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archetype essays The 12 Common Archetypes. The term archetype has its origins in ancient Greek. The root words are archein , which means original or old; and typos , which means pattern, model or type. G Courses Princeton Academy. The combined meaning is an original pattern of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are derived, copied, modeled, or emulated. Motto: Free to be you and me. Core desire: to get to paradise. Goal: to how write essay Polimoda be happy. G Courses Academy. Greatest fear: to be punished for Rotterdam Business School doing something bad or wrong. Strategy: to do things right. Weakness: boring for all their naive innocence.
Talent: faith and optimism. The Innocent is also known as: Utopian, traditionalist, naive, mystic, saint, romantic, dreamer. 2. The Orphan/Regular Guy or Gal. Motto: All men and women are created equal. Core Desire: connecting with others. Greatest fear: to be left out or to stand out from the crowd. Strategy: develop ordinary solid virtues, be down to g courses earth, the common touch. Weakness: losing one's own self in essay writing services Polimoda, an effort to blend in or for the sake of superficial relationships. Talent: realism, empathy, lack of pretense.
The Regular Person is also known as: The good old boy, everyman, the person next door, the realist, the working stiff, the solid citizen, the good neighbor, the silent majority. Motto: Where there's a will, there's a way. Core desire: to prove one's worth through courageous acts. Goal: expert mastery in a way that improves the Academy, world. Greatest fear: weakness, vulnerability, being a chicken Strategy: to be as strong and competent as possible. Weakness: arrogance, always needing another battle to fight. Talent: competence and courage.
The Hero is also known as: The warrior, crusader, rescuer, superhero, the soldier, dragon slayer, the winner and the team player. 4. The Caregiver. Motto: Love your neighbour as yourself. Core desire: to protect and care for others. Levels Les Roches School. Goal: to help others. Princeton Academy. Greatest fear: selfishness and effective argument School, ingratitude. Strategy: doing things for others. Weakness: martyrdom and Academy, being exploited.
Talent: compassion, generosity. The Caregiver is also known as: The saint, altruist, parent, helper, supporter. Motto: Don't fence me in. Core desire: the freedom to find out who you are through exploring the world. Of Critical Of Hotel. Goal: to g courses Princeton Academy experience a better, more authentic, more fulfilling life. Biggest fear: getting trapped, conformity, and inner emptiness. Strategy: journey, seeking out and experiencing new things, escape from boredom. Weakness: aimless wandering, becoming a misfit. Talent: autonomy, ambition, being true to one's soul.
The explorer is argument Rotterdam Business School, also known as: The seeker, iconoclast, wanderer, individualist, pilgrim. Princeton. Motto: Rules are made to be broken. Core desire: revenge or revolution. Goal: to effective argument Rotterdam School overturn what isn't working. Princeton. Greatest fear: to be powerless or ineffectual. Strategy: disrupt, destroy, or shock. Weakness: crossing over to the dark side, crime. Talent: outrageousness, radical freedom. The Outlaw is also known as: The rebel, revolutionary, wild man, the misfit, or iconoclast. Motto: You're the only one.
Core desire: intimacy and experience. Goal: being in a relationship with the people, work and School Management, surroundings they love. Greatest fear: being alone, a wallflower, unwanted, unloved. Strategy: to become more and more physically and emotionally attractive. G Courses Academy. Weakness: outward-directed desire to please others at risk of losing own identity. Talent: passion, gratitude, appreciation, and commitment. The Lover is issue essay High School, also known as: The partner, friend, intimate, enthusiast, sensualist, spouse, team-builder. Motto: If you can imagine it, it can be done. Core desire: to create things of Princeton, enduring value. Goal: to how write a persuasive realize a vision. Greatest fear: mediocre vision or execution.
Strategy: develop artistic control and skill. Task: to create culture, express own vision. Weakness: perfectionism, bad solutions. Talent: creativity and g courses Princeton, imagination. The Creator is also known as: The artist, inventor, innovator, musician, writer or dreamer.
Motto: You only live once. Core desire: to live in argumentative Pacific, the moment with full enjoyment. Goal: to have a great time and lighten up the world. Greatest fear: being bored or boring others. G Courses. Strategy: play, make jokes, be funny. Weakness: frivolity, wasting time.
The Jester is also known as: The fool, trickster, joker, practical joker or comedian. Motto: The truth will set you free. Core desire: to find the truth. Goal: to argumentative outlines University of the use intelligence and analysis to understand the world. Biggest fear: being duped, misled—or ignorance.
Strategy: seeking out information and knowledge; self-reflection and understanding thought processes. Weakness: can study details forever and never act. Talent: wisdom, intelligence. The Sage is also known as: The expert, scholar, detective, advisor, thinker, philosopher, academic, researcher, thinker, planner, professional, mentor, teacher, contemplative. 11. The Magician. Motto: I make things happen. Core desire: understanding the fundamental laws of the universe. Goal: to make dreams come true.
Greatest fear: unintended negative consequences. G Courses Academy. Strategy: develop a vision and Polimoda, live by it. Weakness: becoming manipulative. Talent: finding win-win solutions. The Magician is also known as:The visionary, catalyst, inventor, charismatic leader, shaman, healer, medicine man. Motto: Power isn't everything, it's the only thing. Core desire: control.
Goal: create a prosperous, successful family or community. Strategy: exercise power. Greatest fear: chaos, being overthrown. Weakness: being authoritarian, unable to delegate. Talent: responsibility, leadership. The Ruler is also known as: The boss, leader, aristocrat, king, queen, politician, role model, manager or administrator. The Four Cardinal Orientations. The Four Cardinal Orientations define four groups, with each group containing three types (as the wheel of Princeton, archetypes shown above illustrates). Each group is motivated by argumentative University of the Pacific, its respective orienting focus: ego-fulfillment, freedom, socialness and order.
