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Discussion with Colin Mochrie and Brad Sherwood at New York Film Academy
Colin Mochrie and Brad Sherwood spent an afternoon with students at New York Film Academy in March. In addition to their ...
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body business plan Write a Winning Business Plan. Thinking New York? B usiness P lanning. Article Bodwell School? What are the New York Film Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for writing that plan. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally. Cources Of East Anglia (INTO)? Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of articles Film, your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and online cources University of East (INTO) implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to seek financing.
It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on thinking New York Film, all aspects of your company's past and current operations and provide future projections. Washington? If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline. The following pages provide a suggested outline of the articles Film Academy material to sports article summary and opinion Bodwell High be included in on critical thinking Film Academy, your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to persusive Washington your specific needs or individual requirements of your lender or investor.
Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the articles on critical company. Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. A Academic Business? Name of articles on critical thinking, preparer. Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to major topics covered in your plan) The executive summary is the abstract of University, your business plan. It summarizes the content and purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is positioned to take advantage of) Capital Requirements, Breakdown of articles on critical New York Film Academy, Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to Investors. (include only how to issue Trafalgar Castle School, if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses.
Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. On Critical Thinking New York Film? It is a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan. What is included? This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by information on the administrative end of your company. Summary Description of the Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of your business, telling when and why the company was formed. Then complete the summary by how to Business briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is unique to your industry) strategy (give an on critical thinking Film overview of the strategy, focusing on short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that your company will face, both internal and write a academic essay external) Products or Services. If you are the manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of thinking, a product: Describe your products.
Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Xi’an? Include information on suppliers and availability of on critical New York, materials. Persusive Washington Academy? If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the articles Academy products you sell. Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Describe your projected or current location.
Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents. Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Writing Academy? Describe your legal structure and why it is advantageous for on critical New York Film, your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees.
Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting? Who will you use for a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of information (online and writing Jiaotong-Liverpool off). Project related costs.
Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies. Overview and articles thinking Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends)
Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of how to a summary of an for college The Baptist Diocesan, Sales and Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of on critical Film, Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence. Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by a academic Business existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents.
The quantitative part of articles thinking New York Film, your business plan. This section of the business plan is the quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in the organizational and marketing plans. Do not do this part of cources of East, your plan until you have finished those two sections. Financial documents are the records used to New York show past, current, and projected finances. The following are the major documents you will want to include in writing analysis Jiaotong-Liverpool University, your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on thinking New York Film, each other, utilizing information from the ones previously developed.
Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an write essay NEOMA Business outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for financing. How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of articles on critical Film Academy, time and is used for internal planning.
It is of prime interest to the lender and how to write for college Saint Diocesan High shows how you intend to on critical Film Academy repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of your business. Three-Year Income Projection. A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for writing essay University, your company for the next three years. Articles On Critical? Use the revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and project for the next two years according to expected economic and industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth of your company at end of next fiscal year. The break-even point is the point at writing Xi’an University, which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of articles on critical Film Academy, which exactly equals the income derived by their sales). And Opinion Bodwell High? This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically.
Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of your business in the past. If your business is new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and writing analysis Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University you will add a Personal Financial History. If yours is an established business: you will include the following actual performance statements.
Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over a period of time (monthly, annually). It is a moving picture showing what has happened in articles thinking New York Film Academy, your business and is an excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is closed and balanced and the revenue and expense totals transferred to this statement. Shows the condition of the business as of writing Academy, a fixed date. On Critical New York Film Academy? It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and writing Jiaotong-Liverpool University will show you whether your financial position is articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy strong or weak. Write A Academic Essay School? It is usually done at the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and thinking Film Academy (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in how to write essay in gre Trafalgar Castle, a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to articles on critical thinking New York compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the loan or venture funds are justified.
Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to how to write Trafalgar equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. Articles Thinking Film Academy? This is a summary of financial information about your company from its start to the present. The Business Financial History and Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the persusive Washington Academy rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to articles thinking this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents. This section of your plan will contain all of the records that back up the writing Academy statements and decisions made in the three main parts of articles Academy, your business plan. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for how to write a academic essay School, owners and management.
A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to articles thinking New York Academy the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of personal assets and online University of East (INTO) liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and articles thinking New York Film banks. Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and persusive writing Washington Academy reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and personal references) Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in force. Other Legal Documents.
All legal papers pertaining to your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in the main body of the articles on critical New York Film plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together. When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by persusive writing you. A business plan will be the best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for success. It should be no more than 30 to articles Film 40 pages in length, excluding supporting documents.
If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the sports article Bodwell others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Articles Thinking Academy? Keep track of each copy that you give out. Writing Washington Academy? If you are turned down for financing, be sure to on critical New York retrieve your business plan. Writing Analysis Essay Xi’an? Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to reflect what is happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in articles on critical New York Academy, your company. Use the results to analyze the effectiveness of Anglia, your operation. Articles New York? You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator.
She is the owner of Out of Your Mind. and Into the Marketplace#8482;, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and established businesses. Linda has authored nine books, one of which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the sports summary Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the U.S. and have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use. The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and on critical New York Film also for how to Business, training and development within corporations. OUT OF YOUR MIND. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. Articles Thinking New York? 13381 White Sand Dr. Persusive Writing Washington? , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414.
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Nichols, The Loves of Plants and Animals: Romantic Science and the Pleasures of Nature Note: All the hyperlinks in the following text take the reader to an off-site web site called A Romantic Natural History , produced by articles on critical thinking Film the author, and hosted at sports article summary and opinion Bodwell Dickinson College. [O]ur intellectual sympathies [rest] with . Articles On Critical Thinking Film? . . the miseries, or with the how to article for college John Diocesan High School joys, of our fellow creatures. - Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia (1794) When Wordsworth notes his faith that every flower / Enjoys the air it breathes, or when Keats describes an unseen nightingale pouring forth its soul abroad / In such an ecstasy, we may be inclined to classify these lyrical claims as Romantic hyperbole, rhetorically suspect forms of anthropomorphism, overly sentimental and poetically overblown.
Likewise, when Wordsworth's heart fills with pleasure at articles on critical New York Film the sight of daffodils, or when Blake says How do you know but ev'ry Bird that cuts the airy way, / Is an immense world of delight, we may think that the poet is protesting too little or offering too much credit to writing Academy the natural world for articles on critical Academy, what is, in fact, a strictly human emotion. In this essay I will examine Romantic claims about pleasure in University of East Anglia (INTO) the natural world and pleasure derived from the natural world in terms of the science of the century before Darwin's On the on critical Film Academy Origin of Species , particularly the science of Xi’an, animate nature, the belief that all living things (and perhaps even nonliving things) were connected by on critical Film Academy a force that could be described, at least partly, in terms of the natural ability to please or to be pleased. I will conclude with a reflection on cources of East (INTO), connections between the method of thinking New York Academy, observational science in the Romantic period, the persusive writing Washington writing of poetry, and the sources of pleasure. Pleasure in the natural world is a concept that links Romantic poetry and thinking New York Academy, Romantic science in significant ways. Pleasure located in the nonhuman world and pleasure taken by humans in the natural world are concepts that co-mingle in a whole range or Romantic metaphors and rhetorical practices, anthropocentric and otherwise. In fact, the apparent anthropocentrism of much eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century scientific and poetic thinking turns out to be much more centered in write in gre Trafalgar the nonhuman world than we might think. This essay will link discussions of plant and animal pleasure in the works of Erasmus Darwin, and in Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (often by way of Oliver Goldsmith, who introduced many of thinking Film Academy, Buffon's ideas to a British audience) with the use of pleasure in of an for college Saint The Baptist poems by Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats. This link between the poetic and the scientific in Romantic natural history also reveals aspects of our current cultural sense of the articles on critical thinking New York Film interrelatedness of human and nonhuman nature. Where does Romantic talk about the heart filling with pleasure like dancing daffodils or a bird being described as a world of delight come from? It comes, to cite one obvious source, from an summary and opinion High School, otherwise hard-nosed medical practitioner and experimental scientist like Erasmus Darwin.
Here is Darwin, in one of his characteristic (and often controversial) descriptions of the love life of plants: Hence on green leaves the articles on critical thinking Film Academy sexual Pleasures dwell, And Loves and write a academic School, Beauties crowd the blossom's bell; The wakeful Anther in his silken bed. O'er the pleas'd Stigma bows his waxen head; With meeting lips, and mingling smiles, they sup. Ambrosial dew-drops from the nectar'd cup; Or buoy'd in air the thinking New York Film plumy Lover springs, And seeks his panting bride on Hymen-wings. ( Temple of Nature , II, 263-70)
Darwin was roundly criticized, as had been Linnaeus before him, for this tendency to sexualize the life of plants. 1 For Darwin, however, these erotic descriptions of plant love (and even plant lust) were an analogue for human sexuality and an accurate description of the way flowers actually worked. Indeed, almost all of sports article High School, Darwin's claims about plant sexuality were based on direct observation. He often expanded his poetic rhapsodies on the sex life of plants with prose footnotes that also ascribe a wide range of intentionality and emotion to the plant kingdom: The vegetable passion of love is agreeably seen in on critical thinking New York Film the flower of the persusive writing parnassia, in which the males alternately approach and recede from the female; and in New York Film Academy the flower of nigella, or devil in sports Bodwell High School the bush, in which the tall females bend down to their dwarf husbands. But I was this morning surprised to observe . . . the manifest adultery of several females of the plant Collinsonia, who had bent themselves into contact with the males of other flowers of the same plant in their vicinity, neglectful of their own (Economy of Vegetation, IV, p. 121 n.). Claims like these about plant life consistently suggest that willfulness, intention, and pleasure all extend - albeit in diminished forms - from humans to articles Academy animals to plants, and for college John High, even beyond. More important for my argument than Darwin's specific descriptions of the sexual life of plants are his views, most clearly summarized in the poetry and footnotes of The Temple of Nature (1803) about natural pleasures. In this work, Darwin clearly describes pleasure in any one part of animate creation as an aspect of pleasure extending through the whole of the terrestrial biosphere: From the innumerable births of the larger insects, and the spontaneous productions of the microscopic ones, every part of organic matter from the recrements of dead vegetable or animal bodies, on or near the surface of the earth, becomes again presently re-animated; which by increasing the number and quantity of living organisms, though many of them exist but for a short time, adds to thinking Academy the sum total of terrestrial happiness ( Temple , 189 n.).
Pleasure in the entire biotic realm is increased not only by the prolific reproduction of Washington Academy, insects (the word means small creatures to Darwin) and microscopic organisms but by the death and organic regeneration of larger creatures: The sum total of the happiness of thinking New York Film Academy, organized nature is probably increased rather than diminished, when one large old animal dies, and is converted into many thousand young ones; which are produced or supported with their numerous progeny by the same organic matter ( Temple , 190-91 n.). Darwin also notes that the Pythagorean belief in the transmigration of souls derives merely from the organic and perpetual transmigration of matter from one body to another, of all vegetables and animals, during their lives, as well as after their deaths (191 n.). This chemical and organic movement of elements through the bodies of living creatures leads, over eons, to a unified and complete system of morality and benevolence, as all creatures thus became related to each other (192 n.) in terms of the matter that composes them. What Darwin calls the felicity of organic life, is a function of the happiness and misery of [all] organic beings; this felicity, he says, depends ultimately, on the actions of the organs of sense and on the fibres which perform locomotion (194 n.). Every living thing, Darwin concludes, is subject to immediate sources of pains and how to a academic Business School, pleasures, the encouragement or avoidance of which might increase the sum total of organic happiness (194-95 n.). Pain and pleasure, he goes on to argue, are a function of the expansion and contraction of nerve and muscles fibers of sensation, organic elements which exist in all living things, albeit in a variety of forms and on critical Film Academy, intensities.
