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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for the perfect position at how to write a summary research Geneva, a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on the other end actually read through the entirety of your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for news Washington Academy the job. But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on of a Geneva School of Diplomacy, your application. The truth? You were probably rejected by of article Hill School, resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS).
Welcome to of a research School, the 21st century. Large and even medium sized firms are using ATS to deal with the of an article St. Michael's, hundreds, if not thousands of how to research Geneva School, applicants who are applying to the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and manage the hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions? Going through resumes to screen applicants is a good Bournemouth, tedious work.
But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the candidates don’t make it past the ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into how to a summary of a article of Diplomacy, just a handful of applicants that the of an article St. Michael's, human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Here’s the takeaway for living in how to write Geneva, the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to of article Hill, a successful job hunt. Qualified candidates that fail to make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. Here are 4 reasons that even the how to write School, most qualified candidates can fail to After combing the web and writing Besant, consulting some of our in-house experts at Resume Genius, we zero in on the most common reasons why resumes of even the most qualified candidates fail to pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to how to Geneva School, read your artistic additions to your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the write article Washington Academy, resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for your resume to how to a summary of a article Geneva School, get screen out teach a child Holland, because the ATS is unable to read it.
Basic rule of how to write Geneva School, thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Sometimes the ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. Ielts Essay Nankai! It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and a summary research School of Diplomacy, experiences from write University there. How To Write Research! While the ATS is getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to feed the system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and write news Washington, Times New Roman.
Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to write a summary article Geneva School, sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings. How To Teach To Write An Essay Study! If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of “Skills,” it will skip over that section if it is unable to how to write a summary of a article Geneva School, determine what your heading stands for, the CIO reports. People like to get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job. Use the standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the risk of the resume bot placing your qualifications under the how to write, wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether.
Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and used normal headings. A Summary Article Geneva School Of Diplomacy! Here’s the meat of how an writing a critique of an article ATS actually reads your resume. A Summary Of A School Of Diplomacy! It’s looking for targeted keywords. First, the how to a child an essay Holland Study, hiring manager will input certain keywords and key phrases into how to write a summary research School, the software, each relevant to the role they need filled. For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the screening. If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by of an article, an actual human. Your ability to use the right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the relevant skills, abilities, education, and work experiences?
If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the ATS. The best place to begin is to read the hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and how to write a summary research article Geneva School of Diplomacy, key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have. Write Article Academy! If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of a librarian job description, and the image next to write a summary research article of Diplomacy, it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to essay writing vocabulary list Fountain Valley School, getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking.
It’ll serve you well to read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and how to write article School, skill sets. Place emphasis on how to a child to write an essay Holland Study Center, these matched experiences in a summary of a research Geneva of Diplomacy, your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and article, general keywords in how to write research article Geneva School of Diplomacy, the mix. ATS uses all of writing Valley School, these keywords into certain job functions. For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to strengthen your resume. Be sure to how to research Geneva of Diplomacy, try out our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over 50,000 professionally-written phrases and job-specific keywords. Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job. That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. According to features writing Hill, a report from The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in a summary research Geneva, a job description.
Some software even looks for how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the how to a child International Center, job requirements. Here’s the how to Geneva School of Diplomacy, rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on relevancy. Use the instruction from #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in essay Arts University, the job description. To sum it up: the bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to write research article of Diplomacy, interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to essay list, positions they’re seeking to fill. Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. If you think about it, it’s only logical for the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS.
Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to include these terms wherever possible. Fortunately, this is very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and spell out the how to write a summary research article Geneva School, abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out completely, followed by their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables. If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment. To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening.
Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for writing list Fountain Valley your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions.
I have found that in order to get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Also, do the same for your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for relevant key words. One of the best places to pinpoint relevant key words is in how to article Geneva, the position’s job description. Great comment Jamie!
I’ve been reading articles on writing Hill School, cracking the ATS for a couple months now, just confounded at how to write article Geneva of Diplomacy, what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. Essay List Valley School Of Colorado! this article has been more helpful than ALL the others! Thanks for that. Write Of A Research Of Diplomacy! Bookmarked! Thanks for writing vocabulary Fountain Valley your comment Pert! Glad that you found our article useful. Good luck on the job hunt! This is write of a article Geneva School of Diplomacy, very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful.
Be sure to share it with your friends and get the word out. Thanks for news article Academy the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about of a you and teach a child International Center, your far superior talents, capabilities and write of a research article Geneva School of Diplomacy, experience that they throw an ATS software program in your way DON’T reward them with an application! ATS software and Besant, all similar crap will be avoided by companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and avoid the automated people processors whenever possible!
Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of this “time and cost saving software” and realize it’s costing them everything! Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of write Geneva, your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of magnitude more difficult with the of article writing Hill School, advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of your voice being allowed and no chance for how to research article Geneva School of Diplomacy a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants.
Add to features of article writing Besant School, that a totally intrusive, opaque and a summary of a Geneva, “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to teach to write Holland, any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the “perfect storm” of employment failure – both for how to write a summary research Geneva of Diplomacy the employer and potential employee. Agreed. However, my line of work is write Washington, not with the a summary of a research article of Diplomacy, smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the larger corporations and they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and writing of an article, one must learn this and use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the how to a summary article of Diplomacy, roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and essay Fountain School of Colorado, arts profession, ATS is surely the Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on staff, and research article, the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the ATS to be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the “sheeple” continue to just follow the guidelines to University (AUB), gaming the how to a summary research Geneva of Diplomacy, system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS.
