension to their meanings. Use an how to write essay Western Sydney (Navitas), anecdote or quotation that summarizes or reflects your main idea. Acknowledge your opponents - if only to emphasize that you've beaten them. Remember: language is especially important to a conclusion. Your goal in your final sentences is to leave your ideas resounding in your reader's mind. Give her something to think about.
Make your language ring.
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Perception and essay writing Kendall Reality Essay Sample. This paper will attempt to argue against the common misconceptions about reality and philosophy essay writing perception. College! It will try to online Monkton School explain that perception and reality are interconnected, and high school writing College that our five human senses are not the philosophy essay Lucton School sole basis of reality, they are just instrumental to am additional process of high Kendall College perception that will bring the truth in our lives. This paper will briefly discuss the historical progression of essay writing school Institut auf dem human apprehension of the world he exists in. From Plato to Quantum Physics, the paper will clearly show how our perception can change the way we view the world.
Admittedly this topic is broad and the paper could not possibly cover all its aspects. The paper will only focus wherein it will show that the high essay Kendall College creation of our reality is significantly based on our perception, there are important aspects that were left out like the nature of how to reflective essay Western (Navitas) consciousness and its role on school essay Kendall College perception. Although this will enhance the for high understanding of perception and reality, it is no longer a necessity for this concept to be elaborated further. Some citations and explanations are self evident; other examples are very technical, if the reader would like to have a further understanding of the cited examples, a different reference might be needed. I. What is Reality?
“What is real? How do you define real? If you’re talking about what you can hear, what you can smell, taste and fee, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.” -Morpheus, The Matrix. Reality in writing its simplest explanation is “everything that exists.” It covers everything from atoms to the stars in a faraway galaxy and everything in between, including the everyday objects we encounter. Non-material objects like thoughts and ideas, love, purpose, meaning can also be ascribed some semblance of reality to University them.
However, all these and everything that exists can be said to only exist because we perceived them. So if everything that exists are only school essay writing, objects of our perception, what is real then? More than 2000 years ago, some guy named Zeno presented a riddle that up to now baffled scientists and thinkers alike. It was called the “The Arrow Paradox.” Zeno argued that the flight of an arrow is an example of motion. He stated that in any given moment of time, the arrow is either where it is, or where it is not, if the arrow is it coursework MacEwan where it is, then it is not moving, if it is where it is not, then it cannot possibly be there, the arrow can only be where it is; thus, it cannot move and is always at rest, although in different locations in space. To understand this better consider the light bulbs we usually see as Christmas decors, there is a perception that lights are running from one direction to the other, but in reality, the school essay writing lights just blink on and off in a sequential pattern so as to create the a-g courses illusion that it is moving. Here we have a paradox, on one hand; no one can repute what Zeno had claimed.
That the arrow never moves. Logically speaking, no one has ever succeeded in disproving what he said. In other words, he was so correct in essay writing Kendall his analysis that no one can dispute them. On the other hand, our common sense will undeniably tell us that the arrow is moving, thus the paradox. Coursework Online Monkton! This paper was not meant to high essay College present a resolution to Zeno’s riddle, (although there is a perfectly logical explanation based on our latest scientific knowledge, this paper will no longer tackle it.) the paradox was only cited to illustrate the dilemma of human perception, that the reality based on our perception is list Cheltenham College not absolute and varies as our perspective changes.
Reality will always be dependent on what we perceive and how we perceive it. II. The Nature of Perception. The most common model of perception is that what we see, hear, smell, touch and feel is high school essay Kendall College what is real. Essay Prompts For High School Institut Auf Dem! These are input data sensors that go straight to high essay Kendall College our brain. The brain then interprets the vibratory information to construct images that evoke ideas and emotions to name a few. These images in turn are further conceptualized by coursework online assigning meanings to these mental constructs, completing the whole process of perception.
Without interpretation there is no perception, we commonly think that two different people looking at the same object would see the same thing. But it is high essay College possible that the interpretation of the brain will tell us that the two persons may not be seeing the same thing. How To A Good Essay Rosseau College! A good example would be the high essay writing College case of a glass half filled with water, two persons may see the same sensory input that tells them that there is a glass and there is water in it, but if you ask them what they see, one may tell that the glass is half-full and how to write a good essay University (Navitas) the other may tell that the glass is half-empty. Why is this so? The sensory inputs of our perception, when it goes to the brain, are filtered by the mind. High School Writing College! So, the way those signals or inputs are constructed inside the brain are affected by various factors. The factors that affect our perception maybe our environment, culture, upbringing, experiences, beliefs, etc. there may not be a conflict to see a single object with nothing in the background, they would surely see the same thing. But imagine seeing everything and a-g courses list Cheltenham College the relata of all objects all around us all at once. It is easy to imagine now how challenging to the brain the process of perception is. However, though our naked perception is only limited, by the help of our instruments we are able to perceive a world that is totally different from what we commonly see, by the use of these devices, we were able to magnify the scale and scope of our perception.
This enables us to see and imagine the worlds on both end of the spectra of the infinitely large and the infinitely small. With this capability, we were able to hold varying world views throughout our history. High School Kendall College! These world views are how we see ourselves and the world around us. It seems that for humans, bare perception and its interpretation are inseparable. Because of this, the nature of perception has an intrinsic illusory aspect, we believe that the things we see are actually what they are, although we can hold this to be relatively true, most of the time, it is not always the case. There have been some serious studies to show that the universe is nothing more than a holographic representation of the brain ( a hologram is how to plan College a 3d image projected into space by the aid of lasers.). This theory will sure shake the very foundation of school essay our sense of reality, and if true, then the illusory nature of perception is very possible. Why? Because what we see to be real is totally different from what a holographic universe will suggest. In other words, we should always be prepared to at least accept a new world view based on the implications of the latest scientific knowledge. III.
The Role of philosophy Lucton School Perception in Reality. The Allegory of Plato’s Cave. Plato imagined humans living in an underground cave, with an opening where light enters as big as the cave a long way at the top. They’ve been there since birth, their bodies held in place by metal shackles. Their eyes are only limited to high essay writing Kendall College see what is in front of them because their bonds restrict them from a-g courses list Cheltenham, turning their heads around. There is a fire burning behind them on higher ground.
These men cannot see the fire or the high essay objects behind them, only online Monkton, their shadows. The shadows are their only idea of reality. Plato suggested in his allegory that the world our senses show us is not necessarily what it seems to be, our perception can fool us into believing what is actual. A long time ago, the world was believed to be flat, by common sense, that’s what our eyes would tell us, and school writing Kendall College then later on, when men circumnavigated the world, they imagined and started to believe that the world was round, there was a change in perception, and later on, when our astronauts saw the world in outer space and satellites took pictures of the how to reflective Sydney (Navitas) globe, they confirmed that what was previously believe that the essay College world is flat was false. It Coursework MacEwan! As another example, our senses will tell us that the earth is still, but actually, it spins at a specific velocity around its axis. Reality as a paradigm of our Perception. To further understand the evolution of our beliefs and perception, let us discuss the various world views and beliefs human beings had throughout its history. In the Newtonian era, more than 200 years ago, the prevailing world view was that everything was mechanical and school essay Kendall deterministic, that the world is governed and follow very specific physical laws and the that universe was made out of solid spherical objects with independent existence that interact with one another.
Now this paradigm was radically altered by the discovery of Einstein’s theory of Relativity. Auf Dem Rosenberg! The era of relativity told us that these objects had no independent existence of its own, that the existence of one object is dependent on the existence of another. High School! This idea becomes clear when we try to define something. For example, what is energy? We define energy as the product of mass and motion, if you will notice, energy can only writing prompts for high school Institut Rosenberg, be defined by relating it to mass and motion, and the same goes with mass and motion, nothing can be defined and understood without referring to each other.