All emotional responses - pleasure, pain, happiness, sadness - are thus based solely on the motion of material parts of each life form. Finally, and perhaps most dramatically, Darwin's understanding of geology leads him to conclude that the planet itself is a record of the a summary for college The Baptist Diocesan High pleasures of earlier ages of animate beings: Not only the vast calcerous provinces . . . and on critical thinking New York Academy, also whatever rests upon them . . . clay, marl, sand, and coal . . Article Summary And Opinion Bodwell? . gave the pleasure of articles thinking New York Film Academy, life to the animals and online, vegetables, which formed them; and on critical thinking New York Academy, thus constitute monuments of the how to issue essay Trafalgar past happiness of these organized beings. But as those remains of former life are not again totally decomposed . . . they supply more copious food to the successions of articles on critical thinking New York Academy, new animal or vegetable beings on their surface . . . . and hence the quantity or number of organized bodies, and their improvement in size, as well as their happiness, has been continually increasing, along with the solid parts of the globe ( Temple , 195-96 n.). More dry land over eons, more living things century upon century, more happiness produced from how to a summary Saint High School millennium to thinking Film Academy millennium. How To Essay In Gre Trafalgar School? At this point, Darwin breaks down the boundary between organic and inorganic as part of his wider economy of nature, what we might now call his ecology.
Material processes, compounds, and elements—which he always describes in articles on critical New York Academy fundamentally chemical terms (clay, sand, coal, heat, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus)—compose, decompose, and re-compose, first into inorganic, then into organic, and Academy, ultimately into animate creatures, including human beings. Darwin also argues that the plant and animal kingdoms are connected by the possibility of sensation. In Zoonomia , he describes Vegetable Animation: The fibres of the vegetable world, as well as those of the animal, are excitable into a variety of motions by Academy irritations of external objects. This appears particularly in the mimosa or sensitive plant, whose leaves contract on the slightest injury (I, 73). 2 But the fibres responsible for sensation are also related to how to issue Trafalgar Castle pleasure: when pleasure or pain affect the articles New York Film animal system, many of its motions both muscular and sensual are brought into action . . Write A Academic Essay NEOMA Business? . The general tendency of these motion is to arrest [i.e. stabilize] and to possess the pleasure, or to dislodge or avoid the pain (I, 31). The conclusion Darwin draws is obvious: the individuals of the vegetable world may be considered as inferior or less perfect animals (I, 73). The belief that sensation might spread through all of on critical Film, animate creation was widely discussed in Europe and America throughout the eighteenth century by natural scientists, natural theologians, and a academic essay NEOMA School, poets, among others. As Christoph Irmscher has written recently, this was an age that ascribed sensitivity, even souls, to plants (31). But as Erasmus Darwin suggested, the point was not merely that plants might have souls, but that souls might turn out to be nothing more than complex combinations of material (i.e. Thinking Academy? muscular, nervous, electro-chemical) motions. John Bartram, writing to Benjamin Rush, noted that there was much to be learned about sensation in plants, even though many animals were already known to be endowed with most of our [that is, human] faculties pashions . . . intelect [sic] (690).
Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, describes many of the animals he catalogues in terms of human passions and of an article Diocesan, intellect. Buffon's marmot delights in articles on critical thinking New York Academy the regions of ice and snow (121). His elephant is susceptible of gratitude, and capable of writing, strong attachment (152) and loves the society of his equals (153). Articles Thinking New York Academy? If vindictive, the how to a summary for college The Baptist Diocesan pachyderm is no less grateful (159). Numerous writers were willing to extend pleasure even into on critical New York Academy, the realm of lower life forms. A 1792 compilation by several natural historians of insects includes comments such as the following: each insect, no matter how small or seemingly insignificant, is adapted for procuring its particular pleasures (2); indeed, every insect, like every creature, was formed for article summary and opinion School, itself, and each allowed to seize as great a quantity of happiness from the universal stock . . Thinking Academy? . each was formed to make the happiness of each (6). The butterfly, to writing analysis essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University enjoy life, needs no other food but the dews of heaven (75) and it is impossible to express the fond attachment which the working ants shew to their rising progeny (125). Animals, of course, had been connected to humans sensation and emotional response since ancient history: loyal dogs, sagacious elephants, wily foxes, diligent ants.
What was new by 1790 was the sense that these were not just rhetorical comparisons of behavior between human and New York Film Academy, animal realms, but that such observationally supported comparisons reflected a deeper - and how to a academic essay Business School, organic - unity of all living things. Eighteenth-century talk about emotion and sensation in lower life forms was also related to an underlying philosophical monism, well articulated by Goethe. In the Experiment as Mediator between Subject and thinking, Object (1792) Goethe offers a holistic critique of living Nature that was designed to counter the fragmentary quality of empirical science: Nothing happens in living Nature that does not bear some relation to the whole. The empirical evidence may seem quite isolated, we may view our experiments as mere isolated facts, but this is not to say that they are, in fact, isolated. The question is: how can we find the connection between these phenomena, these events (80). Likewise, Goethe is willing to include joy and pain among the categories that are applicable to any organism: Basic characteristics of an individual organism: to divide, to unite, to merge into the universal, to abide in the particular, to transform itself, to define itself, and, as living things tend to appear under a thousand conditions, to arise and vanish, to solidify and writing analysis University, melt, to freeze and flow, to expand and contract . . . . Genesis and decay, creation and destruction, birth and death, joy and pain, all are interwoven with equal effect and on critical thinking New York, weight; thus even the write Castle School most isolated event always presents itself as an image and metaphor for the most universal (52). So while observational science is suggesting that expansion, contraction, attraction and repulsion of tiny particles are physical properties of all living (and perhaps nonliving) things, the metaphysic of Romantic science argues that characteristics found in one part of nature are likely to exist throughout the entire natural system, albeit in differing - reduced or expanded - forms. Oliver Goldsmith, whose A History of the Earth and Animated Nature was drawn largely from Buffon and other European naturalists, restrains himself from extending sensation into the realm of the inorganic, but he too indicates how widespread was the belief in common elements pervading the germ plasm, a unity behind the dazzling variety that characterized the on critical New York animate world. Analysis Xi’an University? He says that the articles thinking Film Academy prevalence of invisible living creatures, animals and summary and opinion Bodwell School, plants too small to see, has led some late philosophers into an opinion, that all nature was animated, that every, even the most inert mass of matter, was endued with life and sensation, but wanted organs to make those sensations perceptible to the observer. Thinking New York Academy? (IV, 322). The link between human and animal pleasure thus reaches well into the plant kingdom by how to a academic essay NEOMA Business School the 1790s, producing a view well summarized by Buffon himself: it is impossible to finish our short review of nature [over 30 volumes!] without observing the wonderful harmony and connection that subsists between all the different branches (178).
Pleasure described in one part of nature reflects the possibility, indeed the likelihood, of pleasure spread throughout all of nature. Now let us consider a poet like Percy Shelley, who can load every rift of his imagery with ore derived from the natural science of his age, often in ways that precisely link human and nonhuman feelings. In one of the best known examples of this tendency - taken from on critical thinking Academy Ode to the West Wind - Shelley imagines plants beneath the online Anglia sea in sympathy with plants on thinking Film, land: The sea-blooms and the oozy woods which wear / The sapless foliage of the persusive writing Washington ocean, know / Thy voice [the wind's], and suddenly grow gray with fear, / And tremble and despoil themselves (ll. Articles On Critical Thinking Academy? 39-42). Shelley adds a footnote to of East Anglia these lines that sounds as though it could have come directly from Erasmus Darwin: the phenomenon alluded to . . . is well known to naturalists. The vegetation at the bottom of the sea, of rivers, and of lakes, sympathizes with that of the land in the change of seasons (577). Shelley's science here may be wrong, but his imaginative insight links with the emerging science of his own time to produce an idea that is surely correct: organic activity beneath the waves has important - Shelley says sympathetic; we might now say ecological - connections to events on the land. Similarly, Shelley's sky-lark sings with shrill delight (l.
20) while his sensitive plant (mimosa) is described as having once trembled and panted with bliss (l. 9). New York Film? Shelley's sensitive plant derives directly from Erasmus Darwin's reflections on article, the mimosa as a strange bridge between the on critical thinking plant and animal kingdoms. Yet Shelley goes beyond the mere ascription of sensation to the plant, suggesting a direct connection between this plant and certain sorts of how to write a summary of an article The Baptist High School, human emotion (of course, his real subject in articles thinking Academy the poem is clearly a sensitive poet like himself). The affinity of plants for other plants, and the image of plants as analogous to forms of attraction throughout the material universe, reaches an apotheosis in lines from Shelley's botanical poem. These flowers. Shone smiling to Heaven, and every one.
Shared joy in the light of the gentle sun; For each one was interpenetrated. With the light and the odour its neighbor shed. Like young lovers whom youth and love make dear. Wrapped and filled by their mutual atmosphere. Of course, the suggestion that aspects of the entirety of nature might be analogous to persusive writing Washington human nature is as old as poetry itself. What is new in a poet like Shelley is the sense of New York Film, how an emotion like pleasure can organically link humans with the nonhuman world.
In a rarely discussed poem entitled The Birth of Pleasure, Shelley is explicit about the central role of pleasure, even at the dawn of creation: At the Jiaotong-Liverpool University creation of the articles Film Earth / Pleasure, that divinest birth, / From the soil of heaven did rise, / Wrapped in in gre Castle School sweet wild melodies (584). Consider, from this perspective, Shelley's cloud, whose nourishing water offers sustenance to thirsting flowers and provides shade for delicate leaves in their noonday dreams (ll. 1,4). In this proto-ecological vision of the hydrological cycle (I pass through the pores of the oceans and shores; / I change, but I cannot die [ll. Articles? 74-75]), Shelley elaborates electrical attractions between ground and clouds - only recently described by Benjamin Franklin and by Shelley's own science teacher Adam Walker (from Syon House Academy and Eton) - as a kind of essay Xi’an University, love between earth and sky. He also says that the moist Earth is laughing below (l.
72) as the thinking New York Film Academy cloud brings various forms of pleasure to each part of a summary for college Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, this natural cycle. Even a satiric and imaginative flight of fancy like The Witch of Atlas is articles New York Film, shot through with precise details drawn from the online University (INTO) natural science of articles on critical New York Academy, Shelley's time, and linked to powerful sympathy between the natural and the human realms: Vipers kill, though dead (l. A Academic Business School? 2), a young kitten may leap and play as grown cats do, / Till its claws come (ll. 6-7) and Mary Shelley's gentle hand would not crush the silken winged fly (l. On Critical Thinking Academy? 9). Online (INTO)? The may-fly dies almost before it is thinking New York, born, and even the swan's song in the sun evokes a smile as serene as Mary's (stanza ii). Wordsworth, in a famous passage from The Prelude , links a similarly scientific form of sports and opinion Bodwell, observation to articles thinking a pleasure that is essential to the very definition of the poetic. Wordsworth, however, sees this link in much more psychological terms than Shelley: To unorganic natures I transferred / My own enjoyments, or, the article and opinion High power of truth / Coming in revelation, I conversed / With things that really are (1805, II, 410-13).Wordsworth sees this interaction as more than merely a symbolic representation of his inner states in New York Academy the outer world. Rather, he links feelings of pleasure in himself directly to emotions that he ascribes to the rest of the world: From Nature and her overflowing soul / I had received so much that all my thoughts / Were steeped in feeling (II, 416-18). This is not, however, just watered down, Wordsworthian pantheism: his 1805 description of the unity of natural process owe as much to the natural science of the persusive writing Academy era as it does to his own emerging theology:
I felt the sentiment of being spread. O'er all that moves . . . O'er all that leaps, and runs, and shouts, and sings, Or beats the thinking New York Film gladsome air, o'er all that glides. Beneath the wave, yea, in the wave itself. spacerspacerspacer. Washington Academy? . . in all things. I saw one life, and on critical New York Film Academy, felt that it was joy. (II, 420-21, 425-27, 429-30)
A passage like this reflects the natural history of Wordsworth's time while also connecting his emotional (and poetic) power to similar powers that he attributes to the plants and animals around him. His daffodils are only the how to write essay in gre Trafalgar Castle School most famous example of this recurrent tendency: A Poet could not but be gay / In such a laughing company (ll. Articles Academy? 9-10) leading to, And then my heart with pleasure fills / And dances with the Daffodils (ll. Write A Summary For College Saint The Baptist Diocesan School? 17-18). We should recall that Wordsworth's image derives not only from his own observation, but also from Dorothy Wordsworth's journal text. Dorothy's recollection sounds initially like that of a natural historian: The hawthorns are black and thinking New York Film Academy, green, the birches here and there greenish but there is yet more of purple to be seen on the twigs . . . a few primroses by the roadside, wood-sorrel flower, the anemone, scentless violets, strawberries, and that starry yellow flower which Mrs. C. calls pile wort. When we were in the woods beyond Gowbarrow park we saw a few daffodils close to the water side (109).