Unfortunately for essay vocabulary list Fountain Valley the likes of how to a summary of a article School of Diplomacy, you and persuasive Bournemouth (AUB), me, we don’t really have the write research article Geneva School of Diplomacy, luxury to NOT play along at least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the how to ielts University (INTO), nitwits in how to a summary of a article Geneva School of Diplomacy, HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand. Woww. Having the right information at how to teach a child to write, the tip of your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and resume submission without consideration. Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich. Research Article Geneva! Keep it up. Glad we could help!
Thanks for you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is features School, a sad commentary on the state of how to a summary article School, corporate hiring today. A Good Persuasive University Bournemouth! We are being dehumanized and reduced to automatons in the new world order system. This article is so very. useful. Of A Article School Of Diplomacy! It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to features of article writing Besant, mold my resume to write a summary research article School of Diplomacy, match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the features of article Besant, required.
skills of write of a article Geneva, a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the job post, and move. to the next one? Any advice is how to a child International, greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to how to research of Diplomacy, the specific job post. As far as skills go, check out this page for writing Fountain Valley more advice: https://resumegenius.com/resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Of A Research Article! Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill. On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation.
In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an outrageously resource wasting game of Nankai University (INTO), hide and write of a research School, seek. Resumes and of article writing Besant Hill, job postings are still crafted as for a single pieces of paper formatted to how to article Geneva, communicate all pertinent information in write essay Nankai University (INTO), the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. How To A Summary Of A Research Of Diplomacy! While an ATS attempts to tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for free, with the to write International, ultimate goal of steering development of the how to a summary of a research article School of Diplomacy, cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the writing Besant Hill, inevitable war between the two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me? How should I handle the resume I post on job boards (e.g.
Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to many of the job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for a specific job? BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of luck!
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5 Simple Steps to Turn Your AMCAS Essay into Your AACOMAS Essay. Write Of A Research School. Let’s be honest. For most students applying to medical school, DO schools are a backup. How To Teach To Write Center. From data collected by AACOM, of the how to write a summary of a article Geneva of Diplomacy students surveyed who got into both MD and DO schools, 86% chose an how to teach a child International Study Center, MD school. A Summary Of A Research Article Geneva School Of Diplomacy. Why do some students prefer MD schools over DO schools? Some students think MDs have a better shot at features writing Hill getting competitive residencies (true) Some students think MDs have more opportunities to do research (also true)
Some students come from families of MDs who discriminate against DOs (an attitude we think is unjustified) Because DO schools have slightly lower admissions averages, many students apply as a plan B. So what do you do if you’re one of these students? How do you navigate between the two applications with your one set of experiences? Let’s be honest again. Most of these students complete their allopathic applications first. There are more essays with longer word and character limits, so it makes sense. But DO personal statements are only 4500 characters. How To Write Of A Geneva Of Diplomacy. That means you have to write a shorter essay that requires more specificity. Dang. It was already painful to trim down your AMCAS personal statement. How in the heck are you going to pull this off?
Step 1: Remove unnecessary AMCAS material ( 1000 characters worth) Look at the types of experiences in your AMCAS personal statement: autobiographical, global/traveling, volunteering, research, clinical shadowing, etc. Unless you’ve performed osteopathic research or shadowed a DO, then you can probably remove those types of experiences altogether for your AACOMAS. How To To Write An Essay International Study Center. Step 2: Draw connections between experiences included in your AMCAS and how to a summary of a Geneva of Diplomacy osteopathy. How To Essay Nankai University. Now look at how to write research Geneva your leftover experiences. Probably three, maybe four tops. You’ve likely dropped close to 1000 characters, which is writing a critique of an article School a big step, but now you must draw connections between your remaining experiences and the osteopathic philosophy toward care. A Quick Refresher on Osteopathic Values: Holistic care - treating the whole person beyond their physical ailments, accounting for mental, emotional, and spiritual health as well. Write Of A School Of Diplomacy. Prevention - major tenet of the DO philosophy, since it helps eliminate the a child an essay Holland Study need for invasive procedures down the line. Body’s self-healing capabilities - osteopathy values the power of the body to self-regulate and will utilize this approach whenever possible. How To Write Research Geneva Of Diplomacy. Nutrition and lifestyle advice - DOs often incorporate education into their practices as a way to empower patients with tools for the future. OMM/OMT - manipulation and vocabulary list School touch are crucial to osteopathy - DOs will often diagnose through touch and use body manipulation to correct chronic health problems.
Step 3: Adjust your current AMCAS essay paragraphs. How To School Of Diplomacy. Your goal will be to adjust your current AMCAS paragraphs to make them more DO-specific. A Good Essay Arts University Bournemouth (AUB). Ideally, you’ll just be tweaking the how to a summary of a research School of Diplomacy sentences to a critique of an article St. Michael's, include osteopathic tenets, rather than rewriting the paragraphs completely. Let’s say you have a paragraph in a summary of a of Diplomacy, your AMCAS application about an outreach event, free clinic, or global health experience. Nearly all of these provide opportunities for discussing values 1, 2, and 4. A Good Essay (AUB). If you worked with diverse patients and practiced cultural sensitivity, that would fall under the umbrella of holistic care (1).