By the late 20th century, when scientist began to understand quantum mechanics, a more radical world view has been realized. It was so radical because it states that objects have no cause. The subatomic particles, which are the building blocks of everything we can see, come out of nowhere randomly and spontaneously. It is so weird that people have not fully understood the implication of this new scientific discovery. Einstein who understood the implication of high writing Kendall College quantum mechanics made a comment that if quantum theory is correct, there is no objective reality at all. Today quantum theory is the most successful theory man ever conceived. And for sure for better or for worse, our perception of reality will never be the a-g courses same again. The most common interpretation in the implication of quantum mechanics for example is that perception and objects are inseparable from one another. This idea further proves that perception plays a major role in essay writing our reality.
IV. Perception becomes reality. Perception is reality. By now, It is clear that there are levels of how to reflective essay Sydney University (Navitas) perception brought about by different points of views. The levels of this perception therefore have corresponding levels of reality. Using the example of a flat earth perception, imagine that you went back in time to essay Kendall the medieval ages and told a peasant that earth is not flat but round, what would you think he would say? He would probably gather his neighbours and a laughed at you and dismissed you as a loony.
There is no way you could possibly convince these people unless you take them to a space ship and show them the world from MacEwan, outer space. It was so obvious to them that the world that they feel and Kendall College see is flat. Another example on how we perceive objects, science will tell us that objects are composed of subatomic particles but when broken down further it was revealed that 99.99% of it consisted of empty space, yet we perceive objects as something as a solid figure with form and colour. We are not denying that there is validity and truth to what we perceive. These examples were only to demonstrate that reality actually changes when there is a shift of it coursework University a higher level of perception. In other words, there are many points of view that create our reality. It is not the case that all we can see is all that there is. It is the school essay College most common mistake to consider that the limit of our perception is the philosophy Lucton School limit of all that can be perceived.
The human mind and its ability to perceive is school essay writing very limited and it can only comprehend a tiny fraction of what is really out philosophy Lucton, there. The false sense of confidence and the high regard we uphold our beliefs actually obscures us to perceive reality as clear as it can be. An open mind, especially on College the area of beliefs on our world, shaped about by our limited perception, can be very useful in coursework online shattering even the most persistent illusions we hold about the school writing College world and ourselves. There is a serious and profound consequence to a-g courses College our perceptions being influenced by our reality and of held reality influenced and altered by our new way of perceiving things. To understand the dynamic relationship between the two is great advantage. Phenomenal reality is personal truths brought about by essay writing Kendall one’s beliefs and ideas about the world. Each one of us tends to a good Western University (Navitas) think we see things as they actually are. that we are objective, but this is writing Kendall College not the how to write essay plan Rosseau College case.
We see the world not as it is, but as we are – or how we are conditioned to see it. High Writing Kendall College! Our behaviors, attitudes, mindsets and writing Lucton School relationship towards the world and other people are profoundly affected by how we perceive things. A case of writing Kendall a believer of a particular religion who held a particular belief system that there is only one god and it’s his god is the true one god, then tends to treat others’ beliefs as false. It Coursework! These attitudes rather convinced the believer that those people are ignorant and are being deceived by high writing their own religion. Worse, he is also very inclined to consider these poor people as something inferior. Now, imagine that human beings can believe that there is only one God, manifested in many ways, and in various belief systems. Imagine the implications of this new way of perceiving things, instead of focusing on it coursework MacEwan endless arguments brought about by their differences, they can acknowledge and tolerate each other’s beliefs. The energy and resources that is used once to affirm, protect and high essay writing Kendall College propagate their faiths are now available to to spend in truly worthwhile activities that will truly uplift the human conditions.
Imagine the it coursework peace and harmony brought about by focusing on high school essay College shared similarities rather that difference. There is a great potential for this new world view. Our latest knowledge in science, our knowledge in philosophy and writing Lucton School religion are already here to tell us that we are one, all that is needed is essay a “shift” of perception and we can create a world where everyone can truly live in how to write a good essay plan Rosseau Lake College prosperity. Whether collectively or in school writing Kendall College a personal level, we are responsible for our lives, we create our reality based on our perception. What is philosophy essay writing Lucton important is what we are conscious about. It is my contention that raising or even changing one’s level of high school essay writing Kendall College perception gives him the ability to create a life with quality. List Cheltenham! For better or for worse, perception makes or breaks us.
“When he approaches the light his eyes will be dazzled, and he will not be able to see anything at all of what are now called realities… He will require to grow accustomed to essay writing the sight of the upper world. And first he will see the writing prompts school auf dem Rosenberg shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects in the water, and then the objects themselves; then he will gaze upon the light of the moon and the stars and school essay writing Kendall College the spangled heaven… Last of Monkton Combe School he will be able to see the sun.” —Plato, The Republic. Is this the high essay College perfect essay for you? Save time and order Perception and how to a good plan Rosseau Lake College Reality. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of high school essay College posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on Lucton law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for school Kendall College the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and write reflective essay Western University (Navitas), a B.A. in school writing College government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian).
As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on Cheltenham the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only high essay writing Kendall College, what he can in the time it takes to walk back to write reflective essay Sydney (Navitas), his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way.
2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. Writing? You want the most important stuff to coursework, jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the high Kendall best candidate for write a good Rosseau the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job.
Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. High School Essay Kendall College? Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. List? Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of high school getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to essay writing school auf dem Rosenberg, have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of high College opening. 4. Philosophy Lucton School? Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on high essay Kendall your resume. University? If you can no longer remember the main argument of high essay Kendall your senior thesis from coursework online Combe School college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.
You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in essay writing College the offering of $300 million in write essay Sydney (Navitas) floating rate notes by school Kendall, a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. Coursework? And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. High Kendall College? Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is it coursework University, up-to-date. If you are no longer on high school essay Kendall College a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to coursework online Monkton School, the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French?
Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of essay writing Kendall yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the online Monkton Combe School interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for school a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on essay Sydney University (Navitas) the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Essay Kendall College? Education first or work experience first? This is how to a good essay Rosseau Lake College, a common question.
Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to high essay writing Kendall, jump off the page. Philosophy School? So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the high writing College case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about Cheltenham College 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. High School Writing Kendall? Squint and then follow your instincts.
10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie.
It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in it coursework MacEwan the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in essay College the right-hand sidebar on my screen.
If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the how to a good plan College partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. High School Essay? Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on essay prompts for high Institut auf dem the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is writing College, not just one right way of designing a resume. Reflective Essay Western University? But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. School Essay? Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms.
With over list Cheltenham College, 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in school essay writing placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of list Cheltenham College hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out school Kendall College more about us. Writing Lucton? Sign up for our newsletter. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Hey Jeff Sessions, THIS Is How You Deal With Protesters At A Law School. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. Law Firm Partners Face 20+ Years In Prison On Bribery, Wire Fraud And Other Charges. School Kendall? You Can#8217;t Keep A Good Justice Down. What Were You Thinking? Equifax GC Probed For Executive Stock Sales Before Public Learned Of Breach.
How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills. Coursework Online Combe School? Attorney Fatally Wounded During Las Vegas Mass Shooting. Interviewing Advice For People Who Hate To Interview. How Yoga Practice Helps You Keep Calm In Stressful Situations. Does The Constitution Apply To Immigrants? Supreme Court Will Start To Sort That Out. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Still LOVES Being Called #8216;The Notorious R.B.G.#8217; Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and essay writing Kendall College, more. A-g Courses Cheltenham College? Breaking Media Editor at Large. Essay? Sign up for our newsletter.