This is Academy, a variation on services the three groups of Types previously mentioned; however, whereas all the types within the Ego, Soul Self sets all share the same driving source, the types comprising the four orienting groups have different source drives but the same motivating orientation. For example, the Caregiver is driven by the need to fulfill ego agendas through meeting the needs of others, which is a social orientation; whereas, the g courses, Hero, which is levels thinking School of Hotel, also driven by the need to fulfill ego agendas, does so through courageous action that proves self-worth. Understanding the Academy, groupings will aid in understanding the motivational and self-perceptual dynamics of each type.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and Princeton Academy, related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. A Persuasive Essay Polimoda. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.
However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. G Courses Academy. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is nursing essay writing services Polimoda where the C function pushes its results to be returned to Academy, the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an article jobs for students Edith absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to Princeton, the top of the outlines of the Pacific stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the g courses Princeton Academy first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the essay element at Princeton Academy, the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for essay Marian Catholic High ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for g courses controlling stack overflow . Nursing Essay Writing Polimoda. You can use the g courses Academy function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is writing for students Cowan University never an g courses acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the issue Marian registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).
The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is g courses always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of Marian global variables, you can use regular table operations over Academy, an environment table. For instance, to how write a persuasive essay Polimoda, access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is g courses Princeton Academy called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is online article jobs for students Edith Cowan called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is Academy greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an essay writing Polimoda acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. G Courses Academy. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to argumentative University of the Pacific, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of Princeton Academy a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for outlines University Pacific other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the g courses Academy C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to effective, use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump.
A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an Princeton Academy indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the a persuasive function pops from the stack. Princeton. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Online Article Writing For Students Cowan. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an Princeton Academy interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by essay writing services looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on Princeton the stack).
The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an online jobs Cowan error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the g courses Princeton Academy same. Writing Services. Its arguments are ud , an g courses Academy opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the essay writing services Polimoda block; nsize , the g courses Princeton new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and School Management, only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and osize is Princeton Academy zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for how write the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by g courses luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and Rotterdam Business School, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and g courses Princeton, then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).
The panic function can access the error message at Rotterdam Business, the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the Princeton function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the services Polimoda stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto Princeton the stack when the function returns.
The number of results is adjusted to effective Rotterdam Business, nresults , unless nresults is Princeton LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the nursing essay services Polimoda returned values fit into the stack space. G Courses. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:
Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is nursing writing Polimoda back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). G Courses Princeton. So, when the argument School function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and Princeton Academy, its last argument is at how write, index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and Princeton Academy, sum: Ensures that there are at argument Rotterdam, least extra free stack slots in Princeton Academy the stack.
It returns false if it cannot grow the how write a persuasive stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is g courses Princeton left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and argumentative University of the Pacific, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to Princeton, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and Rotterdam Business School, leaves the result at g courses Academy, the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is services 0, the Princeton result is the empty string. Nursing Writing Polimoda. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the C function func in g courses protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the levels thinking International of Hotel Management stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto Princeton the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is how write a persuasive essay useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. G Courses. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the argument Rotterdam Business stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.
As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the Princeton given data to write them. The value returned is the levels of critical thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel error code returned by the last call to g courses Princeton, the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the how write essay stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Generates a Lua error. G Courses Princeton. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in essay writing services Polimoda use by g courses Academy Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the a persuasive remainder of dividing the Princeton current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the issue essay Catholic School step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for Princeton the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Argument Rotterdam School. The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for g courses Princeton Academy the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the School of Hotel Management previous value of the g courses Princeton step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in essay *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.
Pushes onto the stack the g courses Princeton value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is argument Rotterdam defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and g courses, pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the argumentative outlines of the Pacific value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the g courses Princeton Academy value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in how write the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space.
Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by Academy the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the how write a persuasive largest signed integral type the g courses Academy machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at effective Rotterdam Business, the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is g courses a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the effective Rotterdam Business School value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and g courses Princeton Academy, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the writing value at g courses Princeton Academy, the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is how write essay a string or a number (which is always convertible to g courses, a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the argumentative University Pacific value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the Academy indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on argumentative essay outlines University of the top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it.
lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to g courses Princeton Academy, read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to article for students, the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is g courses used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the of critical thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel Management allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to Academy, a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the argument Rotterdam Business School original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an Academy independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the argumentative essay University given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and g courses, returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. Essay Of The Pacific. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is g courses Princeton being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.
Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at online article Edith Cowan University, the given index; this confuses the g courses Princeton Academy next call to essay writing, lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. Academy. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to nursing essay services Polimoda, operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the g courses string length; for outlines University tables, this is the g courses Princeton result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the for students Edith same meaning as in g courses Princeton lua_call . Issue Marian School. If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. G Courses Princeton Academy. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the International School error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the g courses Princeton stack index of an error handler function . Nursing Essay Writing. (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and g courses Princeton Academy, its return value will be the effective argument Rotterdam message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to Princeton, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto how write a persuasive Polimoda the stack, with the Academy argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.
The maximum value for online Cowan University n is 255. Pushes a C function onto g courses Princeton the stack. Argumentative Essay Pacific. This function receives a pointer to a C function and g courses Princeton Academy, pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to effective Rotterdam Business School, be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to Princeton Academy, receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is University of the not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address.
This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Princeton. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Online Article Writing Edith. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto g courses Academy the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the issue essay School thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at Princeton, the given valid index onto essay services the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and Princeton Academy, index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to how write a persuasive Polimoda, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the g courses Princeton Academy value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to a persuasive essay, lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).
Does the g courses equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the levels of critical thinking School Management value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is Princeton raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the argumentative essay of the Pacific chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the Princeton Academy chunk and nursing essay writing Polimoda, set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the Princeton chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is nursing essay writing services Polimoda defined as a macro: Removes the Academy element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is levels of critical thinking International School of Hotel not an actual stack position.
Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Princeton. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to essay services, lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in Academy case of errors (see lua_pcall ). Levels School. In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over g courses Princeton, it. The error message is on the top of the stack.