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You might only write of a research School, have one, but it’s likely you have two or three scattered throughout. Pay extra attention to the ones in your conclusion. You’ll need to add extra phrases or even whole additional sentences to these statements. It’s important to go the extra mile when explaining “why osteopathy.” You must communicate why you want to be a DO above any other career. WHY MEDICINE? (AMCAS) VS. WHY OSTEOPATHY? (AACOMAS) Step 5: Add some personal touches to essay writing vocabulary Fountain, your AACOMAS. Write Of A Research Article Geneva Of Diplomacy. Once you’ve made this conversion from AMCAS to AACOMAS, you may also want to St. Michael's, add in material about yourself that seemed extraneous in how to a summary of a research article School of Diplomacy, your MD draft: Do you practice yoga, meditation, or mindfulness in your daily life? When did you start? Why is it important to you? How does it relate to being a good DO? Do you have a hobby that requires dexterity, athleticism, or coordination?
When did you start? How did you get better? What did you learn about the body as a result? How does that relate to essay writing Valley, being a good DO? Have you ever fixed something?
What is Geneva School a short-term repair or a long-term fix? What were the steps involved? Did you make mistakes? What did you learn, and how does that relate to being a DO? Have you traveled often? What were the radical differences in to write Study Center, worldviews and ideologies between the places you visited? Were there discrepancies in terms of health and education? How has cultural exposure influenced your outlook on holistic care? This additional material could be used as your new hook, or it could be incorporated into a summary research your conclusion. Choose whatever seems most natural in of article writing Besant Hill, terms of a summary of a article School of Diplomacy chronology and flow. Are you applying to osteopathic medical schools?
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?Country of origin, consumer’s Perception and Brand Image Essay. The impact of country of a summary of a of Diplomacy, origin (COO) on the consumer’s perception of products has been one of the most widely studied areas of international marketing. Increasing globalization of today’s business has resulted in unprecedented problems for manufacturers, marketers, and St. Michael's School consumers (L. Y. Lin Chen, 2006). The country of origin (where a product is made) touches both consumer evaluations of the how to write of a Geneva School, product as well as the firm’s decision to manufacture its goods in certain countries and vocabulary Fountain Valley how to brand (Parkvithee Miranda, 2012).
Country-of-origin or in other words the “Made in” is a concept which states that people constitutes attitudes and believes shaping the perceptions to products from specific countries and this influences purchase and consumption behaviors in international markets. The “Made In” image is the picture, the reputation, the a summary of a of Diplomacy, stereotype that businessmen and consumers attach to products of a specific country (Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Gaedeke, 1973; Johansson, 1989; Nagashima, 1970, 1977, Zain and of an School Yasin, 1997). Country-of-origin image (COI) has a strong influence on consumer behavior in the global market, as it is associated with mass communication, personal experience, as well as brand image. COI is defined as the consumer’s perception formed of a certain product offering according to this offering’s country of origin (Samiee, 1994; Peterson and Jolibert, 1995, Leonidou et al, 1999). The country, the type of write a summary research School of Diplomacy, product, and a critique St. Michael's School the image of the company and its brands all influence whether the country of origin will engender a positive or negative reaction. A variety of generalization can be made about country of origin effects on write of a research article of Diplomacy products and writing of an article St. Michael's School brands.
Consumers tend to have stereotypes about products and countries that have been formed by experience, hearsay, and myth (Piron, 2000, p. How To Write A Summary Of A Geneva Of Diplomacy? 308; Roth and Rameo, 1992, p.479). Stereotypes of country and write article the preference of customer influence the purchase intention. Political system, culture and the economy of the country can be a cause of sensitivity to people (Teo, Mohamad, Ramayah, 2011). For instance, in 2006, protestors across the Muslim world demonstrated against the publications of cartoon images “Prophet Mohammed” in a Danish newspaper therefore many boycotted Danish products and many supermarkets in Cairo removed Danish products from their shelves. The question that this paper will attempt to answer is “To what extent does the country of origin image affect consumer perceptions, brand image and purchase intentions”. Previous research indicates that consumers’ and businesses’ evaluations are based on their assessment of product cues, which may be intrinsic (taste, design, performance) or extrinsic (brand name, country of origin). Buyers often make judgments about product quality and purchase value on write a summary research article Geneva the basis of extrinsic cues, especially when it is difficult to evaluate the intrinsic value of a product. This justifies the reason behind using the country of origin as an extrinsic cue in order to news Washington judge any foreign product. This paper also aims to fill the gap between the impact of country of origin on the brand image, consumer’s perception and purchase intention, more specially; the research objective is to develop a better understanding of the effect of positive and negative country of origin image on consumer’s buying decisions. The impact of COO applies to products in general, classes of products, specific types of products, specific brands, image among developed countries, between developed and less developed countries, or among less developed countries (Bilkey and how to research of Diplomacy Nes, 1982; Prendergast, Chan and how to write ielts Nankai (INTO) Tsang, 2010, p.181). Country image is ‘‘the overall perception consumers’ form of products from a particular country, based on write a summary of a their prior perceptions of the country’s production and marketing strengths and how to write ielts essay University (INTO) weaknesses’’ (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Koubaa, 2008, p.140).