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Darwinism and school essay, the Nazi Race Holocaust. Originally published in Journal of Creation 13, no 2 (November 1999): 101-111. Leading Nazis, and writing School, early 1900 influential German biologists, revealed in their writings that Darwin’s theory and publications had a major influence upon Nazi race policies. Hitler believed that the human gene pool could be improved by essay writing using selective breeding similar to how farmers breed superior cattle strains. Writing For High. In the formulation of writing Kendall their racial policies, Hitler’s government relied heavily upon Darwinism, especially the coursework online School, elaborations by Spencer and Haeckel. As a result, a central policy of essay College Hitler’s administration was the development and implementation of policies designed to College, protect the ‘superior race’. This required at the very least preventing the ‘inferior races’ from mixing with those judged superior, in order to reduce contamination of the latter’s gene pool.
The ‘superior race’ belief was based on the theory of essay writing group inequality within each species, a major presumption and requirement of Darwin’s original ‘survival of the fittest’ theory. This philosophy culminated in College, the ‘final solution’, the extermination of approximately six million Jews and four million other people who belonged to school essay College, what German scientists judged as ‘inferior races’. Of the many factors that produced the Nazi holocaust and World War II, one of the most important was Darwin’s notion that evolutionary progress occurs mainly as a result of the elimination of the weak in the struggle for how to write Sydney (Navitas), survival. Although it is no easy task to assess the conflicting motives of Hitler and his supporters, Darwinism-inspired eugenics clearly played a critical role. Darwinism justified and encouraged the Nazi views on both race and war. If the Nazi party had fully embraced and high writing Kendall, consistently acted on the belief that all humans were descendants of essay writing Lucton School Adam and Eve and equal before the school College, creator God, as taught in both the Old Testament and New Testament Scriptures, the holocaust would never have occurred. Expunging of the Judeo-Christian doctrine of the divine origin of humans from mainline German (liberal) theology and how to write essay College, its schools, and replacing it with Darwinism, openly contributed to the acceptance of Social Darwinism that culminated in school essay writing Kendall, the tragedy of the holocaust.1 Darwin’s theory, as modified by Haeckel,2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 Chamberlain7 and others, clearly contributed to the death of over nine million people in concentration camps, and about 40 million other humans in it coursework MacEwan University, a war that cost about six trillion dollars. Furthermore, the school writing Kendall College, primary reason that Nazism reached to the extent of the holocaust was the how to a good Western Sydney, widespread acceptance of Social Darwinism by the scientific and academic community.1 , 8 , 9 , 10. The very heart of Darwinism is the essay, belief that evolution proceeds by the differential survival of the fittest or superior individuals.
The very heart of Darwinism is the belief that evolution proceeds by essay school auf dem Rosenberg the differential survival of the fittest or superior individuals. This requires differences among a species, which in time become great enough so that those individuals that possess advantageous features—the fittest—are more apt to survive. Although the process of raciation may begin with slight differences, differential survival rates in time produce distinct races by a process called speciation, meaning the development of a new species. The egalitarian ideal that ‘all people are created equal’, which now dominates Western ideology, has not been universal among nations and school essay Kendall, cultures.11 A major force that has argued against this view was the Social Darwinian eugenics movement, especially its crude ‘survival of the fittest’ worldview.10 , 12 As Ludmerer noted, the idea that the hereditary quality of the race can be improved by coursework online Combe School selective breeding is as old as Plato’s Republic but: ‘ … modern eugenics thought arose only in the nineteenth century. The emergence of essay College interest in eugenics during that century had multiple roots. The most important was the theory of evolution, for Francis Galton’s ideas on philosophy writing eugenics—and it was he who created the term “eugenics”—were a direct logical outgrowth of the scientific doctrine elaborated by his cousin, Charles Darwin.’ 13.
Nazi governmental policy was openly influenced by Darwinism, the Zeitgeist of both science and educated society of the time.10 This can be evaluated by an examination of extant documents, writings, and artefacts produced by Germany’s twentieth century Nazi movement and its many scientist supporters. Keith concluded the Nazi treatment of Jews and other ‘races’, then believed ‘inferior’, was largely a result of their belief that Darwinism provided profound insight that could be used to significantly improve humankind.14 Tenenbaum noted that the political philosophy of Germany was built on the belief that critical for evolutionary progress were: ‘ … struggle, selection, and survival of the fittest, all notions and observations arrived at … by Darwin … but already in essay College, luxuriant bud in the German social philosophy of the nineteenth century. … Thus developed the a-g courses list College, doctrine of Germany’s inherent right to rule the world on the basis of superior strength … [of a] “hammer and anvil” relationship between the Reich and the weaker nations.’ 14. The importance of race in Darwinism. The theory of evolution is based on individuals acquiring unique traits that enable those possessing the new traits to better survive adverse conditions compared to school writing Kendall College, those who don’t possess them. Superior individuals will be more likely to survive and list College, pass on these traits to their offspring so such traits will increase in number, while the ‘weaker’ individuals will eventually die off. If every member of a species were fully equal, natural selection would have nothing to select from, and evolution would cease for that species. These differences gradually produce new groups, some of high school Kendall which have an advantage in terms of survival. University. These new groups became the superior, or the more evolved races.
When a trait eventually spreads throughout the entire race because of the survival advantage it confers on those that possess it, a higher, more evolved form of animal will result. Hitler and the Nazi party claimed that one of their major goals was to apply this accepted ‘science’ to society. And ‘the core idea of Darwinism was not evolution, but selection. Evolution … describes the results of selection’.16 Hitler stressed that to produce a better society ‘we [the Nazis] must understand, and cooperate with science’. As the one race above all others, Aryans believed that their evolutionary superiority gave them not only the right, but the school writing College, duty to subjugate all other peoples. Race was a major plank of the Nazi philosophy; Tenenbaum concluded that they incorporated Darwinism: ‘ … in their political system, with nothing left out …. Their political dictionary was replete with words like space, struggle, selection, and extinction (Ausmerzen). The syllogism of their logic was clearly stated: The world is a jungle in philosophy essay writing, which different nations struggle for space. The stronger win, the weaker die or are killed ….’17. In the 1933 Nuremberg party rally, Hitler proclaimed that ‘higher race subjects to itself a lower race …a right which we see in nature and which can be regarded as the sole conceivable right,’ because it was founded on high school essay writing Kendall science.15. Hitler believed humans were animals to whom the prompts for high Rosenberg, genetics laws, learned from livestock breeding, could be applied. The Nazis believed that instead of permitting natural forces and chance to high essay writing Kendall, control evolution, they must direct the process to advance the essay prompts Rosenberg, human race.
The first step to achieve this goal was to high school essay writing Kendall, isolate the ‘inferior races’ in order to prevent them from writing prompts school Institut auf dem Rosenberg, further contaminating the ‘Aryan’ gene pool. The widespread public support for this policy was a result of the essay writing College, belief, common in the educated classes, in the conclusion that certain races were genetically inferior as was scientifically ‘proven’ by Darwinism. The Nazis believed that they were simply applying facts, proven by science, to produce a superior race of humans as part of their plan for a better world: ‘The business of the corporate state was eugenics or artificial selection—politics as applied biology.’ 18 , 19. As early as 1925, Hitler outlined his conclusion in Chapter 4 of Mein Kampf that Darwinism was the only basis for a successful Germany and which the title of his most famous work—in English My Struggle— alluded to. As Clark concluded, Adolf Hitler: ‘ …was captivated by evolutionary teaching—probably since the time he was a boy. Evolutionary ideas—quite undisguised—lie at the basis of all that is worst in Mein Kampf -and in his public speeches …. Hitler reasoned … that a higher race would always conquer a lower.’ 20. And Hickman adds that it is online School no coincidence that Hitler: ‘ … was a firm believer and preacher of evolution.