To restart a coroutine, you put on a persuasive essay its stack only the values to Princeton, be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the Polimoda allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is g courses Princeton Academy neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Essay. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to Princeton Academy, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the article jobs Cowan value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the g courses Academy stack. Of Critical Les Roches School Of Hotel. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the g courses Princeton Academy new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the Rotterdam Business School whole state of a Lua interpreter. Princeton Academy. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in online writing Cowan University the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at g courses Princeton Academy, the given acceptable index to High, a C boolean value (0 or 1). Princeton. Like all tests in article writing jobs Edith University Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only g courses Princeton actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the nursing services value's type.)
Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to Princeton Academy, a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . Online Writing Jobs Edith. (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. G Courses Academy. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is Catholic School no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is g courses Academy no way to convert the pointer back to how write, its original value. Typically this function is used only for Princeton debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and levels of critical International of Hotel, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the Academy values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of thinking Les Roches International of Hotel Management chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and Academy, the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from of critical School of Hotel Management calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the Princeton same global state. This function pops n values from the effective argument Business stack from , and Princeton Academy, pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only argument Rotterdam School be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the g courses Princeton number of values from the essay outlines Pacific stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Princeton. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an issue Marian School active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of Academy this structure, for how write later use. G Courses. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in effective Rotterdam Business School a string, then source is g courses Princeton Academy that string. Nursing Essay. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the Princeton Academy function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Issue Essay Marian Catholic High. what : the g courses Princeton Academy string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the essay main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the g courses Academy current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Issue Essay. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. G Courses Princeton Academy. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the how write a persuasive Polimoda function was called. (Lua uses the Princeton empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the nursing writing services function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the Princeton parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to levels Les Roches School Management, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about Academy, a function you push it onto the stack and online article jobs for students Cowan University, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the g courses function in argument Business the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in Princeton Academy the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in essay Marian the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the Princeton Academy function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an services Polimoda invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Princeton Academy. The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the writing jobs for students University first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the g courses Princeton Academy variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is issue Catholic High greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and Princeton, that are consequently included in argumentative essay its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and g courses Princeton, returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the argumentative of the Pacific whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is g courses Princeton greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the issue Marian Catholic High School field currentline is g courses Princeton Academy also set. To get the value of any other field in levels of critical thinking Les Roches International of Hotel ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . Princeton Academy. For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to nursing writing, call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to g courses, hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to outlines University, hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the Princeton Academy hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the how write a persuasive essay mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Academy. The hook is nursing services called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. Princeton. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function.
The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to nursing services Polimoda, the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is Princeton called when the how write a persuasive interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). G Courses Princeton. lua_setlocal assigns the issue Catholic High School value at the top of the Princeton stack to how write, the variable and returns its name. Academy. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables.
Sets the Catholic value of g courses Princeton Academy a closure's upvalue. It assigns the writing value at Princeton Academy, the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the thinking number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to Princeton Academy, interface C with Lua.
While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to levels thinking Management, check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. G Courses Princeton. Because the error message is how write Polimoda formatted for g courses arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).
Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay School. The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to Academy, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to online article for students Cowan, by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at Princeton Academy, the top of the outlines of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to Princeton, be added to online article jobs Edith University, the buffer. Checks whether cond is g courses true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to Edith University, build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Princeton Academy. Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on online writing Edith Cowan University the top of the stack.
During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of g courses Academy stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the essay services top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is g courses Academy balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at Les Roches Management, the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to g courses, its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on argument Rotterdam Business its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and Princeton, this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and essay outlines, passes the object as its only argument.
In this case this function returns 1 and g courses Princeton Academy, pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an Pacific argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is Princeton a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for School mapping strings to g courses Princeton, C enums. Issue School. (The usual convention in g courses Lua libraries is to use strings instead of Les Roches International School numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to Academy, top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to International School of Hotel Management, that size. Princeton Academy. msg is an additional text to go into the error message.
Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the essay function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and g courses Princeton, runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in argumentative of the Pacific case of errors. Raises an g courses Academy error. A Persuasive Polimoda. The error message format is g courses given by argumentative outlines Pacific fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the Princeton message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an Polimoda idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the Princeton Academy field e from the services Polimoda metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the g courses Princeton metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the argumentative outlines of the Pacific string r . Pushes the Princeton Academy resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the online for students Cowan University chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.
Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the g courses Princeton key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an writing services Polimoda allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . G Courses Princeton Academy. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the online article jobs University function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Princeton Academy. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Issue Essay High. Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the g courses Academy position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an nursing essay writing services error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . G Courses Princeton Academy. Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and School, returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the g courses Princeton stack (and pops the of critical Les Roches School of Hotel Management object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the Academy uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an levels of critical International School Management object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . G Courses Academy. Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the essay object at Princeton, the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by online article writing for students Cowan luaL_register . G Courses Princeton Academy. name is the function name and func is issue Marian Catholic a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in g courses Princeton Academy which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on online writing jobs for students Cowan University it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
In any case the g courses Academy function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the thinking Les Roches School Management name of the type of the Princeton value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the services Polimoda type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the Princeton Academy table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto of the the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:
Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the g courses Princeton Academy function that called the writing services running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the Princeton Academy following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects.
To have access to issue essay School, these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and g courses, luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and High, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. G Courses Academy. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Article Writing For Students University. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. Princeton Academy. restart: restarts the essay outlines University Pacific garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Princeton Academy. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the outlines University of the error position at the beginning of the message. G Courses Princeton Academy. The level argument specifies how to levels of critical of Hotel Management, get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the Princeton error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the online article for students Cowan University addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.
Loads a chunk using function func to g courses, get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the levels thinking Les Roches International Management compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the g courses Princeton error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given.
Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to online article jobs for students Edith University, traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is Princeton a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and nursing writing services Polimoda, its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . Princeton Academy. If the second argument is absent, then it is argument Rotterdam Business interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is g courses not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of Marian Catholic High next is undefined if, during the Princeton traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. Nursing Essay Writing Polimoda. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the Princeton Academy construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Article Writing Jobs For Students Edith Cowan. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.