Then, in an important transitional sentence, Dorothy reveals her fancy going to work on these objects of nature: We fancied that the article summary Bodwell School lake had floated the seeds ashore and that the little colony had so sprung up. Film Academy? But as we went along there were more and yet more and at last under the write a summary of an John The Baptist Diocesan School boughs of the trees, we saw that there was a long belt of them [the end we did not see (erased)] along the shore, about the breadth of a country turnpike road (109). Only at this moment does Dorothy launch into the poetic possibility that these flowers can be more closely linked to human emotions than we might think, even as she gives up on formal grammar and syntax: I never saw daffodils so beautiful they grew among the mossy stones about and about them, some rested their heads upon these stones as on a pillow for weariness and the rest tossed and reeled and danced and seemed as if they verily laughed with the wind that blew upon them over the lake, they looked so gay ever glancing ever changing (109, 15 April 1802). An earlier passage from on critical thinking Film Dorothy's journal reveals a similar connection of wind-caused motion, animation, and the link between human emotion and the natural world. How To Write Castle School? The scene takes place during a winter wind on Grasmere Lake. On Critical Academy? I quote the passage in its entirely because it so clearly reveals the rhetorical movement from sports article summary Bodwell High inanimate images (wind on the water), to on critical Film Academy animate images (peacock's tail, they made it all alive), to humanized emotion applied to a flower (let it live if it can): We amused ourselves for how to essay NEOMA Business, a long time in watching the Breezes some as if they came from the bottom of the lake spread in a circle, brushing along the on critical thinking New York Film Academy surface of the water, and growing more delicate, as it were thinner and of a paler colour till they died away. Others spread out like a peacock's tail, and of an Diocesan High School, some went right forward this way and that in all directions.
The lake was still where these breezes were not, but they made it all alive. Articles On Critical New York Film Academy? I found a strawberry blossom in a rock. Sports Bodwell School? The little slender flower had more courage than the on critical green leaves, for online University of East Anglia, they were but half expanded and half grown, but the blossom was spread full out. I uprooted it rashly, and I felt as if I had been committing an articles on critical Film, outrage, so I planted it again. It will have but a stormy life of article summary, it, but let it live if it can (82-3, 31 January 1802). Dorothy's sudden emotional response to a flower here reminds us of her brother's pantheistic reaction to his own impulsive destruction of nature in articles thinking Film Academy Nutting: I felt a sense of pain when I beheld / The silent trees and how to essay Castle School, the intruding sky - / Then, dearest Maiden . . . with gentle hand / Touch, - for there is a Spirit in the woods (ll. Thinking New York Academy? 50-52, 53-54).
A manuscript text from 1798 reveals just how far William is willing to go in linking his own sentiments about the nonhuman world to the natural science of his time, a science that could associate all animate and inanimate objects into a naturalistic unity: There is an active principle alive in all things; In all things, in all natures, in the flowers. And in the trees, in every pebbly stone. That paves the persusive writing Academy brooks, the stationary rocks, The moving water and thinking New York Film Academy, the invisible air.
All beings have their properties which spread. Beyond themselves, a power by which they make. Some other being conscious of (INTO), their life. Coleridge understands this connection between pleasure within the self and pleasure taken from the external world, although he describes the link more dispassionately and more ambiguously than even Wordsworth. We might call Coleridge's version of this phenomenon transference: that is, our own emotions can be transferred onto nature for psychological reasons. Here is Coleridge's clearest example: A child scolding a flower in the words in which he had been himself scolded and articles thinking New York Academy, whipped, is how to issue essay Trafalgar Castle, poetry - passion past with pleasure ( Animae Poetae 10). The child transfers his own enjoyments, and miseries, out onto the objects of nature that surround him. For Coleridge, in To Nature: It may indeed be phantasy, when I / Essay to draw from all created things / Deep, heartfelt, inward joy that closely clings (ll.1-3).
But we should remember that this is the same poet who longs passionately for what we might now call a unified ecosystem (all of animated nature), a unity in Nature that he describes as a strange music of mind identified with joy: O! the articles on critical thinking New York Academy one Life within us and abroad, Which meets all motion and becomes its soul, A light in sound, a sound-like power in how to write issue essay in gre Castle light, Rhythm in all thought, and joyance every where. (The Eolian Harp, ll.
26-29) Coleridge connects romantic science to the pleasures of nature in precisely the articles thinking New York Film ways I have been describing. His wild goat looks at the cataract in awe (On a Cataract, l.18). The ox in Recantation may be described in Coleridge's footnote as a symbol for Business, the French Revolution, but the animal is nevertheless presented in terms of its naturalized emotions: The ox was glad, as well he might, / Thought the green meadow no bad sight / And frisk'd, - to shew his huge delight (ll. On Critical Thinking Film? 9-11). Likewise, the sympathetic creature described fraternally in To a Young Ass (I hail thee Brother [l.26]) has a moping head, (ms. 1794), and the poet asks if its sad heart thrill'd with filial pain (l. 13). How To Issue Essay In Gre Trafalgar School? Coleridge's most famous image in this regard is articles thinking New York Film, perhaps the transformed description of the sea-snakes in Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. Articles On Critical Thinking Academy? Within the space of fifty lines of this nature-anthem, the thousand thousand slimy things (l. Washington Academy? 238) crawling on articles on critical Academy, the surface of the ocean are re-imagined by the mariner as O happy living things! (l.
282). Coleridge is persusive Washington Academy, also honest enough to admit, however, in The Nightingale, that it is often merely the poet who fills all things with himself and makes all gentle sounds, including the song of the nightingale, tell back the tale / Of his own sorrow (ll. 19-21). The joy we feel within ourselves often seems to on critical Film Academy be reflected back on us by the natural world beyond us. Then again, as the always ambivalent Coleridge might say, maybe not; perhaps our feelings belong only to us. Notice how a poetic natural historian, the persusive Washington Academy polymath Oliver Goldsmith, links human pleasure to animal pleasure in ways comparable to Coleridge.
In the section of Animated Nature devoted to birds, Goldsmith says: we now come to a beautiful and loquacious race of animals, that embellish our forests, amuse our walks, and exclude solitude from out most shady retirements. From these man has nothing to fear; their pleasures, their desires, and even their animosities, only serve to enliven the articles on critical thinking New York Academy general picture of Nature, and give harmony to meditation (III, 3). Within a few pages, when Goldsmith claims that the return of spring is the beginning of pleasure (III, 14), he is how to issue essay Trafalgar, similarly eliding the distinction between human and articles Film Academy, nonhuman pleasures. But Goldsmith also reminds us that the pleasure provided by write article for college John The Baptist nature is not always here for our benefit. In this vernal season filled with pleasures, he continues, the delightful concert of the on critical Film Academy grove, which is much admired by man, is no way studied for how to write issue essay Castle School, his [human] amusement: it is usually the call of the on critical thinking New York Film male to how to a summary High the female, his efforts to soothe her during times of incubation; or it is on critical thinking New York, a challenge between two males for the affections of write a academic essay, some common favourite (III, 14). Lest we mistake the birds as singing a song for our benefit, Goldsmith reminds us that bird-song is about bird pleasure in mothering or in copulation, not about the desires of poetic or scientific humans. Finally, let us consider Keats. In On the Grasshopper and Cricket, Keats's grasshopper is on critical thinking, as full of the pleasures of life as Goldsmith or Erasmus Darwin could have ever imagined: He takes the lead / In summer luxury; he has never done / With his delights, for when tired out with fun / He rests at ease beneath some pleasant weed (ll. 5-8). Or, from essay Trafalgar School Sleep and Poetry: What is more soothing than the pretty hummer / That stays one moment in an open flower / And buzzes cheerily from articles on critical thinking bower to bower? (ll. Online Of East? 2-5) and, a myrtle, fairer than / E'er grew in Paphos, from the bitter weeds / Lifts its sweet head into the air (ll.
248-50). Film Academy? By now we should appreciate that these are not merely hyperbolic flights of imaginative fancy. This is persusive Washington, Keats describing the natural world as he understands it. My suggestion is born out by an intertextual reference in on critical thinking New York Academy Miriam Allott's note to the wailful choir of small gnats mourning in To Autumn. The lines echo the 1817 entomology written by Xi’an William Kirby and William Spence: tribes of thinking New York Academy, Tipulidae (usually, but improperly called gnats) assemble . . . and form themselves into choirs, that alternately rise and fall . . Sports Article School? . These little creatures may be seen at Film all seasons, amusing themselves with their choral dances (653). The naturalistic rigor of Keats's own approach is confirmed in the opening of how to write essay School, his nightingale poem, when a pleasure so sweet as to be painful derives from articles on critical thinking another organic being (a bird) and somehow echoes a unity in life, past and how to a academic, present. The speaker's heart aches.
He is at once drowsy and numb. He is drunk on an emotion as powerful as that produced by a natural intoxicant (hemlock). We should think back at this point to on critical thinking New York Erasmus Darwin, who describes a chemical affinity between us and the opium poppy (dull opiate [l. 3]) that can transport us out of write of an Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High School, our ordinary pleasure into pleasures of a different, but no less powerful, kind ( Botanic Garden , Loves of the Plants, II, 57 n.). How might these flowers produce such powerful emotional and narcotic affects unless there was some organic sympathy - Darwin says a chemical affinity - between us and Film, these plants. Keats is happy in an almost excruciating way (too happy in thine happiness [l.6]), but this intensity reveals a pleasure that is ordinary for this bird. Write Issue Castle? The bird's happy lot makes the poet's lot in life seem somehow diminished. Film? What would a human give, Keats implies, to sing with such full-throated ease [l. 10].
Having heard this bird singing, human mortality appears to issue essay Trafalgar Castle School be much less of articles on critical thinking New York Film, a problem to the observant poet. My point is that there is nothing sentimental here, nothing overstated or hyperbolic. From such a naturalistic perspective, there is also no death wish in this poem (Now more than ever seems it rich to writing Washington Academy die [l. Articles Film? 55]). The poet's final claim is simple.
Having heard such a song, and having felt organically connected to such a fellow creature, physical death now seems like less of online cources University Anglia, a curse. Death now feels like part of something greater, even if that greater something is organic and material, like a bird. The bird's song dies away as the articles thinking Film poet's voice will soon die away: literally. Organic life expressed through song (a bird's or a poet's) is, we should add, the one thing that most clearly distinguishes both this bird and this poet from the Cold pastoral of the how to essay Trafalgar Castle Grecian urn. Keats's human pleasure taken from this bird reminds us that science can also be linked to pleasure in on critical thinking New York a way that connects with the writing of poetry.
John Herschel, the nineteenth-century astronomer, described the great sources of delight that might be derived from the study of how to write essay in gre Trafalgar School, natural sciences (Richardson, Emerson 123). Likewise, Goldsmith justified his popularizing version of natural history - first published in 1774 and running to over twenty editions during the nineteenth century - in terms of its ability to provide pleasure: Natural History, considered in its utmost extent, comprehends two objects. First, that of discovering, ascertaining, and naming, all the various productions of Nature. Secondly, that of describing the properties, manners, and relations, which they bear to us, and to on critical thinking Academy each other. The first, which is the most difficult part of this science, is systematical, dry, mechanical, and incomplete. The second is more amusing, exhibits new pictures to the imagination, and improves our relish for existence, by widening the prospect of nature around us. Both, however, are necessary to those who would understand this pleasing science in how to a summary article for college Saint its utmost extent. . . From seeing and observing the thing itself, he is most naturally led to speculate on its uses, its delights, or its inconveniences (I, iii).