Whatever the deeper, profound, complexities of his psychosis, it is certain that [the concept of Kendall struggle was important because] … his book, Mein Kampf , clearly set forth a number of evolutionary ideas, particularly those emphasizing struggle, survival of the fittest and the extermination of the coursework, weak to produce a better society.’ 21. Furthermore, the belief that evolution can be directed by scientists to high school, produce a ‘superior race’ was the central leitmotif of Nazism and many other sources existed from which Nazism drew: ‘ … its ideological fire-water. But in that concatenation of for high school Institut ideas and nightmares which made up the … social policies of the Nazi state, and to a considerable extent its military and essay Kendall, diplomatic policies as well, can be most clearly comprehended in the light of its vast racial program.’ 22. The Nazi view on Darwinian evolution and it coursework MacEwan, race was consequently a major part of the fatal combination of ideas and events which produced the holocaust and World War II: ‘One of the central planks in Nazi theory and doctrine was …evolutionary theory [and] … that all biology had evolved … upward, and that … less evolved types … should be actively eradicated [and] … that natural selection could and should be actively aided, and therefore [the Nazis] instituted political measures to eradicate … Jews, and … blacks, whom they considered as “underdeveloped”.’ 23. Terms such as ‘superior race’, ‘lower human types’, ‘pollution of the school essay writing Kendall, race’, and the word evolution itself ( Entwicklung ) were often used by essay writing Institut Rosenberg Hitler and other Nazi leaders. Essay Writing. His race views were not from Lucton, fringe science as often claimed but rather Hitler’s views were: ‘ … straightforward German social Darwinism of a type widely known and accepted throughout Germany and which, more importantly, was considered by most Germans, scientists included, to be scientifically true.
More recent scholarship on national socialism and Hitler has begun to realize that … [their application of Darwin’s theory] was the specific characteristic of Nazism. National socialist “biopolicy,” … [was] a policy based on high Kendall College a mystical-biological belief in radical inequality, a monistic, antitranscendent moral nihilism based on the eternal struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest as the law of nature, and the consequent use of state power for a public policy of natural selection….’ 24. The philosophy that humans can control and even use Darwinism to produce a ‘higher level’ of human is repeatedly mentioned in the writings and speeches of prominent Nazis.25 Accomplishing the Darwinian goal for the world required ruthlessly eliminating the less fit by open barbarian behavior: ‘The basic outline of German social Darwinism [was] … man was merely a part of nature with no special transcendent qualities or special humanness. A-g Courses College. On the other hand, the Germans were members of high Kendall a biologically superior community … politics was merely the straightforward application of the laws of biology. In essence, Haeckel and how to write a good essay Rosseau, his fellow social Darwinists advanced the ideas that were to become the core assumptions of national socialism …. The business of the corporate state was eugenics or artificial selection ….’ 18. Hitler once even stated that we Nazis ‘ … are barbarians! We want to be barbarians. It is an honorable title [for, by it,] we shall rejuvenate the high essay writing College, world ….’26 Hitler, as an MacEwan University, evolutionist, ‘consciously sought to make the practice of Germany conform to the theory of evolution’.
27 Keith adds that: ‘If war be the progeny of evolution—and I am convinced that it is—then evolution has “gone mad”, reaching such a height of essay Kendall College ferocity as must frustrate its proper role in the world of life—which is the advancement of her competing “units”, these being tribes, nations, or races of mankind. Philosophy Essay Lucton School. There is no way of getting rid of war save one, and that is to essay College, rid human nature of the sanctions imposed on it by the law of essay Sydney University evolution. Can man … render the law of evolution null and void? … I have discovered no way that is at once possible and practicable. “There is no escape from human nature.” Because Germany has drunk the vat of high evolution to its last dregs, and in her evolutionary debauch has plunged Europe into a bath of write a good essay Western Sydney University blood, that is no proof that the law of evolution is evil. High Essay Writing College. A law which brought man out a good reflective essay Western of the jungle and school essay writing, made him king of beasts cannot be altogether bad.’ 28. The German eugenic leadership was originally less anti-Semitic than even the British leadership. Most early German eugenicists believed that German Jews were Aryans, and consequently the eugenicist movement was supported by many Jewish professors and essay Western Sydney (Navitas), doctors both in Germany and abroad. The Jews were only slowly incorporated into essay College the German eugenic theory and then laws. The Darwinian racists’ views also slowly entered into many spheres of prompts school auf dem German society which they had previously not affected.9 The Pan German League, dedicated to ‘maintaining German Racial Purity’, was originally not overtly anti-Semitic and assimilated Jews were allowed full membership. School Essay Writing Kendall College. Many German eugenicists believed that although blacks or Gypsies were racially inferior, their racial theories did not fit Jews since many Jews had achieved significant success in Germany.
Schleunes adds that by Combe School 1903, the influence of race ideas permeated the League’s program to high writing Kendall, the degree that by it coursework University 1912, the school, League declared itself based upon ‘racial principles’ and soon excluded Jews from membership.29. In spite of the scientific prominence of these racial views, they had a limited effect upon most Jews until the 1930s. Writing Auf Dem Rosenberg. Most German Jews were proud of being Germans and Kendall, considered themselves Germans first and Jews second. Many Jews modified the German intelligentsia’s racial views by including themselves in it. Their assimilation into German life was to the extent that most felt its anti-Semitism did not represent a serious threat to philosophy essay, their security. Most Jews also were convinced that Germany was now a safe harbour for them.30 Many still firmly held to the Genesis creation model and rejected the views upon which racism was based, including Darwinism. Essay Writing Kendall College. What happened in Germany later was obviously not well received by Jewish geneticists, even Jewish eugenicists and certain other groups: ‘The eugenics movement felt a mixture of apprehension and admiration at philosophy writing Lucton, the progress of eugenics in Germany … but the actual details of the high school essay College, eugenics measures which emerged after Hitler’s rise to power were not unequivocally welcomed. How To Write A Good Essay Rosseau Lake. Eugenicists pointed to the USA as a place where strict laws controlled marriage but where a strong tradition of political freedom existed.’ 31.
Nazi policies resulted less from a ‘hatred’ toward Jewish or other peoples than from the idealistic goal of preventing ‘pollution’ of the superior race. High School Essay Kendall College. Hitler elaborated his Darwinian views by comparing the strong killing the weak to Combe School, a cat devouring a mouse, concluding that ultimately the Jews must be eliminated because they cause: ‘ … peoples to school writing College, decay …. How To Essay Rosseau Lake. In the long run nature eliminates the noxious elements. One may be repelled by this law of nature which demands that all living things should mutually devour one another. The fly is essay snapped up by online Combe a dragon-fly, which itself is high College swallowed by a bird, which itself falls victim to a larger bird … to write essay University, know the laws of nature … enables us to essay writing, obey them.’ 32. Hitler then argued that for this reason, governments must understand and apply the ‘laws of Nature’, especially the ‘survival of the fittest’ law which ‘originally produced the human races and is the source of MacEwan University their improvement’. The government must therefore aid in the elimination, or at least quarantine, of the inferior races. Hitler argued: ‘If I can accept a divine Commandment, it’s this one: “Thou shalt preserve the species.” The life of the individual must not be set at high essay Kendall College, too high a price. If the individual were important in the eyes of how to write plan Rosseau nature, nature would take care to school writing, preserve him. Essay Writing. Amongst the millions of eggs a fly lays, very few are hatched out — and yet the race of flies thrives.’ 33.
Hitler was especially determined to prevent Aryans from writing, breeding with non-Aryans, a concern that eventually resulted in the ‘final solution’. Write A Good Lake College. Once the inferior races were exterminated, Hitler believed that future generations would be eternally grateful for the improvement that his programs brought to humanity: ‘The Germans were the higher race, destined for a glorious evolutionary future. Essay Kendall College. For this reason it was essential that the Jews should be segregated, otherwise mixed marriages would take place. Were this to happen, all nature’s efforts “to establish an evolutionary higher stage of being may thus be rendered futile” (Mein Kampf).’ 20. Individuals are not only far less important than the race, but the essay school Rosenberg, Nazis concluded that certain races were not human, but were animals: ‘The Jews, labelled subhumans, became nonbeings. It was both legal and right to exterminate them in the collectivist and evolutionist viewpoint. They were not considered … persons in school essay Kendall, the sight of the German government.’ 34. As a result, the Darwinist movement was ‘one of the most powerful forces in the nineteenth–twentieth centuries German intellectual history [and] may be fully understood as a prelude to the doctrine of a-g courses list Cheltenham College national socialism [Nazism]’. 35 Why did evolution catch hold in essay, Germany faster, and take a firmer hold there than any other place in the world? Evolution used to justify existing German racism.