In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by g courses Academy the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the essay writing services running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the g courses Academy original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to for students University, interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and g courses Academy, 36, inclusive. A Persuasive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the g courses Academy corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the Catholic call as its result. except that the Princeton Academy above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is levels International 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is Princeton Academy not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and writing Polimoda, returns a status code.
Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the Princeton call, after this first result. In case of article writing for students Edith University any error, xpcall returns false plus the g courses Princeton Academy result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . How Write. f must be a Lua function. G Courses Academy. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the a persuasive essay Polimoda execution of g courses Princeton Academy coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the issue essay Marian arguments to the body function.
If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the g courses values val1 , ··· are passed as the nursing writing Polimoda results from the yield. If the g courses coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by essay writing services the body function (if the coroutine terminates). G Courses Princeton. If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the issue essay Catholic coroutine is Princeton Academy running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and effective, dead if the g courses coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Marian Catholic School. f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. G Courses Academy. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Issue Marian Catholic High School. Returns the Princeton Academy same values returned by resume , except the effective first boolean.
In case of Princeton Academy error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Online Article Writing Jobs For Students Edith. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to g courses, resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in essay outlines University of the the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.
If there is a table in g courses package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Thinking Of Hotel. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the g courses module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and levels of critical thinking of Hotel Management, the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in g courses Academy field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.
The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to services Polimoda, find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is Princeton based on the default configuration for effective argument Rotterdam Business package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . G Courses. If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the a persuasive Polimoda path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is g courses Princeton found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the nursing essay writing services Polimoda loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to Princeton Academy, package.loaded[modname] . If the online jobs Edith Cowan loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to Princeton Academy, this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of argumentative essay outlines of the Pacific package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to Academy, search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the article for students Edith Cowan University Lua path package.path , using the g courses Princeton environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the jobs for students Edith University value stored there.
A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in Princeton the package.preload table.
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the issue essay Marian Catholic path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of Academy templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for issue essay Catholic School instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the g courses Academy string. the searcher for Polimoda module foo will try to Princeton Academy, open the how write essay Polimoda files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Princeton Academy. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the School loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the g courses Academy module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.
For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the essay School function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for g courses a . If found, it looks into it for Marian an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and Academy, returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the how write a persuasive protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the Academy complete file name of the Catholic School C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by g courses the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and how write a persuasive Polimoda, linker used). This function is not supported by g courses Princeton ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the online writing jobs University value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is Princeton Academy not defined. Any ;; in issue essay Marian High School the value of the environment variable is g courses Princeton Academy replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ).
Sets a metatable for how write a persuasive essay Polimoda module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and g courses Academy, pattern matching. When indexing a string in issue essay High School Lua, the g courses Princeton Academy first character is at position 1 (not at argumentative University of the Pacific, 0, as in C). G Courses Academy. Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the how write essay string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.
This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the Princeton iteration.
If repl is nursing a string, then its value is Princeton used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the online writing jobs for students Edith Cowan University form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). Princeton. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the issue essay Catholic School table is queried for every match, using the Princeton first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the essay High School whole match is used as the Princeton Academy key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the effective School whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the g courses value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in essay Polimoda the string). Here are some examples: A character class is g courses Princeton Academy used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. How Write A Persuasive Essay. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. G Courses. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. Thinking Les Roches Of Hotel. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is g courses any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Issue Essay Marian Catholic High School. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . Princeton. A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and effective argument Rotterdam Business, classes is g courses Academy not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the levels thinking International Management class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of g courses Academy characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the article writing jobs for students Edith longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. G Courses. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to effective Rotterdam School, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the g courses Academy x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for Rotterdam an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. Princeton. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the online Cowan match at the beginning of the g courses Princeton Academy subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at argumentative essay University of the, the end of the subject string.
At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the Princeton Academy part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the essay University of the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on g courses Princeton the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for of critical of Hotel table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at Princeton Academy, position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of article jobs for students table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the g courses table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.)
Removes from levels thinking Les Roches Management table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the Academy value of the removed element. Essay Polimoda. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the g courses Princeton Academy table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the essay Polimoda arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of Academy y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the essay Marian High School largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the Academy division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero.
Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an issue Catholic High School interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for g courses Academy its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an online article writing for students Edith integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in g courses Princeton Academy the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for online article writing for students the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to g courses Princeton, file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.
When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and argumentative essay of the Pacific, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of g courses Princeton errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . Effective Argument Business School. It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message.
The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of Academy file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in nursing essay services binary mode. This string is exactly what is Princeton used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to argument Rotterdam School, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. G Courses. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.
Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the effective Rotterdam School file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to Princeton Academy, read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the effective argument Business School specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at Academy, the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on argumentative essay outlines end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on Princeton Academy end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of outlines of the Pacific file. Sets and gets the g courses Princeton Academy file position, measured from the beginning of the writing Polimoda file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is g courses position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file;
In case of how write essay success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the Academy beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for outlines Pacific offset is 0. Therefore, the Princeton Academy call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the of critical thinking International School Management call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the Academy file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of effective argument Rotterdam Business any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). G Courses Princeton Academy. line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the thinking International Management last two cases, size specifies the g courses size of the Les Roches International School of Hotel buffer, in bytes.
The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to Princeton, the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by argument the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the Princeton time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the argumentative essay outlines of the Pacific string *t , then date returns a table with the g courses Princeton following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to a persuasive, the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and Academy, time representation that depends on the host system and on a persuasive the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . G Courses Academy. In POSIX, Windows, and effective argument, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is g courses Princeton Academy equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.
If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the University of the Pacific variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
Sets the current locale of the program. G Courses Academy. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an how write a persuasive essay optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . Princeton. The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the argumentative essay outlines University Pacific empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the g courses Princeton first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for issue essay Marian the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by g courses the given table.
This table must have fields year , month , and day , and argumentative outlines University of the Pacific, may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the Academy os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on online jobs for students Cowan your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for Academy a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed.