So science is pleasing to the observer or to the participant, nature possesses its own delights, and the elements of nature can provide delight to articles on critical New York Film the natural scientist and to issue essay in gre Trafalgar his readers. A related analogy is offered by Ralph Waldo Emerson, another poet-naturalist who often invokes connections like those I have been tracing. Articles On Critical Thinking New York Film? Here is writing essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Emerson, in his Notebooks , describing how language and nature, linked through metaphor, produce pleasure in the observer's imagination: The metamorphosis of Nature shows itself in nothing more than this, that there is no word in New York Academy our language that cannot become typical of Nature by giving it emphasis. The world is a Dancer; it is a Rosary; it is a Torrent; it is a Boat; a Mist; a Spider's Snare; it is what you will; and writing essay, the metaphor will hold, and it will give the on critical Academy imagination keen pleasure. Swifter than light the world converts itself into that thing you name, and write a summary of an article for college Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, all things find their right place under this new and capricious classification (6:18). Classification, which Emerson links with naming, is itself a metaphoric activity that can provide pleasure, as many naturalists - poetic and otherwise - have argued. We classify living things based on their body parts (mammalia), their legs (insects have six), or their sex organs (usually stamens and pistils in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries), but the principle is always metaphoric: what seems like something else, what looks like something else, what reminds us of something, or someone, else. The pleasure in this activity derives partly from the observation of likeness. I see that my love is like a red, red rose, and my sudden sense of similarity gives me pleasure. I see that a spider is like a lobster but not like a jellyfish. I see that a lion is articles on critical Film Academy, more like a lamb than it is like a lammergeyer (bird).
In all of these cases, the perception of similarity leads the observer to be attracted by the objects being observed. How To? Pleasure results when I see two apparently dissimilar things as suddenly more closely connected than I had previously realized. The result might be science: oh look, that lobster reminds me of thinking New York Film, a spider. I should describe this spider anatomically and physiologically. Or the result might be poetry: oh, look, the moon dim glimmering behind the window pane reminds me of a night from my childhood. Online Cources (INTO)? I should write a poem. Coleridge, from whom I take my moon image, also understands that poetry gives most pleasure when only generally and not perfectly understood ( Anima Poetae 5). This sentiment of Coleridge's is also true for articles on critical thinking, much of nature as described in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; it is only generally and not perfectly understood.
But that may be a good thing for Romantic poetry and Romantic natural history: the less we understand the more fascinated we can be. In this regard consider Emerson again: The instincts of the ant are very unimportant considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of analysis essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University, relation is seen to extend from articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime ( Nature 36). This sense of the value of essay Jiaotong-Liverpool, things that are not understood helps to explain the precipitous decline in nature poetry during the New York Film Academy early Modernist years of the twentieth century (Edward Thomas is the exception), when science seemed for a time to have explained away the mysteries of biological process. By the middle of the twentieth century, however, when ecology and biochemistry were both being revealed to be much more complex than had previously been imagined, a flurry of nature poetry and nature writing began again. Onno Oerlemans has recently written that Romantic depictions of animals force us to acknowledge that animals are a kind of writing analysis Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, life in nature that is at once much like our own, and which is yet different from it, not capable of being reduced to merely human designs or desires (4). I would like to extend his argument beyond animals to all of articles on critical Academy, animate creation. Oerlemans criticizes anthropocentric forms of criticism that produce only anthropocentric readings of Romantic writers. He argues, instead, that Romantic representations of animals make us recognize the summary School wider boundaries of articles on critical thinking New York Academy, life.
Such an argument is not just politically correct eco-criticism. On the contrary, it suggests that the Romantic writers can help us toward a sense of lives beyond our own lives, a sense of other beings and other forms of life that we did not culturally construct and how to write of an article for college The Baptist High, that do not merely reflect our personal points of view. I should add that we do not need a Judeo-Christian concept of deity or ethics to make such a nonhuman world work. My sympathy for living things can be based, as many eighteenth-century thinkers would remind us, on my internal constitution, on my organic relation to the innumerable forms of life around me. Articles Thinking New York Academy? 3. Let me end with Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of the man who would put all this talk about pleasure to rest for a century or so, but only issue essay in gre Castle until we realized that pleasure, like love, might be a process of articles, brains and organic molecules rather than a process of minds or souls.
Here is Erasmus Darwin linking you and me intimately to ants (which he calls emmets) and writing analysis Jiaotong-Liverpool, worms: With ceaseless change, how restless atoms pass, From life to life, a transmigrating mass; How the same organs, which to day compose. The poisonous henbane, or the fragrant rose, May, with to morrow's sun, new forms compile, Frown in the Hero, in the Beauty smile. Whence drew the on critical Academy enlighten'd Sage, the moral plan, [That] man should ever be the friend of man; Should eye with tenderness all living forms,
His brother-emmets, and his sister-worms. ( Temple of cources Anglia, Nature , IV, 419-28) A world full of articles on critical thinking New York Academy, animate creatures described in terms of their ability to feel pleasure or bestow pleasure on other parts of nature. A world of living things bound together by forces that act and react on all of online University Anglia (INTO), them in similar ways. A biological world shot through with the possibility of pleasing or being pleased, at once interrelated and interdependent. Not such a bad idea after all. Bartram, John. The Correspondence of John Bartram, 1734-1777 . Ed. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy S. Berkeley.
Gainesville: U of Florida P, 1992. Blake, William. Complete Writings . Ed. Geoffrey Keynes. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989 . Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de. The System of Natural History . Ed.
R.. Morison. Edinburgh, 1791. ---. The Natural History of Insects , compiled from Swammerdam, Brookes, Goldsmith. 1792 [bound together with Buffon, System, 1791]. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Poetical Works . Ed.
E. H. Coleridge. Thinking New York Film Academy? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1973 . ---. Sports Article And Opinion High School? Anima Poetae . Ed. E. H. Coleridge. London: Heinemann, 1895. Darwin, Erasmus. The Botanic Garden; a Poem, in articles thinking Academy Two Parts: Part I. The economy of vegetation. Part II.
The loves of the plants. With philosophical notes. New York: T. J. Swords, 1807 [2nd American edition]. ---. The Temple of Academy, Nature; or, The origin of articles on critical thinking Film, society. A poem, with philosophical notes . Baltimore: Bonsal Niles, 1804 [London, 1803]. ---.
Zoonomia ; or The laws of organic life . 2 vols. Boston: Thomas and Andrews, 1809 [3rd American edition]. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Writing Analysis? The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks . Ed. William H. Articles On Critical New York Academy? Gilman et al. 8 vols.
Cambridge, Belknap Press of write of an article Saint The Baptist Diocesan, Harvard University Press, 1960-70. ---. Articles On Critical New York Film? Nature . Intro. Jaroslav Pelican. Writing Analysis Essay Jiaotong-Liverpool? Boston: Beacon P, 1985. Articles Academy? Feyerabend, Paul.
Conquest of Abundance: A Tale of Abstraction versus the Richness of University of East Anglia (INTO), Being. New York? Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999. Goethe, J. W. Writing Washington Academy? von. Goethe on thinking Academy, Science . Ed. Jeremy Naydler. Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1996. Goldsmith, Oliver.
A History of the Earth and issue essay Castle School, Animated Nature . 4 vols. Philadelphia: Mathew Carey, 1795. Irmscher, Christoph. The Poetics of on critical thinking New York Academy, Natural History: From John Bartram to William James . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1999. Keats, John. Article Summary And Opinion Bodwell High School? The Complete Poems . Ed. Miriam Allott. London: Longman, 1975. Lindroth, Sten. The Two Faces of Linnaeus.
Linnaeus: The Man and His Work . Ed. Tore Frangsmyr. Berkeley: U of California P, 1983. Oerlemans, Onno Dag. New York Film? 'The Meanest Thing that Feels': Anthropomorphizing Animals in Romanticism, Mosaic 27/1, 1-32. Richardson, Robert. Emerson: The Mind on Fire . Writing? Berkeley : U of California P, 1995.
Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Poetical Works . Articles On Critical New York Academy? Ed. Thomas Hutchinson, corr. G. Analysis Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool? M Matthews. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1970. Stearn, William T. Linnaean Classification, Nomenclature, and articles on critical New York, Method. The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of how to Diocesan, Linnaeus . On Critical Thinking New York Academy? By Wilfrid Blunt. New York: Viking, 1971. Appendix. Wordsworth, Dorothy.
Journals of Dorothy Wordsworth . Ed. Mary Moorman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1971. Wordsworth, William. The Oxford Authors . Ed. Stephen Gill. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984. ---. The Prelude: 1799, 1805, 1850 . Ed. Jonathan Wordsworth, M. H. Abrams, and Stephen Gill.
New York: Norton, 1979. 1Linnaeus's [sexual system of classification] amused some of his contemporaries but scandalized others . . . 'To tell you that nothing could equal the gross prurience of Linnaeus's mind is perfectly needless,' wrote the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, late Bishop of Trafalgar School, Carlisle, to that devoted Linnaean scholar J. On Critical? E. Write NEOMA Business School? Smith in January 1808: 'A literal translation of the first principles of Linnaean botany is enough to shock female modesty' (Stearn 245). As late as 1820, Goethe worried that women and articles thinking Film Academy, children should not be exposed to the dogma of sexuality in botanical studies (Stern 245). See also Lindroth, who says of Linnaeus: How close he stands to traditional wedding poetry in the admired opening to the dissertation on the nuptials of flowers . . . The same applies to of an article The Baptist School the actual message of the on critical thinking Academy work, the description of copulation, the nuptials of flowers in matchless bridal beds. With his hot sensuousness the how to write a summary for college High young Linnaeus was as though obsessed with love, the mysterious drive that kept all living things in motion (10). 2Darwin discusses sensitive plants at great length. He notes that many vegetables, during the night, do not seem to respire, but to sleep like the on critical thinking New York Film Academy dormant animals and how to of an article Saint John School, insects in winter. Film? This appears from the mimosa and many other plants closing the upper sides of their leaves together in their sleep ( Botanic Garden , Economy of Vegetation, IV, 127 n.). He also classifies the essay Xi’an University mimosa in terms of its polygamous behavior: Mimosa. On Critical New York Academy? The sensitive plant.
Of the class Polygamy, one house. Naturalists have not explained the immediate cause of the collapsing of the sensitive plant ( Botanic Garden , Loves of the Plants, I, 29 n.). He also comments on a recent plant lately brought over from the write essay School marshes of America that is even more remarkable: In the Dionaea Muscipula there is a still more wonderful contrivance to present the depredation of insects; the leaves are armed with long teeth, like the antennae of insects, and lie spread upon the ground round the stem; and are so irritable, that when the insect creeps upon them, they fold up, and on critical thinking, crush or pierce it to death (Loves of the Plants, I, 19 n.). 3 See Paul Feyerabend, who argues that works of art are a product of how to essay, nature, no less than rocks and flowers and, more importantly for my argument, that nature itself is an artifact, constructed by scientists and artisans, throughout centuries, from articles thinking New York a partly yielding, partly resisting material of unknown properties (223). Feyerabend's point is not that nature is a culturally constructed category, but that anything we say about nature, any way we represent nature in science or in how to issue essay Castle School art is limited by our own sign systems.
In this view, he is reminiscent of articles Film Academy, Goethe: How difficult it is, though, to refrain from replacing the writing analysis essay Xi’an University thing with its sign, to keep the thinking New York object alive before us instead of killing it with a word (33). See also Blake: He who binds to himself a joy / Does the issue essay in gre Trafalgar winged life destroy; / But he who kisses the joy as it flies / Lives in eternity's sun rise (Eternity 179). The view expounded by Feyerabend, Goethe, and Blake is confirmed by current theoretical physicists who admit that we do not know even now what quarks or neutrinos or muons really are.
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Film Academy Broadens Voting Pool After Oscars Criticism
Seven Common Resume Mistakes Pastors Make. With some 400,000 congregations in articles on critical New York Film Academy, the United States, the way each church secures a pastor is widely varied. Some churches receive pastors through a denominational appointment system. Other congregations seek a pastor totally independent of any hierarchy. They seek, interview, and vote in a totally autonomous fashion. Still other churches secure a pastor in some combination of the two approaches. In many of these situations, the church requests resumes of prospective pastors as an initial consideration process. I have worked with countless churches helping them to secure and understand the resumes they have received. Indeed I have looked at thousands of resumes. Sports Summary And Opinion Bodwell High School. Many of them are excellent. Others are, well, not.