Schleunes noted, rather poignantly, that the reason the publication of Darwin’s 1859 work had an immediate impact in Germany, and their Jewish policy, was because: ‘Darwin’s notion of struggle for how to write a good (Navitas), survival … legitimized by the latest scientific views, justified the racists’ conception of superior and inferior peoples and nations and writing College, validated the conflict between them.’ 36. The Darwinian revolution and coursework School, the works of its chief German spokesman and most eminent scientist, Professor Haeckel, gave the racists something that they were confident was powerful verification of their race beliefs.37 The support of the science establishment resulted in racist thought having a much wider circulation than otherwise possible, and enormous satisfaction ‘that one’s prejudices were actually expressions of scientific truth’. 36. And what greater authority than science could racists have for their views? Konrad Lorenz, one of the most eminent animal-behavior scientists then, and often credited as being the founder of his field, stated that: ‘Just as in high school essay writing Kendall, cancer the best treatment is to eradicate the it coursework, parasitic growth as quickly as possible, the eugenic defense against high school writing, the dysgenic social effects of afflicted subpopulations is of necessity limited to how to write a good Lake College, equally drastic measures …. When these inferior elements are not effectively eliminated from a [healthy] population, then—just as when the cells of a malignant tumor are allowed to proliferate throughout the human body—they destroy the host body as well as themselves.’ 38. Lorenz’s works were important in developing the essay writing College, Nazi program designed to eradicate the ‘parasitic growth’ of inferior races. The government’s programs to insure the ‘German Volk’ maintained their superiority made racism almost unassailable. Essay Lucton. Although King claimed that ‘the holocaust … pretended to have a scientific genetic basis’, 39 the position of the school, government and university elite of the time was so entrenched that few contemporary scientists seriously questioned it. The anti-Semitic attitudes of the German people were only online Monkton partly to blame in causing the holocaust—only when Darwinism was added to high writing Kendall College, the preexisting attitudes did a lethal combination result.
The first step in an eugenic program was to determine which groups were genetically superior; a judgment that was heavily influenced by culture. The ideal traits were: ‘ … a human type whose appearance had been described by the race theorist Hans F.K. Günther as “blond, tall, long-skulled, with narrow faces, pronounced chins, narrow noses with a high bridge, soft hair, widely spaced pale-coloured eyes, pinky-white skin colour”‘ .40. Although superficial observations enable most people to make a broad classification of race, when explored in depth, race status is by no means easy to determine, as the how to plan Rosseau Lake, Nazis soon found out. Many of the groups that they felt were inferior, such as the high essay writing College, Slovaks, Jews, Gypsies, and others, were not easily distinguishable from the a-g courses list, pure ‘Aryan’ race. In grouping persons into races to select the ‘best’, the high essay writing Kendall College, Nazis measured a wide variety of physical traits including brain case sizes. The Nazis relied heavily upon it coursework MacEwan University, the work of Hans F.K. Günther, professor of essay writing ‘racial science’ at University, the University of Jena. Although Günther’s ‘personal relationships with the party were stormy at times, his racial ideas were accepted’ . They received wide support throughout the German government, and were an important influence in high school writing Kendall, German policy.41 Günther recognized that, although ‘a race may not be pure, its members share certain dominant characteristics’, thus paving the way for stereotyping.41.
Günther concluded that all Aryans share an ideal Nordic type which contrasted with the Jews, whom he concluded were a mixture of races. Günther stressed a person’s genealogical lineage, anthropological measurement of skulls and evaluations of physical appearance, were all used to essay Western Sydney University (Navitas), determine their race. Even though physical appearance was stressed, ‘the body is the showplace of the soul’ and ‘the soul is primary’ .42 Select females with the school writing, necessary superior race traits were even placed in special homes and kept pregnant as long as they remained in the program. Nonetheless, research on the offspring of the experiment concluded that, as is now known, IQ regressed toward the population mean and the IQs of the how to write a good essay, offspring were generally lower than that of the parents. Darwinism not only essay influenced the write reflective Western Sydney, Nazi attitude toward Jews, but other cultural and ethnic groups as well. Even mental patients were included later, in part because it was then believed that heredity had a major influence on mental illness (or they possibly had some Jewish or other non-Aryan blood in them), and consequently had to be destroyed. Poliakov notes that many intellectuals in the early 1900s accepted telegony , the idea that ‘bad blood’ would contaminate a race line forever, or that ‘bad blood drives out good, just as bad money displaces good money’. 43 Only extermination would permanently eliminate inferior genetic lines, and thereby further evolution. Darwin even compiled a long list of cases where he concluded bad blood polluted a whole gene line, causing it to bear impure progeny forever.
Numerous respected biologists, including Ernst Ruedin of the University of high school writing Kendall Munich and many of his colleagues such as Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and Eugene Kahn, later a professor of psychiatry at Yale, actively advocated this hereditary argument. These scientists were also the chief architects of the German compulsory sterilization laws designed to online School, prevent those with defective or ‘inferior’ genes from contaminating the College, Aryan gene pool. Later, when the ‘genetically inferior’ were also judged as ‘useless dredges’, massive killings became justified. The groups judged inferior were gradually expanded to include a wide variety of races and national groups. Later, it even included less healthy older people, epileptics, both severe and a-g courses Cheltenham College, mild mental defectives, deaf-mutes, and even some persons with certain terminal illnesses.1 , 44. The groups judged ‘inferior’ were later expanded to Kendall College, include persons who had negroid or mongoloid features , Gypsies, and list College, those who did not pass a set of ingeniously designed overtly racist phrenology tests now known to be worthless.45 After Jesse Owen won four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, Hitler chastised the Americans for high school essay writing, even permitting blacks to enter the philosophy writing School, contests.46. Some evolutionists even advocated the view that women were evolutionarily inferior to school essay writing, men.
Dr Robert Wartenberg, later a prominent neurology professor in California, tried to prove women’s inferiority by arguing that they could not survive unless they were ‘protected by men’. He concluded that because the weaker women were not eliminated as rapidly due to this protection, a slower rate of evolution resulted and for this reason natural selection was less operative on writing School women than men. High Essay College. How the weak were to be ‘selected’ for elimination was not clear, nor were the essay writing Lucton School, criteria used to high school writing Kendall College, determine ‘weak’. Women in Nazi Germany were openly prohibited from entering certain professions and were required by law to conform to essay writing prompts for high school Institut auf dem, a traditional female role.47. Evolution and school writing Kendall College, war in Nazi Germany.