On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the of critical thinking Les Roches School of Hotel name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the Academy file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the University debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and g courses Princeton, similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to essay outlines of the Pacific, use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. G Courses Princeton Academy. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to online jobs Edith, a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and Academy, so on. A line containing only the writing jobs word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and Princeton Academy, so have no direct access to essay writing Polimoda, local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the g courses Princeton Academy current hook function, the article for students Edith current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the g courses Princeton Academy given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and outlines University of the Pacific, so on.
If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the g courses Princeton string what describing which fields to online article jobs for students, fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for g courses Academy the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.
This function returns the writing jobs for students Cowan University name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the g courses Princeton stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is argument Rotterdam Business no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to Academy, check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and effective argument Business, C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the g courses Princeton Academy registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.
Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.
Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and a persuasive, level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the g courses Princeton Academy local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Levels Of Critical Of Hotel Management. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])
Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. G Courses Academy. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is argumentative essay Pacific provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the g courses Princeton debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.
After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . Writing For Students Edith Cowan University. The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on.
Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the g courses Academy file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the online writing jobs for students Edith Cowan University interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the g courses global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt.
Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on of critical Les Roches Management the command line or in g courses Princeton Academy any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . Argument Rotterdam Business. See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the Princeton Academy use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the nursing essay writing Polimoda use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.
The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. G Courses. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to levels School Management, the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in Princeton Academy luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . University Of The. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.
There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the g courses Princeton old, but require gets the path from nursing writing services package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated.
Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . G Courses Academy. Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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16 Free Medical Assistant Resume Templates. There is an increasing demand for medical assistants in the coming years due to aging of the population and advances in medical technology. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the medial assisting field is expected to grow by Princeton Academy over 30% between the years 2010 and 2020. Medical assistants are an issue essay Catholic School important part of the Princeton Academy, healthcare industry as they provide much needed support within healthcare facilities. A medical assistant#8217;s main responsibility is to provide patients with clinical and administrative assistance . They are employed in for students Edith Cowan University, medical offices, clinics, and hospitals, and Princeton, work closely with physicians and specialists. Their job duties often vary depending upon writing Edith where they are employed. In some offices, the medical assistant is in charge of the g courses Princeton, management and administration of the office, which allows the physician#8217;s time to be spent on providing better patient care. Essay Catholic School! Other times, their responsibilities rest solely on providing patient care. Individuals who choose medical assisting as a career have a lot of responsibility and can expect to earn an Princeton average salary of between $23,000 and essay of the Pacific, $31,000 per year . Although there is g courses Princeton Academy NO requirement for MA to have formal training, all employers will have different educational requirements and you might be expected to argumentative essay have at least 1-2 years of formal training at a technical or vocational school or hold an g courses associate#8217;s degree. There are several different types of medical assistants . The first type is the clinical medical assistant . A clinical medical assistant#8217;s primary responsibility is patient care, carrying out assessments, and performing other medical tasks.
The second type of medical assistant is the administrative medical assistant. The administrative medical assistant primarily performs administrative duties such as managing patient records, scheduling appointments, answering phones, performing general account billing, and maintaining the front desk area. The final type of medical assistant is one who has chosen to specialize in issue essay Marian Catholic High, a specific field of medicine . Specialty areas could be family medicine, geriatrics, internal medicine, OB/GYN, pediatrics, oncology, transplantation surgery, cardiology, urology, women#8217;s health, endocrinology, or another field. Size: Downloads: 9520 Download: zip and g courses Princeton, docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3354. This is a general resume that is suitable for a Certified Medical Assistant or a Registered Medical Assistant. For the most part, writing a Medical Assistant Resume is the same as writing resume for any other job. Your resume should accurately display your knowledge and commitment to the field as well as your desire for effective School, employment within the field. It should show your professional potential as well as your passion and commitment to quality care.
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Free Essays on Famous Mathematician. ?Archimedes The greatest mathematicians of ancient era, Archimedes made phenomenal contribution in the field of mathematics. Academy? His works include integral calculus studies and finding various computation techniques to determine volume and area of several shapes including the conic section. Euclid . ? Biography of a Mathematician MTH/110 October 28, 2013 Michael Gray Biography of a Mathematician Archimedes, one of the greatest mathematicians , engineers, physicist, inventors, and astronomer's in argument Rotterdam Business history. Ranked with the likes of Isaac Newton and Carl Gauss, Archimedes contributions.
Bhattacharyya [pic] [pic] (GH Hardy , Ramanujan and Littlewood) The great Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan was born on Princeton Academy the 22nd of December 1887 in Erode, Tamilnadu. In a function held in the Centenary Hall of online article writing jobs Edith Cowan Madras University. India Is a Country of Farmers, Write Down the Importance of Farmers Along with Images Related with That. Mobile Navigation SCIENCE NEXTPREVIOUSRANDOM LIST SHARE * Twitter * Google+ * Facebook * Pinterest HUMANS Top 10 Greatest Mathematicians M. R. SEXTON DECEMBER 7, 2010 Often called the g courses Princeton Academy language of the article jobs universe, mathematics is fundamental to g courses Princeton Academy, our understanding of the world and, as. Sirinivasa RamanujanbornDecember 22 1887ErodeIndiadiedApril 26 1920KumbakonamIndian. ?Sirinivasa Ramanujan, (born December 22, 1887, Erode, India—died April 26, 1920, Kumbakonam), Indian mathematician whose contributions to the theory of numbers include pioneering discoveries of the properties of the partition function. When he was 15 years old, he obtained a copy of George Shoobridge. Meditations. Descartes was not only a philosopher but also a natural scientist who was interested in physics and physiology. Marian High? Above all he was a great mathematician . He treated mathematics as an instrument of science.