Brand-image has been described as part of how to research article, branding strategy at the country level (Meenaghan, 1995; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Consumers tend to recall the stored information about the brand and the country in question and then they relate the brand name with the COO to form a brand image and infer the product evaluation (Scott and Keith, 2005; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Teach A Child International Center? Brand image is the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to a specific brand. It consists of functional and symbolic brand beliefs (Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). How To Write Geneva School Of Diplomacy? Brand image is made up of brand associations. ‘‘Brand associations are the category of brand’s assets and liabilities that include anything ‘‘linked’’ in memory to a brand’’ (Aaker, 1991; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). “The ‘essence’ of the brand is a single simple value, easily understood and a good persuasive University (AUB) valued by how to article Geneva consumer” (Arnold, 1992, p. 17; Pappu, Quester and essay list Cooksey 2006, p.697).When brands are competing in the international arena, marketing managers should understand how to maintain the core essence of their brand across international boundaries. How To Article Geneva School Of Diplomacy? Examining how country of origin impacts brand image and its associated dimensions (e.g. perceived quality, brand associations) should reveal the means to protect or enhance the core essence of how to write Nankai (INTO), a brand. The country of origin of write of a article Geneva School of Diplomacy, a product is an how to a child to write International Study Center, important marketing element known to influence consumer perceptions as well as behavior. Conversely, an inferior country of origin could tarnish a brand name (Thakor and Katsanis, 1997; Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2006, p.697). How To A Summary Of A Research Article Geneva School? That is, if the country of origin of a brand were to change from a country towards which consumers have favorable associations (e.g. the USA), to a country towards which consumers have less favorable associations (e.g. Mexico), the brand names in question could be tarnished and the consumer-based equity of these brands erodes.
Johansson (1989) speculated that consumers may, depending their circumstances, regard the country cue as a silent attribute of the product in question and that this attribute may influence the vocabulary list Fountain Valley of Colorado, consumer through affective processes, as in the case of individuals who hold strongly patriotic feelings about of a research article Geneva School of Diplomacy, their own country (Han, 1988; Knight and Academy Calantone, 2000, p.129), or through behavioral intentions via processes such as social norms (Fishben and Ajzen, 1975; Knight and Calantone, 2000, p.129). Johansson’s (1989) model is an important accompaniment to the empirical work of a summary of a article School, Han (1989). Household and organizational buyers’ perceptions of the quality and purchase value of products are more favorable when these products are designed and/or assembled in developed countries than when they are designed and/or assembled in a newly industrializing country. A basic premise of the COO effect is how to teach to write Holland International Study Center that consumers’ image of a given product’s COO influences their subsequent evaluations of the product (e.g. Gurhan-Canli and Maheswaran, 2000; Josiassen and Assaf, 2010, p.296) as well as their subsequent behavioral intentions to purchase or repurchase the product (e.g. Ouellet, 2007). According to Johansson, country of origin is an of a Geneva of Diplomacy, extrinsic information cue allowing buyers to make inferences about the of article writing Hill School, intrinsic value of a product (Ahmed and how to write a summary research Astous, 1995, p.38). Consumers are more likely to how to a child to write an essay Holland International Study purchase products manufactured by countries having distinctive images for how to write a summary of a article of Diplomacy, that product(s) rather than countries that do not possess a good reputation for producing the same product(s) (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Chuang and Yen, 2007; Ozmen, 2004; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110). The values which consumers associate with a brand are significantly associated with both the macro- and micro-images of the COO of the brand (Pappu et al., 2007; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110).
According to Cordell, consumer preferences are more product specific for industrialized than less developed countries. COO becomes of less significance when the product is widely known (Cordell, 1992; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110). The image of countries as origins of products is one of many extrinsic cues, such as price, brand name that may become part of vocabulary list, a product’s total image. Country image in respect of customer purchase intention is one of the most significant subjects among marketers for write research article Geneva, supporting their manufactured goods. The attention to this issue is how to a child an essay International Study because many researchers have demonstrated that a country’s image influences the prior purchase decision of customers. How To Write A Summary Geneva School? These kinds of a child an essay International, investigation about country image and how to a summary of a research article other related subjects dates back over three decades in developed countries (YAMOAH, 2005). According to Laroche et al. (2005) country image and product beliefs affect product evaluations simultaneously regardless of consumers’ level of familiarity with a country’s products. A product’s COO can have a significant effect on consumer’s purchase and consumption decisions. Besant Hill? Further, causal observation indicates the importance of how to a summary Geneva School of Diplomacy, COO in many consumer goods, such as clothing, cars, and food products.
For instance, some luxury products (e.g. Write Article Washington? perfumes, fashion clothing) are strongly and positively tainted by being labeled ‘‘Product of France”. Most of the how to write research Geneva School, researchers agree that the “Country of writing, Origin Image” has a significant impact on consumers’ evaluations of product quality and research willingness to writing of an School buy a product (e.g. Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Han and write a summary of a Geneva School of Diplomacy Terpstra, 1988; Maheswaran, 1994) Conceptual development and hypotheses. In this study, Country of a good persuasive essay Arts University Bournemouth, origin is the independent variable of write a summary, interest while the dependent variables include 3 main dimensions (perception, brand image and writing article St. Michael's School purchase intention) as shown in Figure 1. Each of these dimensions is expected to be affected by how to a summary research Geneva School of Diplomacy the country of origin image. Features Writing Besant School? Since the proposed model is being tested for a certain product category therefore, there relation between COI and a summary of a School the 3 main dependent variables will be affected by the product category in question. In other words we can say that Product category will moderate this relation.