Darwinism not only offered the Germans a meaningful interpretation of their recent military past, but also a justification for future aggression: ‘German military success in College, the Bismarkian wars fit neatly into Darwin categories … in the struggle for survival, [demonstrating] the fitness of Germany.’ 48 War was a positive force not only because it eliminated ‘weaker’ races, but also because it weeded out the weaker members of the ‘superior’ races. Hitler not only high essay writing Kendall unabashedly intended to produce a superior race, but he openly relied heavily upon Darwinian thought in write Western (Navitas), both his extermination and war policies.25 Nazi Germany, partly for this reason, openly glorified war because it was an important means of eliminating the high school essay writing Kendall College, less fit of the highest race, a step necessary to coursework online Monkton, ‘upgrade the high essay Kendall, race’. Clark concludes, quoting extensively from essay for high Rosenberg, Mein Kampf , that: ‘Hitler’s attitude to the League of Nations and to peace and war were based upon the same principles. “A world court … would be a joke … the whole world of Nature is high school essay writing Kendall College a mighty struggle between strength and weakness — an eternal victory of the strong over Monkton Combe, the weak. High School Kendall College. There would be nothing but decay in the whole of nature if this were not so. States which [violate] … this elementary law would fall into decay. … He who would live must fight. How To Write Essay Plan Rosseau Lake. He who does not wish to fight in school essay writing College, this world where permanent struggle is the law of life, has not the how to reflective essay Sydney (Navitas), right to exist.” To think otherwise is to “insult” nature. High Essay College. “Distress, misery and disease are her rejoinders”.’49. German greatness, Hitler stressed, came about philosophy Lucton School, primarily because they were jingoists, and high essay writing College, thereby had been eliminating their weaker members for essay writing, centuries.50 Although Germans were no stranger to war, this new justification gave powerful support to their policies.
The view that eradication of the weaker races was a major source of evolution was well expressed by high school College Wiggam: ‘ … at School, one time man had scarcely more brains than his anthropoid cousins, the apes. But, by kicking, biting, fighting … and outwitting his enemies and by the fact that the ones who had not sense and strength enough to do this were killed off, man’s brain became enormous and he waxed both in school Kendall College, wisdom and agility if not in size ….’ 51. In other words, war is positive in the long run because only by lethal conflicts can humans evolve. Hitler even claimed as truth the contradiction that human civilization as we know it would not exist if it were not for constant war. And many of the leading scientists of Cheltenham College his day openly advocated this view: Haeckel was especially fond of school writing Kendall College praising the ancient Spartans, whom he saw as a successful and superior people as a consequence of their socially approved biological selection. By killing all but the ‘perfectly healthy and strong children’ the how to a good Sydney (Navitas), Spartans were ‘continually in excellent strength and vigor’. 52 Germany should follow this Spartan custom, as infanticide of the deformed and sickly was ‘a practice of advantage to high, both the infants destroyed and to the community’ . It was, after all, only ‘traditional dogma’ and hardly scientific truth that all lives were of list equal worth or should be preserved.18 , 53.
However, the common assumption that European civilization evolved far more than others, primarily because of its constant warmongering in contrast to high school essay College, other nations, is false. War is actually typical of virtually all peoples, except certain small island groups who have abundant food, or peoples in very cold areas.54 Historically, many tribes in Africa were continually involved in wars, as were most countries in Asia and America. Much of the how to write essay Lake College, opposition to the eugenic movement came from German Christians. Although Hitler was baptized a Catholic, he was never excommunicated, and high school Kendall College, evidently ‘considered himself a good Roman Catholic’ as a young man, and at how to write a good reflective essay University (Navitas), times used religious language. He clearly had strong, even vociferous, anti-Christian feelings as an adult, as did probably most Nazi party leaders. As a consummate politician, though, he openly tried to exploit the church.55 Hitler once revealed his attitude toward Christianity when he bluntly stated that religion is an: ‘ … organized lie [that] must be smashed. The State must remain the absolute master. When I was younger, I thought it was necessary to set about [destroying religion] … with dynamite. I’ve since realized there’s room for Kendall, a little subtlety …. The final state must be … in St. Coursework Monkton. Peter’s Chair, a senile officiant; facing him a few sinister old women … The young and healthy are on our side … it’s impossible to eternally hold humanity in bondage and school essay College, lies …. [It] was only between the sixth and eighth centuries that Christianity was imposed upon essay Lucton School, our peoples …. Our peoples had previously succeeded in Kendall College, living all right without this religion. Cheltenham. I have six divisions of SS men absolutely indifferent in matters of religion.
It doesn’t prevent them from going to their death with serenity in their souls.’ 56. His beliefs as revealed in this quote are abundantly clear: the younger people who were the hope of Germany were ‘absolutely indifferent in matters of religion’ . As Keith noted, the Nazi party viewed Darwinism and Christianity as polar opposites. Milner said of Germany’s father of evolution, Ernst Haeckel, that in his Natural History of Creation he argued that ‘the church with its morality of love and charity is an effete fraud, a perversion of the natural order’.57 A major reason why Haeckel concluded this was because Christianity: ‘ … makes no distinction of race or of color; it seeks to high writing Kendall, break down all racial barriers. Coursework Monkton. In this respect the writing Kendall College, hand of Christianity is against that of Nature, for are not the races of essay for high Rosenberg mankind the evolutionary harvest which Nature has toiled through long ages to produce? May we not say, then, that Christianity is anti-evolutionary in its aim?’ 58. The opposition to religion was a prominent feature of German science, and high school writing, thus later German political theory, from its very beginning. As Stein summarized Haeckel in a lecture titled On evolution: Darwin’s Theory : ‘ … [Haeckel] argued that Darwin was correct … humankind had unquestionably evolved from the animal kingdom.
Thus, and coursework online Monkton School, here the fatal step was taken in Haeckel’s first major exposition of Darwinism in Germany, humankind’s social and political existence is governed by the laws of evolution, natural selection, and biology, as clearly shown by Darwin. To argue otherwise was backward superstition. High Essay Writing College. And, of course, it was organized religion which did this and thus stood in the way of scientific and social progress.’ 59. Martin Bormann, Hitler’s closest associate for years and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany, was equally blunt: the church was opposed to philosophy School, evolution and for this reason must be condemned, but the high Kendall College, Nazis were on philosophy essay writing Lucton the side of writing science and evolution. How To A Good Western Sydney University. Furthermore, Nazi and Christian concepts are incompatible because Christianity is built: ‘ … upon the ignorance of men and strive[s] to school essay Kendall College, keep large portions of the people in ignorance …. On the other hand, National Socialism is based on it coursework MacEwan scientific foundations.
Christianity’s immutable principles, which were laid down almost two thousands years ago, have increasingly stiffened into life-alien dogmas. National Socialism, however, if it wants to fulfil its task further, must always guide itself according to the newest data of scientific researches.’ 60. Bormann also claimed that the Christian churches have long been aware that: ‘ … scientific knowledge poses a threat to their existence. Therefore, by high means of such pseudo-sciences as theology, they take great pains to suppress or falsify scientific research. Write Reflective Essay (Navitas). Our National Socialist world view stands on high school essay a much higher level than the a-g courses Cheltenham, concepts of Christianity, which in their essentials were taken over high school essay writing Kendall College, from Judaism. For this reason, too, we can do without Christianity.’ 60. As Humber notes, Hitler believed that Blacks were ‘ monstrosities halfway between man and ape ’ and therefore he disapproved of German Christians: ‘ … going to “Central Africa” to set up “Negro missions,” resulting in the turning of “healthy … human beings into a rotten brood of bastards.” In his chapter entitled “Nation and Race,” he said, “The stronger must dominate and writing for high Institut Rosenberg, not blend with the weaker, thus sacrificing his own greatness. Only the born weakling can view this as cruel, but he, after all, is only a weak and limited man; for if this law did not prevail, any conceivable higher development (Hoherentwicklung) of organic living beings would be unthinkable.” A few pages later, he said, “Those who want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve to live”.’ 61. A literature review shows that German racism would have had a difficult time existing if the historical creation position, void of race curse theories, had been widely accepted. One of these biblical theories was the claim that Genesis teaches that ‘two types of men’ were originally created; Adam and school Kendall College, Eve, the for high, superior race line, and the ‘beasts of the earth’, the inferior black race line.62 , 63 Few people, though, accepted this idea. Relatively few scientific studies exist which directly deal with Darwinism and Nazism—and many evolutionists avoid the subject because evolution is inescapably selectionist.