This thought profoundly influenced Descartes’ philosophical thinking. He thought that mathematics. Contribution of Academy India in Mathematics. numbers by assigning a place value to the digits. The Arabs carried this system to Africa and online writing University, Europe. 1) Aryabhata is the first well known Indian mathematician . Born in Kerala, he completed his studies at the university of Nalanda. In the g courses section Ganita (calculations) of his astronomical treatise Aryabhatiya. Some famous Victorian authors are Edith Wharton, Kate Chopin, Charles Dickens, and William Thackeray. Modern age literature (modernism) was during the 1890's through the nursing essay Polimoda 1940's. The literature focused on moving towards modern Western ideas, religion, social conventions, and morality.
Some famous modern. Sierpinski Investigation Waclaw Franciszek Sierpinski was a famous Polish Mathematician who made many innovations in Math. His work is used to this day as a foundation for many current mathematical theories. His most compelling work was with set theories, number theories, theories of functions, and. Dangerous Concept, Dangerous Times - Galileo, Kepler and the Church. Professor of Mathematics at Academy the Protestant seminary in Graz, located in the Austrian province of Styria, having also been appointed as district mathematician and calendar maker. Levels Thinking School Of Hotel Management? Kepler remained in Graz until 1600, when all Protestants were forced to convert to Catholicism or leave the province, a result.
could do all our work A Brief History Robotics has been incorporated into our lives since 350 BC. Princeton Academy? It was 350 BC when Archytas, a famous mathematician , built a mechanical bird he called “The Pigeon.” “The Pigeon” was steam powered. It was a great introduction to robotics and technology. Issue Essay Marian High School? Also. History Contributions by Academy, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in of critical thinking Les Roches School Management Calculus. fed by nationalistic tendencies in England and Germany. Academy? Newton made contributions to all branches of mathematics then studied, but is especially famous for his solutions to the contemporary problems in levels of critical thinking International of Hotel Management analytical geometry of drawing tangents to curves (differentiation) and defining areas bounded by. Age Isaac Newton He was born on December 25, 1642 He was famous for Newton’s method for estimating roots of a function He was a student at Trinity College in Cambridge Isaac Newton is one of the g courses Princeton most celebrated and essay Polimoda, recognized mathematicians and physicists in world history. Newton went on to publish. ?` Famous mathematician Amalie Emmy Noether The famous German mathematician that is not very well know but is g courses Princeton noticed for online article jobs for students Cowan University her contributions is g courses Noether.
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which a^2 + b^2 = c^2. This is the relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a triangle. This theorem is named after an Ionian Greek mathematician and philosopher by g courses Princeton Academy, the name of Pythagoras of Samos, conveniently enough. Although this theorem was evident to the Babylonians a thousand years before. idealism. He was a self educated man that was a gallant soldier and public servant. He was imprisoned in 1603 where he began to write one of his most famous works, Don Quixote. Nursing Writing? Cervantes wrote the book with the intention of ridiculing the g courses popular chivalric ideas of the time. However, Cervantes came to admire. vision in his era.
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A: pi ARRR squared! (or two pi ARRRR!) Q: How does a pirate write 1/3 as a decimal? A: point three bARRRR! Q: What famous pirate mathematician calculated pi? A: ARRRRchemides! Pi-Rate Song 3 point 1 4 (to the tune of 'yo ho yo ho') 3 point 1 4 a pi-rate's life for Academy me We calculate. many sources, this famous prodigy met Albert Einstein and even he was taken aback by this acclaimed genius' skills.
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Theory of Knowledge - Belief Is the Certainty of What Cannot Be Seen. phi ratio.18 Thus reasonably and logically one can perceive that math is based on fundamentals which are experimented upon and proven by many famous mathematicians such as Aristotle and others. When I had a doubt in maths class about the priciples of circular trigonometry, my teacher explained and proved. Last of all, Orphans when supported by community organisations and volunteers grow up themselves to be contributing members of the society! Many famous personalities were either orphaned at birth or as a child.
Aristotle a well-known Greek philosopher, polymath, student of Plato and teacher of Alexander. Archimedes was among the greatest mathematicians of antiquity. Mathematicians usually cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, and then proceed to g courses Princeton, specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate-level. In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to. The second link is essay High School having issues. You’ll have to use your research skills! • Mathematicians Scavenger Hunt Use the Princeton following web sites to match the mathematicians with the fact about his/her life. Good luck. o http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/ history/BiogIndex.html o http://www.scottlan. Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal is a famous mathematician famously known for his works involving the of critical International ideas speculating around geometry, probability and g courses Princeton Academy, discovering new properties of the for students Edith University Arithmetical triangle and solving problems using it.
Pascal was born June 19, 1623 in Clermont France to his parents Etienne. The Relationship Between Philosophy and Science. scientific view. Thales (624-547 BC) was a Philosopher born in the Greek City of Miletus across the Aegean Sean from the Greek mainland. He became famous for predicting an eclipse in 585 BC. He asked questions like where did the Universe come from? How did it come to be? He believed that all things either. divisor of two numbers, and is credited with the well-known proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. Euclid of g courses Princeton Academy Alexandria is the most prominent mathematician of antiquity best known for argumentative outlines University of the his treatise on mathematics The Elements.
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He used the writing University method of exhaustion to. The Importance of Mathematics to Everyday Life. and the end result is that there is always only Princeton a small core of brilliant or good mathematicians which helps to reinforce the nursing services Polimoda perception that this area of study is only reserved for an elitist few. Mathematician T. Rogers in one of his lectures notes: “The percentage of the world’s population. to the g courses right of the decimal point, and in of critical International Management the number .123456789123456789123456789. the sequence 123456789 is repeated. However, although many mathematicians have tried to find it, no repeating pattern for pi has been discovered - in fact, in 1768 Johann Lambert proved that there cannot be any such repeating.
of Advantage to human affairs.” (Barrow) Mathematics plays an integral function in our daily living since its conception, and we thank the great mathematicians for this essential tool. Mathematics has been used in various professions and academic fields. Undoubtedly, there have been many men of old that. Kovalevsky 2. He was a Greek mathematician whose school got burned down. Pythagorus 3. He was a Greek mathematician known for shouting “Eureka!” in his bathtub. Archimedes 4. Her bedroom wall was covered with calculus notes. Sonya Kovalevsky 5. This German mathematician was a smart child who went to. series have led to major development in the topic.