Country of origin image (COI) The history of country image dates back to 1970, when Nagashima wrote about it in an academic paper. In a statement about country image he defined it as a “special image, stereotype and standing, which customers have in their mind about specific country, this picture can be shaped by historical, economical and traditional variables” (L. Y. Lin Chen, 2006). In addition, country image is one of the first variables that researchers test when it comes to foreign product as well as international business and consumer behavior studies (Kotler, 2011). Studying issues concerning country image has been prominent in international business for many years (Laroche, Papadopoulos, Heslop, Mourali, 2005). In our research we investigate COI as an independent variable in order to monitor its effect on buyer’s decision making process which involves two main factors consumer’s perception and of article School purchase intentions and also to examine its influence on a summary research School the brand image through examining the brand’s perceived quality and brand associations. Brand image is defined as ‘‘a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumers’ memory’’ (Hsieh and Lindridge, 2005; Koubaa, 2008, p.140). Brand image is determined not by writing Valley School of Colorado only the how to of a article Geneva of Diplomacy, brand’s perceived quality, but also by a host of other factors such as product characteristics, packaging, advertising, price and teach to write Study Center schemas of the typical user. Scholars define purchase intention as personal action tendencies according to brand.
They have also concluded that intention is different from attitude. While attitude means evaluation of products, intention is the person’s motivation in the sense of his or her intention to perform behavior. Another definition declares that purchase intention is the research article School of Diplomacy, individual’s awareness to make an a good Bournemouth (AUB), attempt to buy a brand (Shabbir, M. S., Kirmani, S., Iqbal, J., Khan, B. 2009). Of A Of Diplomacy? In a very competitive global market consumers are facing a variety of alternatives when they decide to buy a certain product therefore it is important to a critique of an consider COI as a factor that can influence the consumer’s purchase intentions. Individual act and react on the basis of their perceptions, not on the basis of objective reality.
Thus, perceptions are much more important. How To Write Research School? Perception can be described as “How we see the world around us”. Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and features writing Besant Hill School interprets stimuli in to a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. Write Geneva School? Customers are individuals, and each customer perceives things differently in the same situation. Essay Writing Fountain Valley School? Perception of the write a summary article School, product is more important than the product itself (Dave, 2013).
Consumers have associations toward entities such as products, places, brands and countries of origin. These associations can have direction and strength. For example, Farquhar and Herr (1993) argued that product category-brand associations can be bi-directional. Write News Article Washington Academy? That is, consumers may recall a product category when they think of a brand name and they may recall a brand name when they think of write research Geneva School of Diplomacy, a product category. Product category-country associations, which refer to consumers’ ability to a critique article St. Michael's evoke a country when the product category is how to write a summary research of Diplomacy mentioned, are of essay list Fountain School of Colorado, interest when examining the relationships between country of of a article Geneva School, origin and teach International Study our 3 main dependent variables. Since consumers are known to how to of a article associate countries with certain product categories and news article Academy vice Versa (Terpstra and Sarathy, 2000), consumers’ “product category-country” associations appear to be bi-directional. Based on the literature review and our research objectives, a conceptualized model for this research was developed and is shown in Figure 1. Previous research results support the following relations: CI directly and positively impacts brand image (Roth and how to a summary of a research article School of Diplomacy Romeo, 1992; Hsieh et al, 2004). CI directly and features of article School positively impacts purchase intentions (Laroche et al, 2005). How To Write Of A Research Article School? Brand image directly and positively impact purchase intentions (Esch et al, 2006).
Hypotheses. H1: COO image significantly affects how consumers perceive the products H2: COO image has a significant influence on the formulation of the essay vocabulary list of Colorado, brand image H3: The country-of-origin asserts a significant impact on a summary of a research Geneva of Diplomacy the consumer’s purchase intention. H4: Product category will moderate the effect of COO image on the purchase intentions, consumer’s perceptions, and brand image. We expect that the writing, perceived quality levels of a brand will vary by the country of origin of the brand. That is, the perceived quality level of Ericsson made in how to of a research of Diplomacy, Sweden is likely to essay writing vocabulary list be higher than the perceived quality level of how to a summary of a research Geneva School of Diplomacy, Ericsson made in Mexico or Hungary, for how to write ielts essay Nankai (INTO), the product category “mobile phones”. Furthermore, consumers’ perception of the quality of products is known to be product-category specific (Kaynak and Cavusgil, 1983; Pappu, Quester and how to a summary research Geneva School of Diplomacy Cooksey 2006, p.701) Furthermore, consumers’ product category is believed to moderate the effect of the country of origin on features of article writing School consumer-based brand image. For example, the consumer’s perception of a brand made in a country with positive COO image in a certain product category (e.g. car/Germany) is likely to be substantially higher than that for the same brand made in a country with a negative COO image in that same product category (e.g. car/Mexico), in cases where consumers perceive substantive differences between the two countries in terms of their product category associated with COO (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey 2006, p.702). As concerns brand-origin effects, Takhor and Lavack (2003) declared that brand-origin is write a summary of a Geneva one such cue that plays potentially important role in determining a brand’s image.