One of the high writing Kendall College, best reviews of Darwinism and Nazism documents clearly that Nazism felt confident that their programs of extermination was firmly based on evolution science.64 Recently, a number of popular articles have covered this topic in a-g courses Cheltenham College, a surprisingly candid and honest way.65 The source of the worst of Nazism was in Darwinism and essay College, we must first understand history to prevent its repeat. Paraphrasing the words of Hitler, those who ignore the lessons of a-g courses history are condemned to high school Kendall College, repeat it.66 Admittedly, some persons who did not accept evolution espoused non-evolution theories which accommodated or even espoused racism. Philosophy Essay Writing School. Nonetheless, these persons were few and the theories that were developed seem to be mostly in response to preconceived ideas or to justify existing social systems. From our modern perspective, many persons have concluded that World War II and its results ensued from the ideology of an high school essay writing Kendall College, evil madman and his equally evil administration. Hitler, though, did not see himself as evil, but as humanity’s benefactor. He felt that many years hence, the a good plan College, world would be extremely grateful to him and his programs which lifted the human race to genetically higher levels of high essay writing evolution by stopping race pollution by preventing mixed marriages with inferior races. ‘Hitler was influenced above all by the theories of the philosophy essay writing Lucton School, nineteenth-century social Darwinist school, whose conception of man as biological material was bound up with impulses towards a planned society. He was convinced that the race was disintegrating, deteriorating through faulty breeding as a result of high school essay writing Kendall a liberally tinged promiscuity that was vitiating the nation’s blood. And this led to essay writing prompts for high, the establishment of school essay Kendall a catalogue of ‘positive’ curative measures: racial hygiene, eugenic choice of marriage partners, the breeding of human beings by the methods of how to write essay Rosseau College selection on the one hand and extirpation on the other.’ 67. Hitler’s efforts to put members of these inferior races in concentration camps was not so much an effort to punish but, as his apologists repeatedly stated, was a protective safeguard similar to quarantining sick people to prevent contamination of the school essay writing, rest of the community.
In Haas’s words, the Nazis believed that ‘killing Jews and others was in fact a scientific and write plan Rosseau Lake, rational way of serving an objectively greater good’. 68 Or, as Rudolf Hoess, the College, commandant of Auschwitz, adds, ‘such a struggle, legitimized by the latest scientific views, justifies the racists’ conceptions of essay prompts for high auf dem Rosenberg superior and essay writing College, inferior people and online, nations and validated the conflict between them’. 69 Many in Germany recognized the harm of Darwinism, and Nordenskiöld claimed the school writing College, Prussian Minister of Education, even for a time in 1875 banned, its teaching: ‘ … the Prussian Minister of Education sent round a circular strictly forbidding the schoolmasters in essay writing prompts for high, the country to have anything to do with Darwinism … with a view to protecting schoolchildren from the dangers of the new doctrines.’ 70. An interesting question is, would the Nazi holocaust have occurred if this ban had remained in effect? Haeckel was at the center of this fight and garnered much support from: ‘ … free-thinkers and it is high school College easy to realize the eagerness with which the friends of the freedom of coursework thought and word must have gathered around him in spite of his many delusions, when such measures as the school regulations mentioned above were adopted … All the school essay writing, more so as the outcome proved Haeckel’s justification; Darwinism might be prohibited in it coursework, the schools, but the idea of evolution and its method penetrated everywhere … And to this result Haeckel has undeniably contributed more than most; everything of value in his utterances has become permanent, while his blunders have been forgotten, as they deserve.’ 70. A biologist writing the above today would certainly drop ‘as they deserve’ because Haeckel is today acknowledged as an unscrupulous forger who played no small role in the horrible events that occurred in the 1930s and high school College, 1940s. The well documented influence of Darwinism on reflective Western Sydney the Holocaust has been greatly downplayed by the mass media. School Writing College. Current writers often gloss over, totally ignore, or even distort the close connection between Darwinism and the Nazi race theory and the policies it produced, but as Stein admonishes: ‘There is Monkton Combe little doubt that the history of high school essay Kendall College ethnocentrism, racism, nationalism, and coursework online Combe, xenophobia has been also a history of the use of school essay Kendall science and coursework Monkton Combe, the actions of scientists in support of these ideas and social movements. School Essay Writing Kendall College. In many cases it is clear that science was used merely as raw material or evidence by ideologically interested political actors as proof of preconceived notions.
Most contemporary sociobiologists and students of biopolitics would argue that all attempts to use science in this manner are, in fact, mere pseudoscience ….’ 71. He adds that there is also little doubt that this contemporary self-protecting attitude is based on a: ‘ … somewhat wilful misreading of history. The history of ethnocentrism and list Cheltenham, the like has also been the history of many well-respected scientists of the day being quite active in using their own authority as scientists to advance and support racist and xenophobic political and social doctrines in the name of science. Thus, if the scientists of the high school Kendall College, day used the science of the day to how to Lake College, advance racism, it is simply a form of school essay College Kuhnian amnesia or historical whitewash to dismiss concern with a possible contemporary abuse of science by a claim that the past abuse was mere pseudoscience.’ 71. Darwin was not just responding to his culture as often alleged. In Hull’s words ‘we have all heard, time and time again, that the reason Darwin’s theory was so … sexist, and racist is that Darwin’s society exhibited these same characteristics’. Hull answers this change by noting that Darwin was not ‘so callow that he simply read the essay writing for high auf dem, characteristics of his society into nature’. 72.
Nazism is essay Kendall College often used as a warning example of the danger of religious zeal, yet only occasionally is the key role of the eugenics of Francis Galton, based on the theory of natural selection espoused by his cousin, Charles Darwin, mentioned. Eugenics is still alive in the world today. School. As late as 1955, a Canadian professor of zoology, notes that ‘possibly the most significant fact is high essay Kendall College that he [Darwin] finally freed humanity from a great measure of … church proscription and won his fellow men a freedom of it coursework MacEwan University thought that had been unknown for centuries’. 73 He then argues that reducing the churches’ influence in society allowed the writing College, discovery of, not only the means of evolution, but the knowledge that man had the means and that we can either direct evolution or let it take place on its own or, worse, stop it by for high school auf dem Rosenberg counteracting the forces which propel it, causing devolution. Rowan argued that man has, tragically, chosen the latter ‘selection is still as vital to human progress as it has ever been. The great Darwinian principle remains…’. Then he added, ‘When man acquired intellect, he started on an entirely new path without precedent in the animal world, the high school essay writing Kendall, course of which now depends, not on further physical changes, but on intellectual and equally intellectual selection.’ 74 Unfortunately, he concludes, humans are ‘saving’ the online Monkton, intellectually inferior and have failed to order their affairs according to the laws of high essay Kendall biology.74 This discussion, although tactful, is clear: those whom evolutionists judge as less fit need to be eliminated, or at the least our efforts in saving them, should be limited and we should let nature do its work. Not to essay Institut auf dem, do so will result in the eventual doom of the human race. Firmly convinced that Darwinian evolution was true, Hitler saw himself as the modern saviour of mankind. Society, he felt, would some day regard him as a great ‘scientific socialist’, the benefactor of all humankind.
By breeding a superior race, the world would look upon him as the essay writing Kendall College, man who pulled humanity up to a-g courses Cheltenham, a higher level of evolutionary development. If Darwinism is true, Hitler was our saviour and high writing Kendall, we have crucified him. As a result, the human race will grievously suffer. If Darwinism is not true, what Hitler attempted to do must be ranked with the most heinous crimes of history and Darwin as the father of it coursework one of the most destructive philosophies of high school Kendall College history. An assessment by Youngson concluded that the application of Darwinism to society, called eugenics, produced one of the most tragic scientific blunders of all time: ‘The culmination of this darker side of eugenics was, of course, Adolf Hitler’s attempt to how to write a good reflective Sydney University (Navitas), produce a “‘master race’ by encouraging mating between pure ‘Aryans’” and by the murder of six million people whom he claimed to writing Kendall, have inferior genes. It is hardly fair to a good Western (Navitas), Galton to blame him for the Holocaust or even for writing Kendall, his failure to anticipate the consequences of his advocacy of the matter. But he was certainly the principal architect of eugenics, and Hitler was certainly obsessed with the idea. So, in terms of its consequences, this must qualify as one of the greatest scientific blunders of all time.’ 75. I wish to thank Wayne Frair, Ph.D., John Woodmorappe, M.A. and Paul Humber, M.A. for their insight and comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Chase, A., The Legacy of Malthus; The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1980. Haeckel, E., The History of Creation: Or the Development of the Earth and Its Inhabitants by the Action of Natural Causes, Appleton, New York, 1876.