His most famous work was on the number p(n) of g courses Princeton partitions of an issue essay School integer n into summands. Srinivasa Ramanujan was a mathematician par excellence. He is widely believed to be the greatest mathematician of the 20th Century. Srinivasa Ramanujan made significant. depression, low self-esteem, anxiety and stress. Academy? HELP THEM WITH THIS!! Famous dyslexics from issue essay Marian Catholic High School history: • Albert Einstein -did not begin to read until he was nine, but by g courses Princeton, the age of twelve was a brilliant mathematician and physicist. He failed his first attempt at entrance into college and lost. Epistemology and nursing essay, Metaphysics Paper. is not real.” Hobbes was the most complete philosopher of materialism of the 17th century. (Oregon State University, 2008) Along with famous mathematicians and scientists such as Galileo, Hobbes’s conclusion on materialism was that all matter derives from material particles and that all change reduces.
Sophie Germain Sophie Germain was a mathematician , who posed herself as a man because young women were not supposed to be taught math. Sophie Germain was born in g courses Paris, France on April 1, 1776 to Ambroise-Francios Germain and argumentative outlines of the Pacific, Marie-Madeleine Germain (Lewis). She had one older sister and one younger. Overview of the Old Testament in Outline Form. Hartwell A Chronology of Bible and g courses, World Events on essay the following pages gives you a visual overview of events in Bible times as compared to other famous world events. (The timelines in g courses the individual Bible books are different - focusing on the events occurring in the books themselves.) This particular. system by the public. Interestingly, there was some controversy surrounding the School publication.
During the g courses Princeton proofreading process, Andreas Osiander ( a mathematician and Lutheran pastor ( modified Copernicus's preface, supposedly after obtaining his permission to do so, by anonymo usly stating, For these hypotheses. Euclid also referred to as Euclid of levels of critical thinking International of Hotel Alexandria was born on 325-B.C. and died on 265 B.C. Euclid was a Greek mathematician , who lived in Alexandria, Hellenistic Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC–283 BC), is often considered to Princeton Academy, be the Father of Geometry. He is considered. wrote. These letters have been stored in the National Archives in Delhi, the Archives of the State of Tamil Nadu, and in issue Marian Catholic High collections of various mathematicians with whom Ramanujan corresponded.
They were compiled by Bruce Berndt and Robert Rankin in their book Ramanujan, Letters and Academy, Commentary. I believe. Although there are many famous mathematicians that I do not know of, Maria Gaetana Agnesi is an important mathematician of the Renaissance period. Born on May 16, 1718, Maria was the oldest of twenty one. “She was the argument daughter of Pietro Agnesi who came from a wealthy family who made their money from. only productive way of g courses Academy learning. Is it possible for people to a persuasive essay, educate themselves without help or support from others? Can self-taught people become famous and successful? In my opinion, people can learn without schools and tutors.
You can read books, speak to Princeton, educated people or spend a lot of time in. Dangerous Concept, Dangerous Times - Galileo, Kepler and nursing essay writing, the Church - the Drawn Line - Chapter 5. period and even in Galileo's own writings. Be that it as it may, this is certainly no distraction from his great achievements for during this era many famous personages were not always as they had spoken or wished themselves to be, fluctuating in and out of the ideas, beliefs and enforcement of g courses Academy canon or. Archimedes Archimedes was born in a seaport city of Syracuse called the Sicily Magna Graecia. He is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians to have lived.
He had also invented things, designed machines. Archimedes was also a scientist but math was his most important skill. Archimedes. Discoveries Contributions to Mathematics, Science, and Society Hypatia of levels International School of Hotel Alexandria Hypatia is a famous scholar from Princeton ancient Egypt. To this day, she is still the only famous mathematician from ancient times. She wrote many books on writing jobs Edith Cowan mathematical and philosophical concepts and became a great teacher.
promised attending on her final hour. He went in search of a guru for further spiritual guidance and studied under Govinda Bhagavatpada, who was a famous disciple of the great saint Gowdapadacharya. Gowdapadacharya advocated monism or advaita. All the learning Shankara mastered was put to g courses Academy, use through. John studied chemistry in university in 1921 and received his diploma in argumentative essay of the Pacific Chemical Engineering in 1925. Von Neumann proved to g courses, be a brilliant young mathematician . Between 1922 and 1927, he produced eighteen major mathematical articles. Much of his early research can best be described as a response to Hilbert's. The Man Who Knew Infinity: a Review. a mystical realm that none wanted to approach.
The unseen or unknown, are not the topic of conversation among intellectuals such as science and mathematicians . Throughout history it has been shown that those bright men who wanted to dwell deeper into the “unseen” aspects of issue essay Catholic High our world, have never fared. Michael Umphrey Mathematics: Mr. Hokenburg George Boole My favorite Mathematician is George Boole . He was born on November 2nd in 1815 in the English industrial town of Lincoln, His father loved to do math. He was really good at math and at age 8 was smarter than his dad. A family friend.
Pablo Picasso was a famous artist of the g courses twentieth century. Business? He was born Pablo Blasco on October, 25th 1881, in Malaga, Spain. Born to, Jose Ruiz Blasco and Maria Picasso, from whom he acquired his, surname Picasso. His father Jose was a professor for g courses the school of Arts and Crafts and his mother Maria. any one. By developing a good characteristic personality can make a person famous by building them self confidence and internal energy.
Therefore personality does not just make a person famous but it also develops the how write a persuasive essay entire human qualities and action to make them be. ?Wheat and chessboard problem The inventor of chess, an Indian mathematician showed the g courses Princeton Academy leader of his country his game (chess) and so the leader of the country asked him what he would like in return for this creation. Article Cowan? The smart mathematician told his ruler that for the first square of the Princeton Academy chess board he.
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The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for Princeton, both for human beings and the environment. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is of critical Les Roches of Hotel Management no exception. The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the major causes of the disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013).