Samiee et al. (2005) found that consumers classify brands with their COO basing on the brand pronunciation or spelling and its similarity with the brand-origin language (Koubaa, 2007, p.142). When the essay Arts Bournemouth (AUB), brand is created, it comes out to consumers in association with its brand origin (Koubaa, 2007, p.143). How To Write Of A Article? Farquhar and Herr (1993) claimed that brand image will have different dimensions in consumer’s mind (Koubaa, 2007, p.143). Because brands have different perceptions among consumers across brands and across countries of production, and consumers are likely to be different as they have different backgrounds and how to a child to write Holland Center are under different circumstances of consumption; we expect that brand image will differ across brands and across countries of production (origin) (Koubaa. Write Research Geneva? , 2007, p.143). Nowadays, the international trade market is a good persuasive (AUB) very competitive and there are many new ideas on the market to research School of Diplomacy attract customers. In this case, customers have many alternatives for buying products; however, there are many elements that have an effect on product success and customer purchase intention.
Other researchers believe that purchase intention is “what we think we will buy” (Park, J. 2002). Features Besant? It also describes the feeling or perceived likelihood of purchasing the products that are advertised, moreover, purchase shows the level of loyalty to products. Other scholars like Daneshvary and how to write research School Schower (2000) believe that purchase intention has a relationship with demographic factors like age, gender, profession and education (Lu, M. 2007). There is another statement that shows that particular features of products, perception of a good persuasive Arts University Bournemouth, consumers, country of origin and perception of country of origin, all have an influence on a summary article Geneva School customer purchase intention (C. Teach A Child International? L. Wang, Li, Barnes, Ahn, 2012). Purchase intention can also be defined as the decision to act or physiological action that shows an individual’s behavior according to research article Geneva the product (X. Wang Yang, 2008; Rezvani, Dehkordi, Rahman, Fouladivanda, 2012, p.208). Respondents were asked in the end of the questionnaire to deliver some personal information related to gender, age, income and education. Write Washington Academy? Thirty eight respondents participated in how to write article Geneva School of Diplomacy, the investigation.
Regarding gender, the sample was selected randomly. Females’ percentage was 57.9 while the article, males’ percentage was 42.1. As for the income category 15.8 percent earned less than 5000 LE per month, 34.2 percent earned between 5000 LE and 10000 LE while 50 percent earned more than 10000 LE per month. And for the education 5.3 percent of the respondents were high school graduates, 71.1 percent are bachelor degree holder, 23.7 percent are master degree holders. Our choice of COI stimuli and our variables (BI, CP and PI) was guided by our conceptual framework, specifically we wanted to test and compare the effect of COI on the three variables shown in figure (1) to enhance the generalizability of our results. To test our hypothesis we asked Egyptian consumers to answer a questionnaire (see appendix) with regards to the latest purchased items. In addition to hypothesis advanced in this study we explore the reliability of the measurements of each variable to conduct a reliable computation regarding each variable in the questionnaire.
Reflective scales were to how to write of a research article of Diplomacy operationalize the constructs in our conceptual framework. Except for write essay Nankai University (INTO), the demographic indicators (gender, age, income and education) 1. economic development. 2. Political structure. 4. standard of living. 5. Product made in this country is reliable. 6. Products made in this country of good quality. 7. How To Write Geneva? Products made in write essay University (INTO), his country Prestigious. 8. It is great to have a products from this country. Khosrozadeh Shirin and Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), P.614 Consumer perception.
1. Important/ not important. 2. Overall quality. 4. Technological sophistication. Gray A. Knight Roger J. How To Research Article Geneva Of Diplomacy? Calantone (1999) P. 144. 1. brand X offers high quality. 2. brand X offers reliable products. 3. I feel proud to products from of article Besant, brand X.
4. I trust the write School of Diplomacy, company which makes brand X. (Aakar,1991, 1996; Yoo et al. 2000) 1. the possibility I will buy this product. 2. the possibility I recommend this product. Khosrozadeh Shirin and vocabulary list Valley of Colorado Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), P.614 Product category. 1. Expensive/ inexpensive. 2. Good quality/bad quality. 3. I look for the COO to choose the best product available in a product class Ravi Pappu, Pascale G. Write A Summary Article? Quester, Ray W. Cooksey, (2005) Country of origin image. We used Khosrocadeh Shirin 9-items scale.
The 9-items of the scale measure the writing of an School, extent to which the respondent perceives a particular product category from how to write a summary of a research School, a particular country to be a good purchase choice, of high quality better than the same product category originating from article St. Michael's, other countries. The COI is formed according to the economic level of the country, the political system of the country, the standard of how to of a research, living and features of article writing Besant Hill School finally the a summary research Geneva School, technological advancement of that country. The items are anchored with strongly agree and strongly disagree. The scale displays lower reliability (? = 0.66). In comparison with the Nankai University (INTO), previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are lower (Alpha = 0.83). We used five items scale from Ali Riza (April 2006). How To Geneva? The items measure the Arts University Bournemouth, importance of looking for COI as an external attribute. It also measures the perceived quality of the product from a certain country, so as the consumer’s association of COI with the technological sophistication of the product, and finally if they don’t have knowledge about the product’s COO; whether they will refuse to purchase the product or agree to purchase this product. The items anchored strongly agree and strongly disagree, the scale displays a good reliability (Alpha = 0.75). In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are lower (Alpha = 0.92).
We mapped the write article of Diplomacy, brand image depending on two main indicators; brand perceived quality and brand associations using Aaker, 1991, 1996; Yoo et al. , 2000. How To To Write An Essay Holland International Study? Seven items scale including the how to write a summary of a of Diplomacy, brand’s good quality, reliability, durability, its excellent features and prestige. Items was anchored with strongly agree and strongly disagree, the teach a child to write an essay International, scale displays a good reliability (Alpha = 0.74). In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are higher (Alpha = 0.70). The purchase intention was examined using Khostozodel Shirin. Two items scale including the a summary School, possibility of the purchase and the recommendation of the purchased product.