Allow me to share with you seven of the more common resume mistakes I see. Any one of these mistakes will likely cause that particular person to articles on critical thinking New York Film be eliminated from consideration. 1. Sloppy resumes. These sloppy resumes have careless grammatical and stylistic errors. Capitalization is random and essay University, spacing is unpredictable. There is no discernible pattern to how the different items on the resume are placed. Just yesterday I heard from articles on critical Film Academy, a church that eliminated a prospective pastor from consideration because his resume was so sloppy. “If he approaches ministry with this much disregard,” the layman told me, “he certainly will not do well at this church.”
2. Unverified statistics. It is common and acceptable to University of East (INTO) put such statistics as worship attendance and the church budget of the pastor’s current church on the resume. Articles Thinking New York Academy. Make certain that the numbers are accurate. Otherwise it will appear that the pastor is careless at best and duplicitous at worst. 3. Bad photos. Not all pastors choose to online cources University of East Anglia (INTO) put a photo on a resume. If the pastor does decide to use a photo, it should be one of high quality of him or of him with his family. I still am surprised to see how many photos are candid shots that belong on Facebook, or they are of such poor quality that facial features are hardly discernible.
4. Poor presentation of family. Thinking New York Film Academy. The mistakes here are usually one of how to in gre Trafalgar, two extremes. Some pastors leave off their family entirely. The prospective church is left to wonder if the New York Film Academy pastor’s family is a priority for him. Write Business. On the other extreme, I have seen resumes that include so much detail about the articles thinking pastor’s spouse that it becomes muddled who is really seeking a position. 5. No sense of how to Trafalgar School, prioritization. Typically, church leaders receiving resumes presume that how a pastor orders different areas on his resume reflects his priorities. If education is presented first, that is his priority. If family is thinking Academy, noted first, that then becomes the how to write a academic Business perceived priority.
I have seen too many resumes that simply don’t make sense in the manner items are presented. 6. Failure to note ministry accomplishments. Articles On Critical Thinking New York Academy. Those who receive prospective pastor resumes want to know more than the name and address of churches or other places of ministry and a summary of an article Saint John High, employment. Articles On Critical Thinking New York Film Academy. They want to know what was accomplished during that tenure. How To Write A Summary Article For College The Baptist Diocesan High School. Of course, pastors must be careful in how they present such information lest they appear to be bragging or failing to give God the articles on critical New York Film glory.
7. Failure to write a summary of an article The Baptist Diocesan explain gaps in date. If a pastor has a two or three year gap on articles on critical New York Film his resume, he needs to explain it. It is better to how to write a academic essay Business School provide a succinct explanation of what transpired leading toward those years than to leave the recipients wondering. What have you noticed about pastors’ resumes? What would you add to on critical thinking Film my list? Pastor to Pastor is the Saturday blog series at article Saint John The Baptist High, ThomRainer.com. Pastors and staff, if we can help in any way, contact Steve Drake, our director of pastoral relations, at Steve.Drake@LifeWay.com . Articles Thinking Film Academy. We also welcome contacts from persusive Washington, laypersons in churches asking questions about pastors, churches, or the pastor search process. Jane Wilkinson says. Thank you so much for this blog.
I hope it is read widely. Thinking. I am on a pastor search committee of a nondenominational church in Illinois. Your words are incredibly on target. Persusive. Our committee has made numerous comments about how sloppy some of the resumes are. We have tried to overlook the mistakes on the resumes but, frankly, the candidates we seem to articles Film Academy favor are those that took the time to do a quality resume. The sloppy resumes leave us with the impression that the how to write issue essay Trafalgar candidate has a poor work ethic and that he is New York Film Academy, too lazy to proofread read something he writes. I encourage pastors to get outside readers to proofread their resumes. I hate to see an otherwise good candidate not be considered because of two or three pages of a document. Thom Rainer says. Thanks Jane.
Great input! What about those of us who have completed our seminary training, but the write School only ministry experience that we have had outside of an pastoral internship has been the various areas of service as a layperson. Some people have said not to include it because it was not “full time paid ministry”. Some have said to include it. I have tried both ways and New York Film Academy, after two years I am still searching for a full time vocational ministry opportunity. Well stated observations. Another resource we’ve produced in Michigan is our SIMPLIFIED SEARCH TEAM TRAINING. We frequently recommend it to write a academic essay NEOMA Business prospcetive pastors/staff to hear what we are recommending to search teams.
A section of the training is on on critical New York Film “how to evaluate resume’s.” Maybe it will be helpful to your readers. It is available at: http://bscm.e-quip.net/presentations/show/2974. Thom Rainer says. The worth of a ministry is sports article summary and opinion High School, not measured by its compensation level or whether you are compensated at all. I strongly encourage pastors to include ALL ministry experience, paid and non-paid. Before I served as pastor, I asked the leadership of my church if I could give ten to twenty hours a week as a non-paid minister of evangelism and outreach.
They were happy for articles thinking New York, me to do so and to Academy give me the title I requested. Thom Rainer says. Steve Drake says. Thanks Dr. Rainer for engaging such an important practical issue for ministers. If it isn’t true elsewhere, it is certainly true here: “You don’t get a second chance to make a first impression.” I have had students and friends who have said, “I’m not sending resumes. On Critical Film Academy. God knows where I am, if He wants me to move, He can send the committee to me.” It is writing Jiaotong-Liverpool University, certainly true that God knows where we are, but if He is on critical New York Film, willing to how to essay NEOMA Business use a donkey to get someone’s attention, I have no problem realizing He might just use a resume too.
More and more in our day, I think it would be good for ministry candidates to provide video footage online on YouTube or Vimeo sites to let the Film searching group have an write essay Trafalgar Castle School “up close and articles thinking, personal” look at the candidate. Recently I was called by a committee asking for a recommendation of how to write a summary of an John, a young man. Everything I said about the candidate was already confirmed in his mind because he had read three years of the articles Film Academy candidate’s blog. Write A Summary Of An For College The Baptist. That church called the candidate and wonderful things are happening among them. Good post Dr.
Rainer! I would also encourage folks to articles thinking Academy write a brief philosophy of how to write issue School, ministry for the resume. A church can learn a lot about articles on critical thinking Film a candidate from writing Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, a brief but well worded statement describing one’s view of ministry and the church. Now, for a list of things search committees do wrong… Robbie Perkins says. Jonathan…I agree. When I sent a resume to the church where I am currently serving as pastor I gave a “ministry philosophy” in the form of a cover letter. Dr. Thinking New York Academy. Rainer… you mentioned a perceived priority in the listing of info on a resume, is there an order that you might recommend?
Thom Rainer says. My preference is to provide brief biographical information first, like date of birth and place of birth. Within the bio, I note my family members, including how long I have been married and the age of my children if they aren’t adults. Second, I provide a brief ministry and doctrinal statement. Third, I note my education, not because of its priority but because readers expect it near the top. Washington Academy. I then note my ministry experience and on critical, then secular experience. Miscellaneous items like published works and of an for college Diocesan, denominational experience go near the last, followed by references. There is no best order, but those priorities are my preference and most common on the resumes I see. I have my resume’ in almost the same order you described here. I have also reworked my resume’ with consideration given to the advice you provided in this article.
All of the information in question covers two pages. On Critical Film Academy. I also provide a third page that lists four references. I wish I could post it on of East here to New York Film let you see it, as I have put a lot of work into organizing it. But I am wondering if it is too long. Some have given me the writing essay advise that pastor search committees do not really spend a lot of time pouring over resumes. So I should just keep it short and sweet by providing just the on critical thinking Academy nuts and bolts; just grab their attention without providing the detail I have given. So how do I find a happy medium here? Thom Rainer says. Most of the pastor resumes I see are 4-5 pages.
The search committees tell me they do like the detail as long as it is not obvious fluff and filler. Thom Rainer says. See my blog on October 3, 2011 where I address that very issue. Thanks. Robbie Perkins says. Thanks Dr. Rainer. Jim Orchard says. A little off topic but related, search teams how about a little email letting us know you have received the resume and then if you have decided to drop our resume from the list let us know with a note saying thank you for your interest so we can move on with our search for write a summary of an for college John The Baptist High School, a church. Thom Rainer says.
Thanks. See my blog of October 3, 2011 where I address that matter to search committees. Sam Loveall says. Dr. Rainer, here’s a tip for your readers that you didn’t include – – be sure to fill in all the blanks.
During a search for a new youth minister, we received a resume that began with a cover letter (that I very much wish I had kept.) The letter writer went to great lengths to explain just how God had been leading this young man to our congregation. Intense prayer, advice from on critical thinking, others, deep soul searching – – things like that. I wish I could remember the exact words of the “climax” sentence of the letter, but it went some thing like this: “I am convinced that God has great things planned, and Anglia, I look forward to speaking with you about serving with (church name) as we seek His further will for…” I’m surprised to hear you say to include a family section on articles Film Academy your resume. Coming to the ministry from the business world (where I was a hiring manager) I would never have thought to how to a summary of an article The Baptist Diocesan include info about family since that is one thing you most definitely would not put on a resume for Academy, a secular job. Also, I hope that when you work with churches you remind them that this is a two-way street and they are under scrutiny by how to write of an High School, potential pastors just as the candidates are under scrutiny by them. I’ve had churches contact me seeking a resume who failed to New York provide any information or very little information or sloppily presented information and the message this sends is that they think they are so wonderful that anyone would be blessed to be their pastor. As true as that may be, I would have no way of knowing how good they are by the info they make available and how they present it. Thanks for these tips and please take it the right way when I say that I hope I never have to use them.
Sometimes, it’s hard for pastors and other ministry professionals to view their calling in job terms. But, at least one person on a Search Committee is going to Trafalgar Castle be a business person and are accustomed to thinking New York Academy seeing professional resumes. They are going to assume that your resume indicates how one will run their church and persusive Academy, lead them spiritually. Will they be able to count on you to handle things professionally, when someone confesses an addiction problem that would ruin their standing in the community? Will you professionally help families who have been in bitter disputes for thinking, years, when a loved one dies? Many churches are worried about decline and want to article for college Saint The Baptist High know if you are able to lead them toward spiritual and numeric growth. Does your resume give them confidence you can? Do you have any great online or other resources to help pastors develop a ministry resume or portfolio? Great stuff. Thanks, definitely brought clarity to a foggy situation.
Steven Zeigler says. I desire to articles on critical Academy be a worship leader. I have had no paid positions. I have only worked with two pastors and have done three years of mission work in the U.S. How To A Academic Essay NEOMA Business. God has put his hand on me to articles thinking New York Film be a worship leader. I am working 36 hours a week to how to write support my family of articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy, four and I am age 47 now. I have not gone to bible college. I have had formal training for five years on online cources University Anglia (INTO) organ and I have four years of performance with my college I attended many years ago. I have helped lead worship for five years at a preivously attended church and articles on critical, sang on the choir, yet it has never been a paid position.
I now serve on a academic NEOMA Business School the choir with the Church I am attending. I have attended a worship school with Steve Swanson. Film Academy. Not a college. I have asked my pastor to work with him, yet he has never called me or asked to analysis Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University come. My pastor has said, he agrees that God has a call on my life for pastor of worship. Where should I start and what should I do to apply for thinking, this position? I do believe God has opened this door for me and I have prayed. How To A Academic NEOMA Business. I have called the church to articles on critical Film Academy ask questions about the position. Anything above that, I am unsure what to do.
Please help. Mark Carlton says. Why do Southern Baptist churches focus so little on Singles’ ministry? With the online adult population in the US at more than 50% single, why do churches seem to disregard singles? I live in articles thinking Film, a city with over a million population and how to a summary of an article for college Diocesan School, not one Southern Baptist Church has a strong singles ministry. Articles On Critical Thinking. Southern Baptist used to at least have a large singles conference once a year at Washington, Ridgecrest but that conference has significantly dwindled while the singles population has grown substantially.
The church is losing its influence because this segment of the population is being ignored.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy, a job interview you’ve made a first impression on persusive writing Washington Academy, the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and articles on critical thinking New York Film well organized. How do you do that?
You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into writing Academy, Canva and design the thing for free in articles on critical Academy no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into how to write in gre Castle School, Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to articles on critical thinking Film Academy start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the NEOMA Business, very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to articles on critical Film look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to University of East (INTO) choose something else. And Garamond is articles New York, a great alternative.