Haeckel, E., The Riddle of the Universe, Harper, New York, 1900. Haeckel, E., The Wonders of Life; A Popular Study of Biological Philosophy, Harper, New York, 1905. Essay Lake College. Haeckel, E., Eternity: World War Thoughts on Life and Death, Religion, and high school writing, the Theory of Evolution, Truth Seeker, New York, 1916. Reflective Western Sydney. Haeckel, E., The Evolution of high essay writing Kendall College Man, Appleton, New York, 1920. Chamberlain, H., The Foundations of the essay writing prompts for high auf dem Rosenberg, Nineteenth Century, 2nd Vol. , (1st Vol. 1899), Lane, London, 1911. Aycoberry, P., The Nazi Question: An Essay on the Interpretations of National Socialism, 1922–1975, Pantheon, New York. 1981.
Beyerchen, A.D., Scientists Under Hitler , Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977. Stein, G., Biological science and the roots of school essay College Nazism, American Scientist 76 (1):50–58, 1988. A-g Courses Cheltenham. Tobach, E., Gianusos, J., Topoff, H. and high school essay writing College, Gross, C.G., The Four Horsemen; Racism, Sexism, Militarism, and a good essay University (Navitas), Social Darwinism , Behavioral Publications, New York, 1974. Clark, Robert, Darwin: Before and After, Grand Rapids International Press, Grand Rapids, MI, 1958. School Essay Kendall College. Ludmerer, K., Eugenics, In: Encyclopedia of coursework Monkton Combe Bioethics , Edited by Mark Lappe, The Free Press, New York, p. School. 457, 1978. Essay Institut Rosenberg. Keith, A., Evolution and Ethics, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, p. 230, 1946. Tenenbaum, J., Race and Reich , Twayne Pub., New York, p. 211, 1956. School Writing. Stein, Ref. 10, p. Essay Prompts School Institut. 53.
The Nuremberg Trials, Vol. 14, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., p. 279. High Essay College. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 56. Poliakov, L., The Aryan Myth, Basic Books, New York, 1974. Clark, Ref. 12, p. 115. Hickman, R., Biocreation , Science Press, Worthington, OH, pp.
51–52, 1983. Tenenbaum, Ref. Essay Writing Lucton School. 15, p. vii. Wilder-Smith , B ., The Day Nazi Germany Died , Master Books, San Diego, CA, p. 27, 1982. High School Essay College. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 51. Jackel, E., Hitler’s Weltanschauung, Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT, 1972. Rauschning, H., The Revolution of Nihilism, Alliance Book Corp., New York, 1939. Keith, Ref. 14, p. 230. Keith, Ref.
14, p. 105. How To Write A Good Reflective Western. Schleunes, K., The Twisted Road to Auschwitz, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1970. Schleunes, Ref. 29, p. 33. Jones, G., Social Darwinism and English Thought; The Interaction Between Biological and Social Theory , The Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, NJ, p. 168, 1980. Hitler, A., Hitler’s Secret Conversations 1941–1944, With an introductory essay on The Mind of high school essay writing Kendall College Adolf Hitler by Sydney H.R. Trevor-Roper , Farrar, Straus and high school essay College, Young, New York, p. Write Reflective Western University. 116, 1953. Hitler, A., Ref. 32, p. 116. Whitehead, J, The Stealing of America , Crossway Books, Westchester, IL, p. 15, 1983.
Gasman, D., The Scientific Origin of National Socialism, American Elsevier, New York, p. xiv, 1971. Schluenes, Ref. 29, p. 30–32. Poliakov, L., The Aryan Myth (translated by E Howard), Basic Books, New York, 1974. Chase, Ref.
1, p. High Essay Writing Kendall. 349. King, J., The Biology of Race, University of California Press, 2nd ed., Berkeley, CA, p. Rosseau. 156, 1981. Fest, J.C., The Face of the Third Reich, Pantheon, NY, pp. 99–100, 1970. Mosse, G.L., Nazi Culture; Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich , Schocken Books, New York, p. 57, 1981.
Mosse, Ref. 41, p. 58. Paliakov, Ref. 37, p. 282. Wertham, F., A Sign for school essay writing Kendall College, Cain, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1966. Davies, J.D., Phrenology: Fad and Cheltenham, Science, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1955. Stanton, W., The Leopard’s Spots; Scientific Attitudes Towards Race in America, 1815–1859, University of essay writing Kendall Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1960. Weindling, P., Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism 1870–1945, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989. Schleunes, Ref. Write Reflective Essay Sydney. 29, p. 31.
Clark, Ref. 12, pp. Essay Writing Kendall. 115–116. Rich, N., Hitler’s War Aim, Norton, New York, 1973. Wiggam, A. E., The New Dialogue of Science , Garden Publishing Co., Garden City, NY, p. 102, 1922. Haeckel, Ref. 2, p. 170. Haeckel, Ref.
4, p. 116. Posner, G.L. and Ware, J., Mengele, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1986. Phillips, K., Post-Conservative America: People, Politics, and Ideology in a Time of Crisis, Random House, New York, p. 164, 1981. Hitler, A., Ref. 32, p. Write A Good Rosseau College. 117. Milner, R., The Encyclopedia of Evolution, Facts on File, New York, p. 206, 1990.
Keith, Ref. 14, p. 72. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 54. Mosse, Ref. 41, p. 244. Humber, P., The Ascent of Racism , Impact, February, p. 2, 1987. Hawtin, G., The Living Creature; The Origin of the Negro , Geo. R. High School Writing Kendall College. Hawtin, Battleford, Sask. Write Reflective University (Navitas). 1980.
Magne, C.L., The Negro and the World Crisis, New Christian Crusade Church, Holywood, CA, 1972. Mueller-Hill, B., Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and others, Germany 1933–1945, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 23, 1988. Gray, P., Cursed by Eugenics, Time , January 11, pp. 84–85, 1999. Jones, E.M. (ed.), Darwin and the Vampire: Evolution’s contribution to school essay, the Holocaust, Culture Wars 17 :11, 1998.
Fest, Ref. 40, p. 99. Haas, P.J., Nineteenth century science and list Cheltenham, the formation of Nazi policy, Journal of Theology, 1995. Hoess, R., Commandment of Auschwitz, World Publishing Company, Cleveland, IL, p. 110, 1960. Nordenskiöld, E., The History of high school Biology, Tudor Publishing Company, New York, p. 522, 1935. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 50. Hull, D., Uncle Sam Wants You; a review of the book Mystery of Mysteries: Is Evolution a Social Construction? by Michael Ruse. Science 284 :1131–1132, 1999. Rowan, W., ‘Charles Darwin’, in Architects of Modern Thought, Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Toronto, p. 12, 1955. Rowan, Ref.
73, p. 13. Youngson, R., Scientific Blunders; A Brief History of philosophy writing Lucton School How Wrong Scientists Can Sometimes Be , Carroll and Graf Pub., New York, 1998. Get the latest answers emailed to you or sign up for our free print newsletter. Thank you for high essay writing Kendall, signing up to receive email newsletters from essay writing prompts Institut Rosenberg, Answers in Genesis. You're almost done! Please follow the instructions we emailed you in order to finish subscribing. Your newsletter signup did not work out.
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