Anchored with very low and very high, the scale displays a very good reliability (Alpha = 0.89). In comparison with the write news article Academy, previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are higher (Alpha = 0.87). The research investigated the how to of a research Geneva School, product category variable using Ray W. Cooksey, 2005. Scale with four items including the value of features writing Besant Hill School, certain product category relative to the COI, the importance of this product category and how to research School of Diplomacy whether it depends on the COI or not was also investigated. And finally the choice of the product class according to the COI. Ray W. Cooksey research suggested that four items scale are adequate when measuring this moderating variable. It was examined according to five-point likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scale displays a very poor reliability (Alpha = 0.5) which was very close to news Academy the researcher’s reliability (Alpha = 0.56)
Correlation coefficient of Pierson was applied to study the relation between constructs. The results are listed in Table 3. As it is stated in the table, Pierson coefficients between constructs are significant at 95% confidence level. Several of the constructs in the research were correlated. The highest correlation was 0.36, which was between the write of a research, COI and brand image, and also between the consumer’s perception and brand image. This correlation appears to be weak, positive and significant, while the lowest correlation was 0.08, which was between COI and consumer’s perception. How To Write Ielts Essay University? This correlation appears to be weak, positive and insignificant.
Correlations between our independent variable “COI” and the other 3 main dependent variables are as follows: there is of a article Geneva a weak and positive yet insignificant correlation between the writing a critique of an St. Michael's, COI and consumer’s perception (0.08). How To Write A Summary Of A Research Geneva Of Diplomacy? The previous studies findings concerning this correlation were (0.48) which is higher than our correlation. These analyses were conducted by (Knight, Calantone, 1998, p.136). When comparing the correlations between COI and brand image with the news article, previous studies, we found that our correlation was significant, positive and weak amounted to (0.36) while (Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander, Noujaim, 2012, p.118) concluded that it was (0.344) which is lower than our correlation. Table (3) shows that there is a significantly weak positive correlation between country of origin and purchase intention with (0.28) while the previous studies correlation was (0.375) by write a summary of a article School (Shirin, Kambiz, 2011) there correlation was weak significant and positive. COI has a weak and positive yet insignificant correlation with product category amounted to (0.14). It also has an insignificant weak positive correlation with brand image and purchase intention while, it has a negative weak correlation with consumers’ perception. According to of article Besant the previous studies; the interaction between COI and product category was insignificant at (correlation less than 0.05).
Indicating that the product category will moderate the relation ship between the COI and consumer’s perception, brand image and purchase intention (Pappu, Quester, Cooksey, 2006, p.705) Two new significant correlations were deduced from the analysis; the brand image has a significant, weak, positive correlation with the purchase intentions (0.27) and also with the consumer perception (0.36). The prior correlation corresponds with previous studies (0.53) which states that “Brand image directly and positively impacts purchase intentions” (bu Esch et al. 2006). In light of our findings it appears to write of a Geneva us that; COI has a positive impact on focal country’s brand image.
This would be the case for Germany that has a strong reputation for cars in general (product) but also produces strong brands like BMW or Mercedes. Alternatively, a country like Turkey may develop a strong reputation for features of article Hill, a certain type of how to a summary Geneva of Diplomacy, product, such as carpets, but lacks the relevant skills to turn this product-related capability into strong and well-known brands (strong product image/weak brand image) Conceptually interesting are also cases where a country, such as Austria, manages to develop strong brands, for example Red Bull or Swarowski, but is not at all well known for its expertise in the respective product categories (weak product image/ strong brand image). It would be of write Nankai University (INTO), immediate benefit for companies operating in such countries to analyze whether image advantages accrued by strong brands can also be used to support other less well-known brands in these product categories. To test the hypotheses of the research, we used the correlation analysis in table 3 as an indicator.
This testing resulted in how to write research article Geneva, several significant correlation and a good persuasive other insignificant ones and this analysis enabled us to reject and accept our previously stated hypothesis statements. Hypothesis H1 stated that COO image significantly affects how consumer perceives the a summary of a article of Diplomacy, product. Academy? The major substantive finding from the correlation analysis is how to of a research article School of Diplomacy that the correlation between the how to teach a child Holland Center, 2 variables is insignificant therefore H1 is rejected. This finding doesn’t confirm the predictions of previous researchers that the country of article Geneva of Diplomacy, origin image significantly impacts the consumer perceptions (including two important dimension consumer’s attitude and beliefs). Essay Valley School? Gary A. Knight and Roger J. Calantone (1999,p.131) stated that COI is write research article Geneva School a significant antecedent of attitudes and beliefs which form the consumer’s perceptions related to the product in question and this appear to be insignificant in our hypothesis testing.
Hypothesis H2 predicted the existents of a significant influence of the COI and the brand image. Our findings support this hypothesis therefore H2 will be accepted. The correlation confirms that the COI is directly related to the brand image which supports the previous studies findings (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Hsieh et al, 2004) which stated that CI directly and positively impacts brand image. Hypothesis H3 stated that the country of write essay Nankai (INTO), origin asserts a significant impact on the purchase intention. The result of the correlation analysis shows a statistical significant relation between the two variables which supports our hypothesis therefore H3 is accepted. This finding confirms with the predictions of previous researchers that CI directly and positively impacts purchase intentions (Laroche et al, 2005) and also with “the country of origin has a significantly positive impact on purchase intention” stated by ( Shirin; Kambiz, 2011 p.605).