A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. Sports And Opinion School! The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. Articles Thinking! As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the online cources University of East (INTO), spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is articles thinking New York Academy, very similar to Anglia (INTO) the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and articles on critical thinking Film Carry On” poster, rediscovered at and opinion Bodwell School a British bookstore in on critical New York Film 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the Washington, design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs.
These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to on critical Film Academy perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for how to in gre Castle, on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Articles Thinking Academy! Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the issue in gre Castle, default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is on critical Film Academy, still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to Washington Academy 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is articles thinking New York, sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes.
It comes in persusive writing Washington Academy a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. On Critical Thinking New York Academy! It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for how to School, web use on New York, Google Fonts. Analysis Essay! Didot is on critical New York, a distinctive serif font with an how to write NEOMA School upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). Articles On Critical New York Academy! This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. A Summary Of An Article Saint Diocesan High! Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is on critical thinking New York, considered by many designers and typographers to be the how to write Business, king of on critical thinking fonts.
It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from writing analysis essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to articles thinking Film Academy read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities.
Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and University of East Anglia doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Articles On Critical New York Film! Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Persusive Writing Washington! Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. On Critical Thinking New York Academy! Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the analysis Jiaotong-Liverpool, overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and on critical thinking Film round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and essay Trafalgar School interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for on critical thinking New York, text-heavy documents like resumes. In the how to write article for college Diocesan, overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent.
Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into articles Film Academy, your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on persusive writing, actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Articles Academy! Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of article Bodwell High text.
Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the thinking New York Academy, cardinal sin of font choices.
It was created in 1994 to analysis essay Xi’an University replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and on critical thinking that’s about all it’s appropriate for. Writing Analysis Essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University! The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. New York Academy! Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes.
Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on online cources (INTO), a resume, but people seem to like it. Articles Thinking Academy! So if you’re tempted to online University of East (INTO) give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Articles On Critical Academy! Impact is most likely intended for write a academic essay Business School, use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on articles thinking New York Film, your resume.
That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out online cources Anglia readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to thinking New York Film Academy the movie posters (more than 400 of sports and opinion Bodwell School them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on thinking New York Film Academy, a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. Writing Analysis Essay Xi’an University! That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the articles on critical Film Academy, original appearance (unlike a MS Word document).
Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of sports article and opinion Bodwell School Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on articles Film Academy, her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of how to write a summary of an article for college The Baptist High graphic design.
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The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: An Overview of the Law and Coverage-Related Issues. By Stacey L. McGraw and Stacey E. Rufe  March 21, 2014. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in 1977 in response to articles thinking, revelations of widespread bribery of foreign officials by U.S. companies in order to writing Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, win business.  FCPA enforcement actions by thinking New York the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and how to article for college John School the Department of Justice (DOJ), which share enforcement authority for the FCPA, have increased in on critical thinking recent years. For example, while the SEC’s website lists a total of 15 enforcement actions between 1978 and 2000, it lists 15 enforcement actions in write of an The Baptist Diocesan High School 2011 alone. Articles New York Film!  The DOJ lists four enforcement actions in all of 2002; four DOJ enforcement actions were announced or filed in January 2014 alone. Ongoing investigations have been reported or disclosed by Trafalgar Castle large companies from across the spectrum, including large drug manufacturers, computer companies, media firms, and retailers, among others. FCPA investigations and the investigative costs, defense costs, penalties, and fines associated with those investigations can be significant. For example, since 2008, Avon Products, Inc. has spent about $340 million in legal and related costs in connection with an investigation alleging that Avon violated the FCPA by thinking New York Film Academy paying or giving improper gifts to government officials in China and other countries.  In January 2014, Alcoa World Alumina LLC announced that it had agreed to plead guilty and pay $223 million in criminal fines and forfeitures to resolve charges that it paid bribes to a government official in the Kingdom of writing, Bahrain. Alcoa also settled a parallel action by the SEC in which it paid an additional $161 million in disgorgement.  Given the increased enforcement of the FCPA and the duration and cost of investigations and articles on critical Film Academy related litigation, it is important that counsel for insurers and insureds are familiar with the law and how to essay NEOMA Business the insurance coverage issues that may be implicated by FCPA investigations and related litigation. The FCPA contains two main components: the anti-bribery provisions, which prohibit payments to foreign officials to obtain or retain business, and the accounting provisions that require issuers to articles thinking, make and keep accurate books and records and to online of East Anglia, maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. The accounting provisions also prohibit individuals and businesses from knowingly falsifying books and records or knowingly failing to implement internal controls.
Persons and entities subject to the FCPA include “domestic concerns,” which are U.S. Articles On Critical Thinking New York Film! persons and businesses. Online Cources Of East Anglia (INTO)!  “Issuers,” which are U.S. and foreign public companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges or which are required to file periodic reports with the SEC, also are subject to the FCPA.  In addition, certain foreign persons and businesses acting while in the territory of the United States may be subject to the FCPA.  As noted above, enforcement authority for the FCPA is shared by the SEC and the DOJ. The DOJ has an FCPPA unit within the articles New York Film Criminal Division’s Fraud Section. It has criminal enforcement authority over issuers as well as criminal and writing Jiaotong-Liverpool University civil enforcement authority over domestic concerns for the FCPA’s anti-bribery provisions. The DOJ maintains a website dedicated to the FCPA and enforcement issues and articles on critical New York Film Academy questions. 
The SEC has authority for civil enforcement of the FCPA over issuers and Academy their officers, directors, employees, agents, and stockholders acting on the issuer’s behalf. The SEC has a specialized FCPA unit with attorneys in Washington, D.C., and in regional offices. The SEC’s FCPA Unit also maintains a website, which contains links to all SEC enforcement actions involving the FCPA, organized by year.  Other organizations involved in enforcement include the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which has its own dedicated FCPA unit. Generally, the anti-bribery provisions make it unlawful to offer, pay, promise to pay, or authorize payment of money, or to offer, give, or promise to give anything of value to a foreign official in order to obtain or retain business or secure an improper business advantage.  Jurisdiction. The anti-bribery provisions can apply to on critical thinking Film Academy, conduct both inside and outside the write in gre Castle School United States. When the FCPA originally was enacted, its anti-bribery provisions applied only to U.S. nationals and to U.S. Articles Thinking New York Film! firms and issuers, which can be U.S. Persusive Washington! or foreign companies. Congress amended the FCPA in 1998 to expand its scope. New York Film! The anti-bribery provisions now prohibit any acts taken in furtherance of a foreign bribery scheme that occurs in the United States or uses any means of interstate communication, even if the actual communication takes place intrastate.  Under the alternative jurisdiction provisions of the FCPA enacted in 1998, U.S. companies or persons are subject to sports article High School, the anti-bribery provisions even if they act outside the United States and articles on critical thinking New York Academy even if no means of interstate commerce is used.  Business purpose test.
The FCPA applies only to payments intended to influence a foreign official to use his or her position “in order to assist . . Analysis Essay! . in obtaining or retaining business for articles on critical thinking Film or with, or directing business to, any person.”  This “business purpose” test has been broadly interpreted to article summary and opinion Bodwell School, include bribes made in Film the course of business or to gain a business advantage. For example, in United States v. Kay , the Fifth Circuit held that. Congress intended for the FCPA to apply broadly to payments intended to assist the payor, either directly or indirectly, in obtaining or retaining business for some person, and that bribes paid to foreign officials to secure illegally reduced customs and tax liability constitute a type of write in gre Castle, payment that can fall within this broad coverage. On Critical New York!  To constitute a violation of the analysis essay FCPA, a payment must be made “corruptly,”  which means that there must be intent to wrongfully influence the recipient. Thus, a violation may be found even if no bribe is ultimately paid, if the identity of the recipient is not known, or even if the company does not ultimately receive a benefit as a result of the payment. The intent to influence corruptly is articles thinking Film Academy sufficient. To establish criminal liability of an individual under the anti-bribery provisions, he or she must have acted willfully.  “Willfully” generally means that the sports article summary Bodwell School person must act with a “bad purpose” or knowledge that the conduct is articles on critical thinking New York Academy unlawful. Analysis!  The person need not necessarily know that his or her conduct violates the articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy FCPA specifically.  Proof of willfulness is relevant only to online cources University of East Anglia (INTO), violations by individuals; willfulness is not required to establish corporate criminal or civil liability. An improper payment may be anything of value.  This includes not only cash payments; it may also include travel expenses, entertainment expenses, or expensive gifts. Gifts may also be prohibited, particularly if they are lavish or excessive. New York Academy! Likewise, foreign charitable contributions are not prohibited under the FCPA unless made for the purpose of improperly influencing a foreign official or made without a proper vetting of the foreign charity.
Further, an improper payment need not be made directly to a foreign official; payments to friends or family members of an official may also violate the FCPA, if made in order to influence the official.  Who is a foreign official? Under the FCPA, “foreign official” means. any officer or employee of a foreign government or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for how to write essay Trafalgar Castle or on behalf of any such government or department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any such government or department, agency or instrumentality, or for or on behalf of any such public international organization.  The term “instrumentality” has been construed broadly and may include state-owned companies or other state-controlled entities.  The ownership, control, status, and function will be examined to determine whether an entity is an agency or instrumentality of a foreign government. “Foreign official” includes employees and representatives of “public international organizations.”  These are organizations that are specifically designated by executive order under the International Organizations Immunities Act, 22 U.S.C. § 288.  Currently, this includes organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the articles on critical New York Film Academy World Trade Organization, and the Organization of American States. Payments to third parties.
The FCPA specifically prohibits improper payments to foreign officials made through third parties or intermediaries. Cources Anglia! It prohibits payments to “any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or thing of value will be offered, given, or promised, directly or indirectly” to New York, a foreign official.  Accordingly, liability may not be avoided simply by outsourcing the payment of the Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University bribe to a third party. Conduct is considered “knowing” if the articles on critical New York person is aware that there is a high probability that an illegal payment is going to article summary School, occur.  Congress intended to impose liability not only on those with actual knowledge but also on those who purposefully avoid actual knowledge“head in the sand” conduct. On Critical Thinking New York!  Willful blindness to sports and opinion Bodwell High, FCPA violations does not protect a company or individual from liability under the statute. Affirmative defenses. There are two possible affirmative defenses under the anti-bribery provisions: the “local law” defense and Film the “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense.  The local law defense is University Anglia (INTO) applicable when the company can show that a payment was lawful under the written laws of the foreign country at issue.  The “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense applies if the articles on critical thinking New York Film company can show that the money spent was reasonable, bona fide, and directly related to write essay School, the performance of a contract, or marketing, promotion, or product demonstration.  In addition to these affirmative defenses, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA also contain a narrow exception for “facilitating or expediting payments” made in furtherance of routine governmental action that involves nondiscretionary acts. Articles Thinking New York!  Payments made under imminent threat of physical harm do not violate the FCPA because there is no corrupt purpose, but economic coercion is not sufficient to excuse an otherwise improper payment.  This exception, however, is in conflict with many local anticorruption laws.
Statute of limitations. No specific statute of limitations is provided for in the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA; therefore, the general five-year limitations period applies to substantive criminal violations of the act.  In cases involving conspiracies, the government may be able to reach conduct occurring before the five-year limitations period because generally the sports summary and opinion High government need only prove that a single act in furtherance of the articles on critical Academy conspiracy occurred within the limitations period. The limitations period also may be extended by a tolling agreement, or the government may apply for how to write a academic essay School an extension of up to articles New York Film Academy, three years in how to in gre order to obtain evidence from articles on critical thinking Film foreign countries.  The five-year limitations period also applies to civil actions for penalties.  However, the SEC may bring actions for equitable relief or disgorgement of analysis Jiaotong-Liverpool University, ill-gotten gains outside the thinking Film Academy five-year limitations period. Again, the limitations period may be extended by a tolling agreement, and in cases involving foreign individuals, the limitations period is issue Trafalgar School tolled for any period during which the individuals are not found within the United States.  The FCPA’s accounting provisions contain two main components. First, the books and records provisions require issuers to make and articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy keep records that accurately and fairly reflect an issuer’s transactions and dispositions of assets.  Books and records provisions are intended to prevent the mischaracterization or concealment of bribes. Second, the FCPA contains provisions regulating internal controls, which require that issuers devise and maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to ensure management’s control, authority, and responsibility over the firm’s assets.  There can be civil liability under the accounting provisions for how to write of an Saint John The Baptist School both companies and individuals. Articles On Critical Thinking Film! In addition, both individuals and companies can be criminally liable for knowingly failing to comply with the FCPA’s accounting provisions.  However, the FCPA’s accounting provisions apply only to how to write in gre, issuers; the accounting provisions do not apply to private companies.  Penalties, Sanctions, and Academy Remedies.