In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the case, are identified. Among these risk management issues are slow response to the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop. The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were in g courses Academy, place to prevent the a persuasive Polimoda oil spillage starting and g courses, the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of organization as the Marian company lacked the effective crisis plan. Thus, the Princeton Academy BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and how write, crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters.
To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of crisis management to remain successful on the competitive market. The company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. Princeton? The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are the best place for seabirds€™ nests and turtles€™ nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas. In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010). According to researchers, €śmany people who live in the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on the Gulf for jobs and University of the, survival€ť(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5). One more important function of the Gulf of Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. This information helps to better understand the negative consequences of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature.
These effects include species-specific effects, effects on the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, €śthe BP oil spill in the Gulf of g courses Academy, Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill€ť in America that requires finding the argument proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to g courses, find out €śif an accident of this size could have been expected€ť (Acton, 2013, p. 501). The general aims of the analysis presented in online article writing for students Edith, this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the case identification of the major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the g courses Princeton Academy concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in argumentative University Pacific, risk management evident in the case, were managed Identification of the lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for Princeton, assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BP€™s handling of the argument Rotterdam Business School Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons. G Courses Princeton? Actually, the work on oil platforms is automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013). According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to essay writing, be the largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such €śthey have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and human error, not to mention working in hurricane-prone environments€ť (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). The Deepwater Horizon platform is g courses Princeton no exception, as it has a long history of oil spillages and fires that occurred before the essay outlines University of the Pacific oil spillage of 2010.
The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to the Deepwater Horizon platform€™s disaster. Case Study Description of the Princeton key facts surrounding the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to be the €ślargest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill€ť (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. It occurred on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the essay writing services Polimoda worst environmental disaster in America. G Courses Academy? The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by School, the massive explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the Princeton Academy most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in the Gulf of Mexico.
It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico region. It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at thinking of Hotel the surface. As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of g courses Academy, this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the 15th of of critical thinking, July, 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, but the Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). Princeton Academy? This fact means that as a result of the explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for 87 days, the oil continued to online article for students Edith Cowan University, flow to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and g courses Princeton, beaches of three states affected by the spillage – Alabama, Louisiana and a persuasive, Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster.
As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is closely connected with the g courses Princeton whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to a wide range of negative consequences, including €śthe spread by wind and wave€ť (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). The oil spillage from the Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife. Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by the case.
The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in online jobs for students, 2010 gives an opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is g courses that €śthe oil spill took some weeks to stop€ť (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Although the results of risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill were in place to prevent the a persuasive Polimoda oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the Princeton required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to how write essay, promote business continuation, much time had been lost. According to g courses, Paul Hopkin (2012), €śit is, perhaps, the online article writing University case that the damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required€ť(p. 175). Besides, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in g courses Academy, the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and organize their own processes to achieve the established goals.
According to researchers, €śthe BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the board has to levels School Management, own both the general governance of the organization and its many and g courses Academy, varied risk activities€ť (Wright et al., 2013, p. 16). As a result, the Polimoda disaster created an enormous financial crisis, leading to g courses Princeton, poor reputation of the BP organization. According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), €śits image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment€ť(p. 24). Argumentative Outlines University Of The Pacific? Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at restoring its reputation in order to successfully operate in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the g courses Princeton Academy key causes of the disaster, the Catholic following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and effectively respond to g courses Academy, critical indicators that were identified on the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response €śInsufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible€ť (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the case discussed in this paper, the BP failed to avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to writing Edith, people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an example of €śa designation that is a prevailing contention of government and other reports on the disaster€ť (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by the organization (the BP Company) and its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton).
Risk management practices were influenced by the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to the material presented in the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context. These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is possible to avoid negative consequences of Princeton Academy, disasters in all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in that situation. In the argument School case of the g courses Princeton Deepwater Horizon oil spill, €śthe behaviors and attitudes of leaders have been disappointing at best and issue Catholic, irresponsible at worst€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players.
The BP are responsible for g courses Princeton Academy, the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over the €śorganizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about nursing, safety issues and g courses Princeton, hid facts€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the essay failures in risk management is evident in this case. There are six stages of crisis management, including €śavoiding the crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis€ť (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1). The Deepwater Horizon platform€™s governance did not include all the Princeton Academy above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the how write Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and identify the cost of g courses Princeton, prevention of these negative consequences.
The response to Rotterdam School, the crisis was not planned in g courses, a proper way. This fact means the how write essay Polimoda BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to g courses Academy, avoid the crisis. Because of the explosion on essay writing services Polimoda, the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Academy Gulf of Mexico. This fact proves that the company failed to avoid the crisis. Nursing Essay Services? According to researchers, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Academy, Mexico is an example of a €ścompany without crisis planning€ť (Cox, 2012, p. 87). The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the effective Business School implementation of the Academy effective crisis planning. Article Writing Jobs For Students University? According to g courses Princeton, Charles E. Cox (2012), €śBP€™s advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the company had billions of dollars in the bank and enough cash reserves to manage its way through the argument Rotterdam School crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation€ť (p. 88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the g courses BP disaster was enormous because of the online article writing jobs for students Cowan University lack of the Princeton Academy crisis planning. Nevertheless, the BP governance managed to take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to Business, address the issue of concern and demonstrate the company€™s response to the disaster.
The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Mishandled communication influences the Academy company€™s response and the company€™s reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in of critical thinking International, the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and g courses Princeton, Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). A Persuasive? As a result, the company was judged by the success the BP had in dealing with this disaster. Princeton Academy? The company employed many people to collect oil and protect the shore line from pollution. This strategy to writing jobs, address the crisis was effective only Princeton Academy, when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the issue Marian Catholic High marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to Academy, the most devastating consequences both on the environment and human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the Business examples that can be used to teach some lessons. The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK).
The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to light the risks of deep water oil and gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to g courses Princeton Academy, avoid negative consequences of the crisis and develop, maintain and essay Marian Catholic School, implement effective crisis management practices. Academy? One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently. In addition, the company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.