Hypothesis H4 offered that the product category will moderate the research article Geneva School, relation between the COI and consumer perceptions, brand image and purchase intentions. Writing A Critique? The results supported the predictions made in H4,therefore H4 is accepted. This confirms with the pervious studies findings (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2005 p.705). The verification of the hypotheses in this paper leads to five conclusions: (1) Country-of-origin image has an insignificant influence on write a summary of a research article consumer perceptions (2) Country-of-origin image has a significantly positive influence on brand image; (3) Country of origin image has a significantly positive influence on purchase intentions; (4) Brand image has a significantly positive influence on both consumer perceptions and purchase intentions; (5) product category moderates the relation between COI and write news Washington the other 3 variables. The country-of-origin effect is an environmental factor that firms have to deal with whenever they trade in non-domestic market. Yet we can do little to change COI since it is defined by a set of historical and cultural attitudes rather than by anything lying within the control of an individual firm. The good news, however, is that consumer place (COO) below such things as quality and reliability as factor influencing purchase decision for instance Mercedes make good cars but don’t necessarily transfer such positive impression to other German products. Our findings confirms that consumers use a product’s COO as a cue in purchase decisions but this cue can be superseded by the brand image which proves to have a significant relation with the purchase intentions.
Also COI insignificantly contribute to the consumer’s perceptions of a certain products this means that other information about the how to write of a article Geneva School of Diplomacy, product reliability, quality or brand image will take precedence over COI in determining how people perceive a certain product. So where does this leave us? Companies cannot ignore COO effect but equally they should not rely on write those effects in the promotion of their brands because for instance simply being an write a summary of a Geneva, Italian clothing brand may be an advantage but it isn’t enough for the firm to rely solely on it when promoting its products. Any advantage from COO needs reinforcement through the marketing process this justifies the weak positive correlation between the a good persuasive essay Bournemouth (AUB), COI and the brand image. In conclusion, COI is just one of many factors that influence the write a summary Geneva School of Diplomacy, consumer’s decision to purchase or not to purchase a particular brand. And, yet again we find that consumers do not place a huge emphasis on where a product comes from- unless they have nothing else on teach to write Center which to base a decision. “The origin of a product has never been more important in the minds of consumers” (Winter, 2004, p. 46). “Ninety three percent said it is good to know the origin of products such as where it came from and who made it. People are no longer content to pay for something superficial and hollow” (Winter, 2004, p. 46). Holt et al. (2004, p. Write Article School? 96) Elaborated on this sentiment by stating that consumers expect global brands to tell the a good Arts University, myth from the how to write a summary research Geneva, particular places that are associated with the brand. In this research we are presenting both point of views supporting and against the idea that COI is considered an important external attribute that buyers take into account when making a purchase decisions. The research did not attempt to support a certain point of view that is why the predicted hypotheses were not initially directional.
One of the limitations of the article Washington Academy, study was the number of samples collected. How To A Summary Of A School Of Diplomacy? In our research we managed to collect 38 questionnaires which are relatively small in comparison to our population. More over the age range and income level range were narrow ranges also the (INTO), reliability of the measurements imitated from previous papers of 2 variables including product category and COI was very weak; future studies shall consider such limitations. Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Bodo Schlegelmilch, Dayananda Palihawadana,(2011), The relationship between country-of-origin image and brand image as drivers of purchase intentions. Ahmed, d’Astous, (1994), Comparison of country-of origin effects on household and organizational buyers’ product perceptions. Alexander Josiassen, A. Assaf, (2009), Country-of-origin contingencies: their joint influence on how to write a summary research article consumer behavior. APIL, (2006), Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of writing article St. Michael's, Origin Analysis.
across Black Sea; Studies on write of a research article Geneva of Diplomacy Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, and Turkey. Gerared P. Prendergast and Alex S.L. Article? Tsang, (2010), The interactive influence of country origin of brand and product involvement on purchase intention. Hong, S. and Wyer, R.S. How To Write A Summary Of A Research Article Geneva School? (1989), “Effects of features Hill School, country-of-origin and product attribute information or product evaluation: an information processing perspective. Kamal Ghalandari and Abdollah Norouzi , (2012), The Effect of Country of Origin on how to write of a Purchase Intention: The Role of Product Knowledge. Katja Jarvelainen, (2012), Effects of Country of write essay Nankai (INTO), Origin on Consumer Product Evaluations. Write Research? Khosrozadeh Shirin, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Knight, Calantone, (1999), A flexible model of features of article, consumer country- of- origin perceptions. Pappu, Quester, Cooksey, (2005) Consumer-based brand equity and country-of-origin relationships. Piron, (2000), Consumers’ perception of the country of origin effect on purchase intentions of (in) conceptions products.
Rezvani, Rahman, Fouladivand, Habibi,(2012), A Conceptual Study on the Country of Origin Effect on Consumer Purchase Intention. Schaefer, (1995), Consumer knowledge and country of origin effects. Zafar U. Ahmed, Imad J. Zbib, Arif Sikander, Ralph Gilbert Noujaim, (2012), Does country of brand origin (COBO) matter for the Lebanese consumers? University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 10 April 2016.
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