Corporations and other business entities are subject to fines of up to $2 million for each knowing violation of the anti-bribery provisions.  Individuals are subject to cources University Anglia (INTO), a fine of up to $100,000 and imprisonment for up to five years for willful violations.  For each willful violation of the accounting provisions, business entities are subject to a fine of up to $25 million. Individuals are subject to a fine of up to $5 million and imprisonment for up to 20 years for criminal violations.  Additional fines may be imposed by the courts under the Alternative Fines Act, 18 U.S.C. § 3571 (d). The DOJ may pursue civil actions for anti-bribery violations by domestic concerns and their affiliated persons and by foreign nationals and companies for violations while in the United States. The SEC may pursue civil actions against issuers and their affiliated persons for violations of the accounting provisions. Articles On Critical! A civil penalty of up to $10,000 per violation is available for online cources University of East violations of the on critical thinking New York Academy anti-bribery provisions (for both entities and individuals).  For violations of the accounting provisions, the SEC may obtain a civil penalty of up to a certain specified dollar amount dependent on cources (INTO) the egregiousness of the violation, or the on critical thinking New York Academy gross amount of the pecuniary gain to the defendantwhichever is greater.  There also may be collateral consequences resulting from FCPA violations, including suspension or debarment from sports and opinion Bodwell High contracting with the federal government, cross-debarment by multilateral development banks (such as the World Bank), and suspension or revocation of thinking New York Academy, certain export privileges. Insurance Coverage Issues.
Notice. Many, if not most, FCPA investigations originate as internal investigations by the companies. University Anglia (INTO)! After an on critical New York Film Academy, internal investigation is completed, a company may determine that it should “self-report” to the SEC or DOJ, at which point the SEC or DOJ may commence its own investigation. A company conducting an of an for college Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, internal investigation should consider when it is appropriate or necessary to give notice to its insurer of a claim or potential claim. Different policies contain different notice requirements, so it is important for insureds and insurers to be familiar with the notice language and requirements of their policies and to articles thinking, proceed accordingly. Claim. Whether a government investigation constitutes a claim and when a claim arises depends on the language in the specific insurance policy. Some policies define “claim” to include government investigations, but often only if such investigation is commenced by essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University a formal order of investigation, subpoena, or other such formal document.
Because many FCPA investigations begin informally or possibly with self-reporting after an internal investigation, a claim may not arise until long after a company first becomes aware of on critical New York Film, possible FCPA violations. Moreover, a company may choose to agree to cooperate with the SEC or DOJ, thus delaying or avoiding a subpoena or other formal compulsory process or procedure that would constitute a claim under the company’s insurance policy. Under some policies, an FCPA or other government investigation may not constitute a claim under any circumstances. As always, it’s important to be familiar with the particular policy language. Worldwide coverage. FCPA investigations may be followed by or proceed concurrently with investigations in other countries, such as bribery investigations under the writing analysis essay United Kingdom’s Bribery Act 2010, which took effect in July 2011. Articles On Critical Thinking New York Film! Coverage for such foreign investigations may be available under policies that provide worldwide coverage, if the article summary High matter is otherwise covered based on the language of the particular policy. Selection of defense counsel. Insurance policies that do not contain a duty to defend typically provide that the insured must obtain the insurer’s consent to its selection of defense counsel.
Because, as noted above, defense counsel may have been retained long before a claim arises and is tendered to the insurance carrier, there may be issues for insurers and insureds to negotiate with respect to the choice of defense counsel, the rates charged, and on critical thinking possible coverage of pre-notice or pre-tender defense expenses. Fines and penalties. The amounts payable for violations of the FCPA are fines and penalties, which typically are not covered by a summary of an for college Saint Diocesan High School professional liability insurance. However, there may be policies or endorsements available that provide limited coverage for certain FCPA fines or penalties. In addition, some policies may provide limited coverage for on critical New York Academy FCPA-related defense costs, even in the absence of coverage for the fines and penalties themselves. Follow-on litigation. As in how to article Saint The Baptist Diocesan High School other governmental investigations, an FCPA enforcement action often will trigger follow-on actions, such as class actions by shareholders alleging securities fraud, derivative actions alleging breach of articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy, fiduciary duty and based on the same conduct alleged in the FCPA investigation, or congressional investigations. These types of lawsuits typically are covered by directors’ and how to write a academic essay NEOMA officers’ liability policies. Even if these actions ultimately are unsuccessful, they add to the overall costs of defending an FCPA investigation. Exclusion for intentional acts and imputation. Exclusions barring coverage for intentional, willful, or fraudulent acts may apply to FCPA matters.
Many times, these exclusions require a final adjudication of intentional or fraudulent conduct. New York! However, if such a final adjudication occurs, the insured may be required to reimburse the how to write essay Trafalgar Castle School insurer for articles on critical thinking New York Film Academy any defense costs advanced on its behalf. However, with respect to the application of exclusions, such as the exclusions for intentional acts, insurance policies may contain non-imputation clauses providing that the knowledge or conduct of one insured cannot be imputed to other insureds for sports article Bodwell purposes of New York, determining whether the exclusion applies. A policy also may provide that only certain persons’ knowledge can be imputed to an insured entity. Write Saint The Baptist Diocesan School! For example, some policies provide that only the thinking New York Film Academy chief executive officer’s or chief financial officer’s knowledge may be imputed to the company. FCPA investigations and enforcement actions are on the rise and, along with parallel shareholder litigation, may lead to increased exposure for both insureds and Washington insurers. Counsel for insureds and insurers should be aware of the related insurance coverage issues as they apply in the context of FCPA enforcement actions and related litigation. Keywords: litigation, insurance, coverage, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA, anti-bribery, fines and penalties, exclusions.  Stacey L. McGraw is a partner in the Washington, D.C., office and Stacey E. Rufe is an articles New York Academy, associate in the Richmond, Virginia, office of Troutman Sanders, LLP, where they both represent insurers in how to write a academic essay Business School complex coverage disputes and litigation. Thinking Film! The views stated in Diocesan this article are the views of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Troutman Sanders, LLP, or its clients.
 The 2012 Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act published by the Criminal Division of the U.S. DOJ and thinking Academy the Enforcement Division of the SEC is the how to in gre Castle School best source for additional information about the FCPA. See also Mike Koehler, “The Story of the on critical thinking New York Academy FCPA,” 73(5) Ohio St. L.J. 93238 (2012) (providing history of the drafting and passage of the FCPA).  Serena Ng Anna Prior, “SEC Warning Sinks Avon,” Wall St. J. , Nov. 1, 2013.  “Alcoa to Pay $384 Million to Settle Bribery Charges,” N.Y. Times , Jan.
9, 2014.  See United States v. Kay , 513 F.3d 432, 44748 (5th Cir. 2007) (discussing common-law definitions of (INTO), “willfully” and level of knowledge required to articles New York Film Academy, establish willful violation of the online of East FCPA).  See Kay , 513 F.3d at 448 (holding that defendant need not know the terms of statute and know that he was violating statute in order to have “willfully” violated the FCPA).  See, e.g. On Critical Thinking New York! , United States v. Online University (INTO)! Liebo , 923 F.2d 1308, 131112 (8th Cir. 1991) (sufficient evidence existed for jury to thinking, conclude that gifts given to official’s cousin were given “corruptly” to “obtain or retain business” in violation of Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, FCPA).  See, e.g. , United States v. Aguilar , 783 F. Supp.
2d 1108 (C.D. Cal. 2011) (motion to dismiss denied because electric utility wholly owned by Mexican government may be considered an “instrumentality” of a foreign government within the meaning of FCPA). Copyright 2017, American Bar Association. All rights reserved. This information or any portion thereof may not be copied or disseminated in any form or by any means or downloaded or stored in an electronic database or retrieval system without the express written consent of the American Bar Association. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and articles thinking do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the how to a summary article for college John The Baptist High School American Bar Association, the Section of Litigation, this committee, or the employer(s) of the author(s).
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How to write the perfect SAP CV: Top 10 tips and SAP CV sample template. Writing an effective SAP CV is an essential foundation for articles Academy building a successful SAP career. When being considered for a new SAP employment opportunity your curriculum vitae is normally the how to write a academic NEOMA Business School, first thing an on critical thinking Academy, employer uses to decide if you are suitable for the SAP position on offer, so it is no surprise that the article summary and opinion, candidates who write the best SAP CVs are those who are invited for thinking New York Film Academy interviews and who ultimately get hired. Writing a great SAP CV is the first step in the race for write for college Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High an SAP job; those with a poor CV will rarely even make it past the first hurdle. Articles New York. With the persusive, SAP market becoming saturated and articles New York competition increasing, having an SAP resume that stands out is how to essay School now more important than ever. When writing anything, the most important thing to keep in mind is the audience you are writing for. New York Film Academy. With an SAP resume, the chances are high that the person who reads your CV at the start of most recruitment processes will be an SAP recruiter. As an SAP recruitment agent with over Washington, 10 years’ experience, who has personally placed over 700 SAP Consultants in SAP roles, I’d estimate that I have probably read over on critical Academy, 100,000 SAP CVs in my time, so I have a pretty good idea of what makes a top SAP CV. I’m going to offer an honest insider’s perspective into how most SAP recruiters actually read your SAP CV…let’s consider that on a busy day an SAP recruiter might have to essay in gre Trafalgar Castle, recruit for three SAP vacancies, and may receive up to New York, 50 applications for each position. Will they read 150 CVs word for word, end to analysis essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, end?
Of course not. The honest reality is on critical thinking New York that most recruiters (myself included) probably spend 30 seconds skim reading each CV and perhaps another 30 seconds crudely using the CTRL-F feature to sports summary School, search the CV for some other keywords. On Critical Thinking New York. Bearing this in mind, along with other SAP recruiter insiders’ perspectives, I’m going to provide my advice on how to online cources of East Anglia, write the perfect SAP CV. Below are my top 10 tips for articles thinking New York Film a successful SAP CV and an SAP CV example / SAP CV sample template: 1 – Optimise your SAP CV so that it can be quickly and clearly digested when skim-read.
It is online University Anglia very likely that the first round of screening (often by articles on critical Film, an SAP recruiter) will involve someone quickly glancing over analysis Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, your CV. Therefore the best tip I can give you when writing your SAP CV is to articles thinking Academy, make sure that it is write essay School optimised to be read in this way. To do this you need to ensure that the key information in your SAP CV stands out. In my opinion the thing that should stand out the most in your SAP CV is your job title. Articles New York Film. At the very beginning of your CV, your job title should be clearly and article summary and opinion boldly mentioned e.g. SAP HANA Consultant, so that it obvious at a glance what you do; it should leap off the page.
Your job title should then be mentioned as a clear and bold heading at the top of every job position / SAP project description that you mention throughout your CV. Articles On Critical Thinking. By doing this simple thing, the reader will be able to cources of East Anglia (INTO), quickly and clearly understand what you do, where you have done it, and how many projects you have done it on. New York Film. You’d be surprised at how many SAP consultants there are who don’t do this in their CVs. This same principle should also be applied to other key information from your CV. Underlining, bullet points, bold text, coloured text and sports summary and opinion Bodwell High header text can all be used to on critical Film Academy, emphasise key information within your CV. 2 – Make the first impression count. The first impression is always the most important one. Write Essay NEOMA Business School. Therefore, the first page on your CV is the most important page.
It should be the page that you spend the most time perfecting. I have read many SAP CVs where the first page has been so poor and on critical New York Film Academy given off such bad signals that I have rejected the candidate without even making it to writing analysis essay University, the second page! The first page should contain a summarised version of all key information that you are trying to get across to the reader; it should be perfectly presented and engage the reader. Think carefully about the opening sentence, is that really the most important thing you want to say to a potential employer? Because it should be!
Think of the first page of articles on critical thinking New York Academy, your CV as the shop window, people are much more likely to how to write of an Diocesan, come into your shop and articles on critical thinking New York buy if they like the look of what you have displayed in persusive Washington your window. 3 – Ensure your SAP CV has the right structure and order. A logical and effective structure is essential for writing a good SAP CV. Whilst people have different opinions and personal preferences, in my opinion an SAP CV should be set out with the following sections in the following order: Document Title: Curriculum Vitae, CV, Resume, Profile etc. On Critical Thinking Film Academy. are all fine (this is down to regional and article High personal preference). Basic details: Full Name, job title, nationality (plus details of any other working permissions held), Date of birth (optional), marital status (optional), address, photo (optional), contact number, email address, languages spoken (and proficiency). Profile Summary: This should be a concise section that briefly tells the reader who you are and what you do. Articles On Critical Thinking New York Film. It should mention information such as your job title / preferred position and give an overview of your key SAP skills. How To Write A Academic Essay School. For an SAP CV, it is good to Film Academy, mention things like the SAP modules / SAP submodules that you specialise in, for writing essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University example: “SAP CO Consultant specialised in SAP CO-PC (Product Costing)”.
You should also mention details such as the number of articles on critical thinking New York Film, full end-to-end SAP implementation lifecycles you have been involved in and how many SAP roll out projects you have participated in etc. to give the reader an instant indication of your level of experience. How To Issue Castle. You should talk about Film personal strengths and essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University unique selling points, and a summary of your key results and achievements. This is the first opportunity to differentiate yourself and articles Film Academy inject a personal touch to your CV. Keep it short and sharp, almost like a bullet point list of your profile highlights. Skills Summary: This could be a table or a bullet-pointed list of your key skills including details of all SAP modules and sub-modules that you have, SAP configuration (customising) experience in: SAP FI-GL, SAP FI-AP, SAP FI-AR, SAP CO-PA, SAP CO-PC for example, together with an indication of your level of experience or years of experience in each area. It should also include details of persusive writing Academy, other useful SAP-related experience that you may have e.g. LSWM, IDoc etc. and on critical Academy details related to project management or SAP Implementation methodology experience e.g. How To Essay In Gre Castle. Prince 2, Agile, ASAP, SAP Solution Manager. On Critical New York Film Academy. It is also good to indicate your relevant certifications here. Work Experience: You should always list your work experience in chronological order (most recent SAP project first). Each work experience segment should clearly display the basic key details: Start Date, End Date, Job title, Client Name, Brief Project Description, Key Activities and Results achieved.
Education / Training Courses / Certifications: For a senior SAP Consultant, this section just needs to be brief and contain a list of the basic key details. In addition to mentioning your SAP certifications here, it is writing Washington Academy also good to mention them within the skills summary section on the first page too. Articles On Critical. For a junior consultant / intern looking to enhance their SAP career, this section is more important and more detail can be given to describe experiences within your education / training which are relevant to your intended SAP career. References: Again this is a matter of sports summary and opinion Bodwell High, opinion, but personally I think that including two short written references in articles on critical thinking Film your SAP CV can certainly add something; a 3-4 line reference quotation, followed by the name, job title and company of the referee (only do so with prior consent from the write article for college John The Baptist Diocesan High, referee). Having a good written reference already included in your CV can help you stand out, especially if it is from someone senior at a large, well-known SAP client. I wouldn’t include their contact details in the CV however, I recommend holding this back just for those who you want to contact them. Thinking Film Academy. Alternatively, you could include a URL / link to summary Bodwell School, your LinkedIn references section here instead. Writing “references available upon request” is really just a waste of space in my opinion and it is better not to even have this section if you choose to do that. Interests: Providing details of your personal interests isn’t the most important component of a CV, but it could still contribute to the reader’s overall opinion/decision on your CV.
A word of warning, what you choose to articles on critical thinking New York Academy, reveal here could possibly count against you without you ever realising, for example: innocently revealing that you are an active and essay NEOMA Business School passionate member of Greenpeace or an Animal rights charity may count against on critical New York Academy you if applying for sports article summary Bodwell High a position with a Pharmaceutical or cosmetics company (where animal testing is involved), as they may deem this as a security risk. On Critical New York. Mentioning that you love extensive, extended travel and take five holidays every single year might put off an employer who has a busy SAP project with tight deadlines and now assumes you’ll want to go away for 6 weeks in the summer, right in persusive writing Washington the middle of a busy project milestone. On the other hand, describing your interests could also work in your favour: talking about thinking New York Academy SAP-related interests may add to your CV: being an how to write in gre Trafalgar, active member of an SAP user group, writing SAP blogs, articles or books for example. Articles Thinking New York Film Academy. Mentioning personal interests that the person who is writing Washington Academy hiring also happens to share by coincidence might also count in your favour. Articles New York. Revealing a rare or interesting hobby may add to the perception of your personality that comes across from the CV, not too rare or interesting though… mentioning taxidermy might creep some people out. 4 – Make sure you mention the SAP Key Words throughout the CV. As mentioned above, most SAP recruiters will only skim-read your CV and quickly search it for analysis essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool keywords.
You therefore need to think carefully about which keywords are most important in relation to the SAP jobs you are applying for articles New York and ensure that as well as making them stand out, you also mention these keywords as often as possible. If I am searching for an SAP SuccessFactors Learning Management System specialist for a academic NEOMA Business School example, I would normally check the document for some specific keywords using the Ctrl-F search function. I would check for “SuccessFactors” and “Learning Management System” and see how many times each of these was mentioned. The important thing to note here is to articles on critical thinking Academy, also mention synonyms of these keywords in your CV as much as possible too, for example SuccessFactors is also referred to as SFSF (in its abbreviated form), as is Learning Management System to LMS. It is therefore important to have these variations well-represented in your CV. A lazy SAP recruiter, or perhaps one not familiar with the University of East Anglia, variations of names/abbreviations etc., could even dismiss your CV, simply because they don’t find the keywords they think they should be looking for! i.e. Articles On Critical New York Academy. you might have LMS mentioned 100 times in your CV, but you haven’t mentioned “Learning Management System” once, a recruiter who doesn’t think/know to check for this could accidentally rule you out, so it is best to analysis Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, ensure all critical keywords, as well as possible variations of these, are well-represented in your CV.
It is similar to SEO (search engine optimisation), but for your CV and the lazy readers, rather than Google. 5 – Be prepared to on critical New York, adjust your CV slightly for each specific SAP vacancy. If your SAP recruitment agent asks you to adjust or tweak your CV for a particular position, be open to write issue in gre Trafalgar Castle, this. You don’t have to articles thinking Film, re-write the entire CV, but simply making a few changes to tailor the essay, CV for the specific position you are applying for could make a huge difference. Articles On Critical Thinking New York. Never lie or exaggerate on your CV, what I am referring to here is more about emphasising certain specific experiences that are particularly relevant for the SAP job you are applying for at the time. 6 – Make sure your CV is the right length. There is no fixed rule about the correct length for a CV as the length will depend on many factors. Writing Washington. In general your CV should be as short and to-the-point as possible, whilst being long enough to contain all of the important information a potential employer may want to know. You’ll read a lot of generic articles telling you that your CV should only be 1-2 pages long, but in my opinion this does not apply to an SAP CV, an articles New York Academy, SAP CV is different as you need to go into more technical detail and clearly outline the exact SAP modules, SAP submodule, SAP-related tools, methodologies etc. that you have experience with. You also need to how to essay, go into enough detail about the nature of the SAP projects you have been involved in articles and your specific responsibilities within these projects. Keep in online cources Anglia (INTO) mind that your SAP profile should be an overview and not a lengthy memoir.
If you are someone who can’t control the volume of Academy, text when writing in prose, then perhaps consider using concise bullet-pointed text wherever possible, to help you keep control of the overall length. An SAP CV is there to how to write article for college John The Baptist, form the basis for guiding an interview conversation and not there to replace it. 7-Make sure your CV has a professional look. The content is of course the most important factor when writing an SAP resume, however you’d be surprised at articles New York Film how many SAP CVs I’ve seen with decent content which have been ruined by the aesthetic presentation. And Opinion High School. Choose a sensible and professional font.
Its fine to go with something slightly different, but Times New Roman is certainly overused. Fonts such as Arial, Calibri, Candara, Georgia, Tahoma, Trebuchet MS or Verdana would be fine. I would avoid fonts like Berlin Sans FB, Comic Sans, Courier new and Vijaya. In my opinion a fairly conservative colour scheme is best, classic black text is tried and tested, so I’m always bewildered when SAP Consultants send me rainbow coloured CVs. If you want to emphasise or differentiate certain areas or headers using different colour text, using one or two additional colours is more than enough. On Critical Academy. Personally, I prefer conservative options such as blue or grey for these parts, but it is a matter of writing analysis essay Xi’an, personal taste.
Subtly and sparingly using some brighter coloured text for headers/titles can also work, especially if you’re trying to integrate the main colour from your company logo/branding into the CV. 8- Make sure your CV is on critical thinking New York Film saved in essay Castle the right format! I would recommend providing your CV to SAP recruiters in on critical thinking New York MS Word (.doc or .docx) format where possible, making sure the file isn’t password protected or locked for editing. Issue Essay School. As an alternative you could provide your CV as a PDF file, however PDFs cannot be edited unless the recruiter has the Adobe Acrobat MS Word converter (which many don’t). Even in cases where PDF is thinking Academy converted to MS Word, it is cources Anglia (INTO) often troublesome to edit or reformat.
You might be thinking to yourself that you’d prefer for your CV not to be changed by anyone else so this is a good thing, but in most cases this will do you more harm than good: An SAP recruiter should never change the real content of your CV without asking your permission, and on critical thinking Academy any decent recruiter would never do this. However, a recruiter may want to make some superficial changes to your CV to improve the presentation for example and having a non-editable file prevents this. The recruiter might need to convert CVs into a certain format, or insert a client-specific coversheet on the front page of the CV (which is cources of East Anglia (INTO) a mandatory requirement for some client’s recruitment processes). On Critical New York Film Academy. The recruiter may be required by the client to submit CVs without logos only, or they may wish to remove your direct contact details from the CV before submitting it to a client. Preventing the recruiter from having the CV the way they need it will ultimately slow down your application and write essay Trafalgar School may even mean you miss out on an opportunity because of it. For those who are limited to articles on critical thinking New York Academy, PDF files, I would suggest removing any logo and contact details from your CV when sending it to write a academic NEOMA, a recruiter (ensure you provide your contact details within the email you send them though, so they can still reach you!). Occasionally I receive SAP CVs in on critical Academy Powerpoint or other even stranger CV file formats. I don’t understand why people do this, and certainly wouldn’t recommend doing so!
9- Always have an how to write essay in gre, updated SAP CV ready – Speed is key! Writing the perfect SAP CV is of no use if you don’t have it with you when it is on critical New York Film needed. Make sure you have access to write NEOMA Business School, a copy of your CV at all times, you never know where or when you might need it. Similarly, you need to make sure that you constantly keep it updated. Being away on holiday and only having a copy of your CV on your home desktop could cause you to New York Academy, miss out on the SAP career opportunity of a lifetime, or having to delay your application by 24 hours while you update your CV may also cause you to miss out. 10- Get someone else to check over your CV! Your Curriculum Vitae is a reflection of you, it should be logically ordered, consistent, well presented and how to issue in gre Trafalgar Castle without errors. Nothing would put me off more than an ABAP developer who’s CV was full of typos!
No matter how perfect you think your SAP CV is, always get a fresh pair of eyes to look over it. Thinking New York Film. Have it proofread for spelling errors and sports article summary and opinion High grammar by a fellow SAP colleague, a professional proof-reader or perhaps your favourite SAP recruiter. So now you’ve read my top ten tips, giving my best, most honest advice, you’re ready to write the articles Film Academy, perfect SAP CV. I wish you the best of luck with writing it and analysis essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University hope to articles on critical Academy, place you in your next SAP position myself when your new CV is ready.